Mannerist architecture and sculpture in Poland

Mannerist architecture and sculpture in Poland

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Mannerist architecture and sculpture in Poland'
Start a new discussion about 'Mannerist architecture and sculpture in Poland'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
Mannerist architecture and sculpture in Poland dominated between 1550 and 1650, when it was finally replaced with baroque
Baroque architecture
Baroque architecture is a term used to describe the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late sixteenth century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church and...

. The style includes various mannerist
Mannerism
Mannerism is a period of European art that emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520. It lasted until about 1580 in Italy, when a more Baroque style began to replace it, but Northern Mannerism continued into the early 17th century throughout much of Europe...

 traditions, which are closely related with ethnic and religious diversity of the country, as well as with its economic and political situation at that time. The mannerist complex of Kalwaria Zebrzydowska
Kalwaria Zebrzydowska park
Kalwaria Zebrzydowska park is a Mannerist architectural and park landscape complex and pilgrimage park, built in the 17th century as the Counter Reformation in the late 16th century led to prosperity in the creation of Calvaries in Catholic Europe...

 and mannerist City of Zamość
Zamosc
Zamość ukr. Замостя is a town in southeastern Poland with 66,633 inhabitants , situated in the south-western part of Lublin Voivodeship , about from Lublin, from Warsaw and from the border with Ukraine...

 are UNESCO World Heritage Sites
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

.

Conditions of development and features


The period between 1550 and 1650 was a Golden Age of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (created in 1569) and a Golden Age of Poland. It was a time of economic prosperity due to grain
GRAIN
GRAIN is a small international non-profit organisation that works to support small farmers and social movements in their struggles for community-controlled and biodiversity-based food systems. Our support takes the form of independent research and analysis, networking at local, regional and...

 trade. Grain was kept in richly embellished granaries (e.g. in Kazimierz Dolny) and transported along the Vistula
Vistula
The Vistula is the longest and the most important river in Poland, at 1,047 km in length. The watershed area of the Vistula is , of which lies within Poland ....

 to the main port of Poland - Gdańsk
Gdansk
Gdańsk is a Polish city on the Baltic coast, at the centre of the country's fourth-largest metropolitan area.The city lies on the southern edge of Gdańsk Bay , in a conurbation with the city of Gdynia, spa town of Sopot, and suburban communities, which together form a metropolitan area called the...

, where it was sold to the Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

, England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 and Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 (about 80% of the city's revenues in the beginning of the 17th century came from grain trade). It was also the time of religious tolerance
Religious toleration
Toleration is "the practice of deliberately allowing or permitting a thing of which one disapproves. One can meaningfully speak of tolerating, ie of allowing or permitting, only if one is in a position to disallow”. It has also been defined as "to bear or endure" or "to nourish, sustain or preserve"...

 due to the Warsaw Confederation
Warsaw Confederation
The Warsaw Confederation , an important development in the history of Poland and Lithuania that extended religious tolerance to nobility and free persons within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. , is considered the formal beginning of religious freedom in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and...

 (1573).
Poland was multinational (Poles
Poles
thumb|right|180px|The state flag of [[Poland]] as used by Polish government and diplomatic authoritiesThe Polish people, or Poles , are a nation indigenous to Poland. They are united by the Polish language, which belongs to the historical Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages of Central Europe...

, Ruthenians
Ruthenians
The name Ruthenian |Rus']]) is a culturally loaded term and has different meanings according to the context in which it is used. Initially, it was the ethnonym used for the East Slavic peoples who lived in Rus'. Later it was used predominantly for Ukrainians...

, Jews
Jews
The Jews , also known as the Jewish people, are a nation and ethnoreligious group originating in the Israelites or Hebrews of the Ancient Near East. The Jewish ethnicity, nationality, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation...

, Germans
Germans
The Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe. The English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages....

, Italians
Italian people
The Italian people are an ethnic group that share a common Italian culture, ancestry and speak the Italian language as a mother tongue. Within Italy, Italians are defined by citizenship, regardless of ancestry or country of residence , and are distinguished from people...

, Dutch
Dutch people
The Dutch people are an ethnic group native to the Netherlands. They share a common culture and speak the Dutch language. Dutch people and their descendants are found in migrant communities worldwide, notably in Suriname, Chile, Brazil, Canada, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, and the United...

, Flemish
Flemish
Flemish can refer to anything related to Flanders, and may refer directly to the following articles:*Flemish, an informal, though linguistically incorrect, name of any kind of the Dutch language as spoken in Belgium....

, Armenians
Armenians
Armenian people or Armenians are a nation and ethnic group native to the Armenian Highland.The largest concentration is in Armenia having a nearly-homogeneous population with 97.9% or 3,145,354 being ethnic Armenian....

, Scots
Scottish people
The Scottish people , or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically they emerged from an amalgamation of the Picts and Gaels, incorporating neighbouring Britons to the south as well as invading Germanic peoples such as the Anglo-Saxons and the Norse.In modern use,...

, Bohemian
Bohemian
A Bohemian is a resident of the former Kingdom of Bohemia, either in a narrow sense as the region of Bohemia proper or in a wider meaning as the whole country, now known as the Czech Republic. The word "Bohemian" was used to denote the Czech people as well as the Czech language before the word...

s, Tatars
Tatars
Tatars are a Turkic speaking ethnic group , numbering roughly 7 million.The majority of Tatars live in the Russian Federation, with a population of around 5.5 million, about 2 million of which in the republic of Tatarstan.Significant minority populations are found in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan,...

) and multi-religious country (Roman Catholics, Orthodox, Greek Catholics
Greek Catholic Church
The Greek Catholic Church consists of the Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine liturgical tradition and are thus in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, the Pope.-List of Greek Catholic Churches:...

, Calvinists
Calvinism
Calvinism is a Protestant theological system and an approach to the Christian life...

, Lutherans
Lutheranism
Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the theology of Martin Luther, a German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation...

, Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

s, Polish Brethren
Polish Brethren
The Polish Brethren were members of the Minor Reformed Church of Poland, a Nontrinitarian Protestant church that existed in Poland from 1565 to 1658...

, Hussites
Hussite
The Hussites were a Christian movement following the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus , who became one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation...

 and many others). All those nations and worships contributed to creation of the exceptional diversity of mannerist architecture and sculpture in Poland. The first half of the 17th century is marked by strong activity of the Jesuits
Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus is a Catholic male religious order that follows the teachings of the Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits, and are also known colloquially as "God's Army" and as "The Company," these being references to founder Ignatius of Loyola's military background and a...

 and Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
The Counter-Reformation was the period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War, 1648 as a response to the Protestant Reformation.The Counter-Reformation was a comprehensive effort, composed of four major elements:#Ecclesiastical or...

, which led to banishing of progressive Arians (Polish Brethren) in 1658 and which has its reflection in architecture (spread of baroque). Despite that Poland remain a "country without stakes". All the major wars and military conflicts were conducted far from the territory of today's Poland, so the country could developed equally. Those favorable conditions are the reason why mannerist architecture and sculpure in Poland left so many beautiful examples.

The mannerist architecture and sculpture have two major traditions - Polish/Italian and Dutch/Flemish, that domniated in northern Poland. The Silesian mannerism of South-Western Poland was largely influenced by Bohemian and German mannerism, while the Pomeranian mannerism of North-Western Poland was influenced by Gothic
Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

 tradition and Northern German mannerism. The Jews in Poland adapted patterns of Italian and Polish mannerism to their own tradition.
Major inspiration for many structures in Poland were early renaissance constructions at Wawel Hill
Wawel Hill
Wawel Hill is the name of a Jurassic limestone outcrop formed about 150 million years ago. It is situated on the left bank of the Vistula River in Kraków, Poland, at an altitude of 228 metres above the sea level. Over the millennia, the hill provided a safe haven for people who settled there since...

 - Sigismund's Chapel
Sigismund's Chapel
"Sigismund's Chapel" of the Wawel Cathedral is one of the most notable pieces of architecture in Kraków. Built as a funerary chapel for the last Jagiellons, it has been hailed by many art historians as "the most beautiful example of the Tuscan Renaissance north of the Alps"...

 (1519–1533), Tomb of king Sigismund I
Sigismund I the Old
Sigismund I of Poland , of the Jagiellon dynasty, reigned as King of Poland and also as the Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1506 until 1548...

 inside the chapel (1529–1531) and Wawel Castle
Wawel Castle
The Gothic Wawel Castle in Kraków in Poland was built at the behest of Casimir III the Great and consists of a number of structures situated around the central courtyard. In the 14th century it was rebuilt by Jogaila and Jadwiga of Poland. Their reign saw the addition of the tower called the Hen's...

's arcade courtyard (1506–1534), as well as buildings in Antwerp - City Hall
Antwerp City Hall
The City Hall of Antwerp, Belgium, stands on the western side of Antwerp's Grote Markt . Erected between 1561 and 1565 to the design of Cornelis Floris de Vriendt and several other architects and artists, this Renaissance building incorporates both Flemish and Italian influences.The low arcaded...

 (1561–1565), houses at Grote Markt and funeral sculptures by Cornelis Floris de Vriendt
Cornelis Floris de Vriendt
Cornelis Floris de Vriendt was a Flemish Renaissance architect and sculptor. He played an important role in the building of the Antwerp City Hall. His brother was Frans Floris, for whom he designed a house in Antwerp.-External links:...

. In conclusion the main criterion of differentiation between types of mannerism in Poland is the source of inspiration and in many cases the founders conception played an essential role for the final shape of the construction (e.g. Tomb of Jędrzej Noskowski in Maków Mazowiecki
Maków Mazowiecki
Maków Mazowiecki is a town in Poland, in the Masovian Voivodship. It is the powiat capital of Maków County . Its population is 10,850....

 by Willem van den Blocke, is an example of Polish mannerism inspired by Tomb of Sigismund I with a founder depicted sleeping).

Triangle gable
Gable
A gable is the generally triangular portion of a wall between the edges of a sloping roof. The shape of the gable and how it is detailed depends on the structural system being used and aesthetic concerns. Thus the type of roof enclosing the volume dictates the shape of the gable...

s of late gothic origin and large windows are the features of Dutch urban architecture in Northern Poland. The Polish mannerism, though largely dominated by Italian architects and sculptors, has its unique characteristics that differentiate it from its Italian equivalent (attics
Attic style
In classical architecture, the term attic refers to a story or low wall above the cornice of a classical façade. This usage originated in the 17th century from the use of Attica style pilasters as adornments on the top story's façade...

, decorational motives, construction and shape of buildings, Dutch, Bohemian and German inflences). Among notable architects and sculptors of Dutch/Flemish mannerism in Poland were Anthonis van Obbergen
Anthonis van Obbergen
Anthonis van Obbergen was a Flemish architect and fortifications engineer...

, Willem van den Blocke, Abraham van den Blocke
Abraham van den Blocke
Abraham van den Blocke was an architect and sculptor.Van den Blocke was born in Königsberg , presumably the oldest of seven children of Dorothea and Willem van den Blocke. In 1584 the family lived in Gdańsk, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, where he was educated as a sculptor in his father's workshop...

, Jan Strakowski, Paul Baudarth, Gerhard Hendrik, Hans Kramer and Regnier van Amsterdam and of Polish/Italian mannerism Santi Gucci, Jan Michałowicz of Urzędów, Giovanni Maria Padovano, Giovanni Battista di Quadro
Giovanni Battista di Quadro
Giovanni Battista di Quadro was a Polish-Italian renaissance architect, one of the most famous architects in Central Europe in his epoque....

, Jan Frankiewicz, Galleazzo Appiani
Galleazzo Appiani
Galleazzo Appiani was an Italian architect who worked in Poland. Amongst his designs are the Carmelite Church in Przemyśl and the Krasicki Palace, built between 1592 and 1618 for the Krasicki family in Krasiczyn....

, Jan Jaroszewicz, Bernardo Morando, Kasper Fodyga, Krzysztof Bonadura, Antoneo de Galia and many others.

The architecture of the 16th century Polish mannerism is marked by common usage of richly embellished attics of palaces and houses, arcade courtyards and side towers. The church architecture combined the late gothic tradition with renaissance symmetry and mannerist decoration. Churches were slender, usually without towers. The 17th century Polish mannerism characterize with much more simplicity in decoration in benefit to harmony of the construction. The model to the early 17th century residencies were royal palaces. Ujazdów Castle
Ujazdów Castle
Ujazdów Castle is a castle in the historic Ujazdów district, between Ujazdów Park and the Royal Baths Park , in Warsaw, Poland.-History:...

 constructed for king Sigismund III Vasa
Sigismund III Vasa
Sigismund III Vasa was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, a monarch of the united Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1587 to 1632, and King of Sweden from 1592 until he was deposed in 1599...

 was possible inspiration to the Bishop Palace in Kielce
Kielce
Kielce ) is a city in central Poland with 204,891 inhabitants . It is also the capital city of the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship since 1999, previously in Kielce Voivodeship...

, whereas the Kielce palace was imitated by many magnate families in their residencies (e.g. Tarło Palace in Podzamcze
Podzamcze, Kielce County
Podzamcze is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Piekoszów, within Kielce County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, in south-central Poland...

, 1645-1650 and Radziwiłł Palace in Biała Podlaska). This type of the palace is known as Poggio–Reale because it combined a square building with a central loggia with side towers as in Poggio–Reale Villa near Naples
Naples
Naples is a city in Southern Italy, situated on the country's west coast by the Gulf of Naples. Lying between two notable volcanic regions, Mount Vesuvius and the Phlegraean Fields, it is the capital of the region of Campania and of the province of Naples...

 (1487–1489) according to conception of Baldassare Peruzzi
Baldassare Peruzzi
Baldassare Tommaso Peruzzi was an Italian architect and painter, born in a small town near Siena and died in Rome. He worked for many years, beginning in 1520, under Bramante, Raphael, and later Sangallo during the erection of the new St. Peter's...

 and Sebastiano Serlio
Sebastiano Serlio
Sebastiano Serlio was an Italian Mannerist architect, who was part of the Italian team building the Palace of Fontainebleau...

. Side towers become an obligatory element of every palace and funeral church chapels, modelled after mentioned Sigismund's Chapel, flourished all over Poland (Staszów, Włocławek). Another characteristics of the mannerism in Poland are city and palace fortification
Fortification
Fortifications are military constructions and buildings designed for defence in warfare and military bases. Humans have constructed defensive works for many thousands of years, in a variety of increasingly complex designs...

s built in Dutch style
Star fort
A star fort, or trace italienne, is a fortification in the style that evolved during the age of gunpowder, when cannon came to dominate the battlefield, and was first seen in the mid-15th century in Italy....

 (Zamość, Ujazd) and town halls with high towers (Biecz, Zamość, Poznań). The most popular decoration techniques were relief
Relief
Relief is a sculptural technique. The term relief is from the Latin verb levo, to raise. To create a sculpture in relief is thus to give the impression that the sculpted material has been raised above the background plane...

 (Kazimierz Dolny), sgraffito
Sgraffito
Sgraffito is a technique either of wall decor, produced by applying layers of plaster tinted in contrasting colors to a moistened surface, or in ceramics, by applying to an unfired ceramic body two successive layers of contrasting slip, and then in either case scratching so as to produce an...

 (Krasiczyn) and rustication
Rustication (architecture)
thumb|upright|Two different styles of rustication in the [[Palazzo Medici-Riccardi]] in [[Florence]].In classical architecture rustication is an architectural feature that contrasts in texture with the smoothly finished, squared block masonry surfaces called ashlar...

 (Książ Wielki), whereas the material was mainly brick
Brick
A brick is a block of ceramic material used in masonry construction, usually laid using various kinds of mortar. It has been regarded as one of the longest lasting and strongest building materials used throughout history.-History:...

, plaster
Plaster
Plaster is a building material used for coating walls and ceilings. Plaster starts as a dry powder similar to mortar or cement and like those materials it is mixed with water to form a paste which liberates heat and then hardens. Unlike mortar and cement, plaster remains quite soft after setting,...

ed brick, sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized minerals or rock grains.Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. Like sand, sandstone may be any colour, but the most common colours are tan, brown, yellow,...

 and sometimes limestone
Limestone
Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate . Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera....

. For some time the late renaissance coexisted with early baroque (introduced in Poland in 1597 with Church of SS. Peter and Paul in Kraków).

Dutch/Flemish and Polish/Italian architectural traditions were not isolated and penetrate each other to create (among others) a unique composition of Krzyżtopór Palace
Krzyztopór
Krzyżtopór is a castle located in the village of Ujazd, Iwaniska commune, Opatów County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, in southern Poland. It was originally built by a Polish nobleman and Voivode of Sandomierz, Krzysztof Ossoliński...

. This, one of the largest constructions of mannerism and early baroque in Poland, was intended as a fortified palace (type known in Poland under Italian name palazzo in fortezza). The complex combined Dutch style fortifications with a palace built to Italian design (inspirations of Palazzo Farnese
Villa Farnese
The Villa Farnese, also known as Villa Caprarola, is a mansion in the town of Caprarola in the province of Viterbo, Northern Lazio, Italy, approximately 50 kilometres north-west of Rome...

 in Caprarola
Caprarola
Caprarola is a town and comune in the province of Viterbo, in the Lazio region of central Italy. The village is situated in a range of volcanic hills known as the Cimini Mounts....

 are visible in the plan of the complex), mannerist Polish decoration and some other, presumably Dutch elements (octagonal tower resembling Binnenhof
Binnenhof
The Binnenhof , is a complex of buildings in The Hague. It has been the location of meetings of the Staten-Generaal, the Dutch parliament, since 1446, and has been the centre of Dutch politics for many centuries....

's Torentje in The Hague
The Hague
The Hague is the capital city of the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. With a population of 500,000 inhabitants , it is the third largest city of the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam...

, spires). The palace was destroyed during the Deluge and currently remains in ruins.
Lublin region
Lublin Voivodeship
- Administrative division :Lublin Voivodeship is divided into 24 counties : 4 city counties and 20 land counties. These are further divided into 213 gminas....

 created its own style with folk motives (Kazimierz Dolny), while the urban mannerism in Greater Poland
Greater Poland
Greater Poland or Great Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska is a historical region of west-central Poland. Its chief city is Poznań.The boundaries of Greater Poland have varied somewhat throughout history...

 replaced the gothic gables with Italian style arcades, tympanums
Tympanum (architecture)
In architecture, a tympanum is the semi-circular or triangular decorative wall surface over an entrance, bounded by a lintel and arch. It often contains sculpture or other imagery or ornaments. Most architectural styles include this element....

, frieze
Frieze
thumb|267px|Frieze of the [[Tower of the Winds]], AthensIn architecture the frieze is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain in the Ionic or Doric order, or decorated with bas-reliefs. Even when neither columns nor pilasters are expressed, on an astylar wall it lies upon...

s and pillars in tuscan order
Tuscan order
Among canon of classical orders of classical architecture, the Tuscan order's place is due to the influence of the Italian Sebastiano Serlio, who meticulously described the five orders including a "Tuscan order", "the solidest and least ornate", in his fourth book of Regole generalii di...

 (Poznań). Warsaw, as one of the main cities of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and due to its role as seat of Parliament
General sejm
The general sejm was the parliament of Poland for four centuries from the late 15th until the late 18th century.-Genesis:The power of early sejms grew during the period of Poland's fragmentation , when the power of individual rulers waned and that of various councils and wiece grew...

 and King, was a place of meetings of cultures. The mannerist architecture in the city was a combination of many types of mannerist traditions, including Lublin type
Lublin Renaissance
The Lublin Renaissance - architectural style developed in the Lublin region of Poland at the end of the 16th century.- History :The Lublin region has a fine architectural heritage. It was at the end of the 16th century that the first fully developed forms of Renaissance architecture were imported...

 (Jesuit Church
Jesuit Church, Warsaw
Jesuit Church , otherwise the Church of the Gracious Mother of God is an ornate church in Warsaw, Poland. Immediately adjacent to St. John's Cathedral, it is one of the most notable mannerist churches in Poland's capital...

), Greater Poland mannerism (Kanonia), Italian mannerism with elements of early baroque (Royal Castle
Royal Castle, Warsaw
The Royal Castle in Warsaw is a castle residency and was the official residence of the Polish monarchs. It is located in the Castle Square, at the entrance to the Warsaw Old Town. The personal offices of the king and the administrative offices of the Royal Court of Poland were located there from...

), Lesser Poland mannerism (Kryski Chapel), Poggio–Reale type (Villa Regia Palace
Kazimierzowski Palace
The Kazimierz Palace is a building in Warsaw, Poland, adjacent to the Royal Route, at Krakowskie Przedmieście 26/28.Originally built in 1637-41, it was rebuilt in 1660 for King John II Casimir and again in 1765-68, by Domenico Merlini, for the Corps of Cadets established by King Stanisław August...

 - not existing), Bohemian and Dutch mannerism (Ossoliński Palace
Brühl Palace, Warsaw
The Brühl Palace , otherwise known as Sandomierski Palace standing at Piłsudski Square. It was a large palace and one of the most beautiful rococo buildings in pre-World War II Warsaw.-History:...

 - not existing, possible inspiration to palace's upper parts pavilion with characteristic roof was Bonifaz Wohlmut's reconstruction of Belvedere in Prague
Prague
Prague is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of over 2.3 million...

, 1557–1563).

The Bohemian mannerism had also large inflence on the architecture and sculpture in Poland. This concerned not only the lands that were part of the Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
The Kingdom of Bohemia was a country located in the region of Bohemia in Central Europe, most of whose territory is currently located in the modern-day Czech Republic. The King was Elector of Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806, whereupon it became part of the Austrian Empire, and...

, like Silesia
Silesia
Silesia is a historical region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with smaller parts also in the Czech Republic, and Germany.Silesia is rich in mineral and natural resources, and includes several important industrial areas. Silesia's largest city and historical capital is Wrocław...

. The familiar relations between the Habsburgs and the Polish Vasas
House of Vasa
The House of Vasa was the Royal House of Sweden 1523-1654 and of Poland 1587-1668. It originated from a noble family in Uppland of which several members had high offices during the 15th century....

 enabled to draw form the patterns of Prague mannerism. Both king Sigismund III
Sigismund III Vasa
Sigismund III Vasa was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, a monarch of the united Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1587 to 1632, and King of Sweden from 1592 until he was deposed in 1599...

 and his son Władysław IV Vasa
Władysław IV Vasa
Władysław IV Vasa was a Polish and Swedish prince from the House of Vasa. He reigned as King of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 8 November 1632 to his death in 1648....

 as well as magnates purchased many sculptures in Prague, especially those by Adriaen de Vries
Adriaen de Vries
Adriaen de Vries was a Northern Mannerist sculptor born in the Netherlands, whose international style crossed the threshold to the Baroque; he excelled in refined modelling and bronze casting and in the manipulation of patina and became the most famous European sculptor of his generation...

. Bohemian mannerism in Silesia joined the Prague renaissance with its brunelleschian
Filippo Brunelleschi
Filippo Brunelleschi was one of the foremost architects and engineers of the Italian Renaissance. He is perhaps most famous for inventing linear perspective and designing the dome of the Florence Cathedral, but his accomplishments also included bronze artwork, architecture , mathematics,...

 arcades (inspired by Queen Anna Jagiellon's
Anna of Bohemia and Hungary
Anna of Bohemia and Hungary, also sometimes known as Anna Jagellonica was, by marriage to Ferdinand I, King of the Romans and later Holy Roman Emperor, Queen of the Romans.-Family:She was the elder child and only daughter of king Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary and his third...

 Belvedere in Prague, 1535–1537) and German inflences originating from the late gothic (steep gable with renaissance decoration). Also Silesian mannerism had its impact on neighbouring regions - the arcade courtyard of the Piast Castle in Brzeg with arcades replaced in upper parts with columns (constructed by Francesco de Pario, 1556–1558) was possible inspiration for similar constructions in Bohemia - Opočno Castle
Opocno Castle
The Opočno Castle is a complex of buildings in a renaissance style in the Town of Opočno it was already mentioned in 1068 and built on the location of a former gothic castle. Before Opocno was modified in the 19th century it belonged to the family Trčka from 1553 until 1634. In 1634 when Jan Rudolf...

 (1560–1567), Jindřichův Hradec
Jindrichuv Hradec
Jindřichův Hradec is a town in the South Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic. It has approximately 22,700 inhabitants.- History :The first written mention of the town is in 1220. Before that, it was probably a Slavic settlement. At the end of the 12th century more people arrived...

 Castle (loggia, before 1597) and Schloss Güstrow
Güstrow
Güstrow is a town in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany the capital of the district of Güstrow. It has a population of 30,500 and is the seventh largest town in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Since 2006 Güstrow has the official suffix Barlachstadt.-Geography:The town of Güstrow is located...

 in Germany (built by Pario after 1558).
Characteristic for Jewish mannerism in Poland is adjustment of the Polish/Italian patterns to the Jewish tradition, rejection of human images in benefit to the sophisticated floral-animal decorations (tendril
Tendril
In botany, a tendril is a specialized stem, leaf or petiole with a threadlike shape that is used by climbing plants for support, attachment and cellular invasion by parasitic plants, generally by twining around suitable hosts. They do not have a lamina or blade, but they can photosynthesize...

s, lions), mythological creatures
Legendary creature
A legendary creature is a mythological or folkloric creature.-Origin:Some mythical creatures have their origin in traditional mythology and have been believed to be real creatures, for example the dragon, the unicorn, and griffin...

 (unicorn
Unicorn
The unicorn is a legendary animal from European folklore that resembles a white horse with a large, pointed, spiraling horn projecting from its forehead, and sometimes a goat's beard...

s, griffin
Griffin
The griffin, griffon, or gryphon is a legendary creature with the body of a lion and the head and wings of an eagle...

s) and Hebrew inscriptions
Hebrew language
Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family. Culturally, is it considered by Jews and other religious groups as the language of the Jewish people, though other Jewish languages had originated among diaspora Jews, and the Hebrew language is also used by non-Jewish groups, such...

. The synagogues were adorned with horizontal attics (Zamość) or had a richly decorated interior (Pińczów). The main decorating techniques were fresco (Tykocin, Pińczów), relief and stucco (Zamość).
The sculpture is mainly represented in sepulchral art and decorations of facades. Free standing sculptures are rare, though before the Deluge gardens of many residencies were adorned with sculptures (e.g. Villa Regia Palace's garden in Warsaw was embellished with sculptures by Adriaen de Vries). Also the free standing tomb monuments were uncommon. The tombs were generally constructed to be attached to the wall, exception is the Niedrzwicki Brothers Tomb in Koprzywnica
Koprzywnica
Koprzywnica is a town in Sandomierz County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, Poland, with 2,546 inhabitants ....

. During the first stage of mannerism in Poland the tomb monuments were constructed according to the early renaissance tradition, where the deceased was depicted sleeping. They were generally made of sandstone, while the founder's figure was carved in red marble
Marble
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone; however stonemasons use the term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone.Marble is commonly used for...

 (e.g. Tarnowski Tomb in Tarnów
Tarnów
Tarnów is a city in southeastern Poland with 115,341 inhabitants as of June 2009. The city has been situated in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship since 1999, but from 1975 to 1998 it was the capital of the Tarnów Voivodeship. It is a major rail junction, located on the strategic east-west connection...

 Cathedral). In the beginning of the 17th century Dutch architects and sculptors (especially Willem van den Blocke and his son Abraham) popularised in Poland new type of tomb monumet originating from the Cornelis Floris workshop (e.g. not existing Tomb of duke Albert of Prussia in the Königsberg Cathedral
Königsberg Cathedral
Königsberg Cathedral is a Brick Gothic style building in Kaliningrad on an island in the Pregel . The island was called Kneiphof in German times.-14th Century to World War II:...

). The founders were depicted kneeling, the construction was more spacious and it employ darker materials - brown marbles from Chęciny
Checiny
Chęciny is a town in Kielce County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, Poland, with 4,252 inhabitants .The town is first mentioned in historical documents from 1275. It obtained its city charter in 1325. The most important sight in the town is the royal castle built in the late 13th or early 14th century...

, black marbles from Dębnik
Debnik, Lesser Poland Voivodeship
Dębnik is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Krzeszowice, within Kraków County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland. It lies approximately east of Krzeszowice and north-west of the regional capital Kraków....

 or imported from the Spanish Netherlands
Southern Netherlands
Southern Netherlands were a part of the Low Countries controlled by Spain , Austria and annexed by France...

 (e.g. Tomb of Báthory
Báthory
The Báthory were a Hungarian noble family of the Gutkeled clan. The family rose to significant influence in Central Europe during the late Middle Ages, holding high military, administrative and ecclesiastical positions in the Kingdom of Hungary...

 brothers in Barczewo
Barczewo
Barczewo is a town in Olsztyn County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland. It is located 20 km NE of Olsztyn.The town was first located in 1325 but was soon after destroyed by Lithuanians. The rebuild town was granted city rights in 1364. In 1466, after the Second Peace of Toruń then known...

). Some of the most impressive Dutch style tombs in Poland were constructed far from the center of Dutch mannerism in Poland - Gdańsk. These were tombs of Jan Tarnowski in Łowicz (1603–1604) and of Ostrogski family in Tarnów (1612–1620).

Many of the mannerist structures in Poland are postwar reconstructions. They were destroyed by the Germans during the World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 (e.g. all mannerist constructions in Warsaw
Warsaw
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River, roughly from the Baltic Sea and from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population in 2010 was estimated at 1,716,855 residents with a greater metropolitan area of 2,631,902 residents, making Warsaw the 10th most...

, many Jewish pray houses
Synagogue
A synagogue is a Jewish house of prayer. This use of the Greek term synagogue originates in the Septuagint where it sometimes translates the Hebrew word for assembly, kahal...

) or damaged in Allied
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II were the countries that opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War . Former Axis states contributing to the Allied victory are not considered Allied states...

 aerial bombings
Aerial bombing of cities
A species of strategic bombing, the aerial bombing of cities began in 1915 during World War I, grew to a vast scale in World War II, and continues to the present day. The development of aerial bombardment marked an increased capacity of armed forces to deliver explosive weapons in populated areas...

 (Gdańsk, Wrocław). Also many were not restored after the war (e.g. tomb monument of transylvania
Transylvania
Transylvania is a historical region in the central part of Romania. Bounded on the east and south by the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended in the west to the Apuseni Mountains; however, the term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but also the historical...

n secretary of king Stephen Báthory
Stephen Báthory
Stephen Báthory may refer to several noblemen of Hungarian descent:* Stephen III Báthory , Palatine of Hungary* Stephen V Báthory , judge of the Royal Court and Prince of Transylvania...

, Márton de Berzeviczy by Willem van den Blocke in Lisnowo
Lisnowo
Lisnowo is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Świecie nad Osą, within Grudziądz County, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-central Poland. It lies approximately north-east of Świecie nad Osą, east of Grudziądz, and north-east of Toruń....

, destroyed by the Germans in 1939; tomb monument of Wolski Brothers in Warsaw by Jan Michałowicz destroyed in 1944; or Tarnów Synagogue, destroyed in 1939).

Northern Poland


Place Building Date of construction Style and history Image
Chełmno Town Hall 1567–1572 Dutch/Polish mannerism. The original building was built in 1298. The tower was added between 1584-1596. Architecture of the building had many influences - horizontal attic embellished with volutes is characteristic for Polish mannerism, the elevated gables and soaring windows are in Dutch style and tower decorated with corner rustication is typical for similar structures in Germany.
Gdańsk
Gdansk
Gdańsk is a Polish city on the Baltic coast, at the centre of the country's fourth-largest metropolitan area.The city lies on the southern edge of Gdańsk Bay , in a conurbation with the city of Gdynia, spa town of Sopot, and suburban communities, which together form a metropolitan area called the...

Golden House 1609–1618 Dutch mannerism (architect Abraham van den Blocke
Abraham van den Blocke
Abraham van den Blocke was an architect and sculptor.Van den Blocke was born in Königsberg , presumably the oldest of seven children of Dorothea and Willem van den Blocke. In 1584 the family lived in Gdańsk, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, where he was educated as a sculptor in his father's workshop...

). Built for Johann Speymann, a wealthy grain trader and mayor of the city, and his wife Judith Bahr. The attic is decorated with sculptures depicting Cleopatra, Oedipus
Oedipus
Oedipus was a mythical Greek king of Thebes. He fulfilled a prophecy that said he would kill his father and marry his mother, and thus brought disaster on his city and family...

, Achilles
Achilles
In Greek mythology, Achilles was a Greek hero of the Trojan War, the central character and the greatest warrior of Homer's Iliad.Plato named Achilles the handsomest of the heroes assembled against Troy....

 and Antigone
Antigone
In Greek mythology, Antigone is the daughter of Oedipus and Jocasta, Oedipus' mother. The name may be taken to mean "unbending", coming from "anti-" and "-gon / -gony" , but has also been suggested to mean "opposed to motherhood", "in place of a mother", or "anti-generative", based from the root...

 by Johann Vogt of Rostock
Rostock
Rostock -Early history:In the 11th century Polabian Slavs founded a settlement at the Warnow river called Roztoc ; the name Rostock is derived from that designation. The Danish king Valdemar I set the town aflame in 1161.Afterwards the place was settled by German traders...

.
Golden Gate 1612–1614 Dutch mannerism (constructed by Jan Strakowski to design by Abraham van den Blocke). The attic was adorned with allegorical sculptures of citizen’s virtues: Peace, Liberty, Fortune and Fame (west side), Harmony, Justice, Piety and Prudence (east side). They were carved in 1648 by Peter Ringering to Jeremias Falck
Jeremias Falck
Jeremias Falck was an engraver of the 17th century Baroque, born and active in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth...

's design.
Green Gate
Green Gate
The Green Gate in Gdańsk, Poland, is one of the most notable tourist attractions of the city. It is situated between Long Market and the River Motława.-History:...

1564–1568 Flemish mannerism, inspired by the Antwerp City Hall
Antwerp City Hall
The City Hall of Antwerp, Belgium, stands on the western side of Antwerp's Grote Markt . Erected between 1561 and 1565 to the design of Cornelis Floris de Vriendt and several other architects and artists, this Renaissance building incorporates both Flemish and Italian influences.The low arcaded...

 (architect Regnier van Amsterdam). It was built to serve as the formal residence of the Polish monarchs.
Neptune's Fountain 1617 Dutch mannerism (design by Abraham van den Blocke). The fountain was founded by the city councillors at Barthell Schachtmann's initiative. The Neptune's statue was cast in Augsburg
Augsburg
Augsburg is a city in the south-west of Bavaria, Germany. It is a university town and home of the Regierungsbezirk Schwaben and the Bezirk Schwaben. Augsburg is an urban district and home to the institutions of the Landkreis Augsburg. It is, as of 2008, the third-largest city in Bavaria with a...

 by Peter Husen and Johann Rogge. In 1634 the fountain was encompassed by a fence decorated with gilded Polish Eagles
Coat of arms of Poland
The White Eagle is the national coat of arms of Poland. It is a stylized white eagle with a golden beak and talons, and wearing a golden crown, in a red shield.- Legal basis :...

, also designed by Abraham van den Blocke.
Old Arsenal 1602–1605 Dutch/Flemish mannerism (architects Anthonis van Obbergen
Anthonis van Obbergen
Anthonis van Obbergen was a Flemish architect and fortifications engineer...

, Jan Strakowski and Abraham van den Blocke
Abraham van den Blocke
Abraham van den Blocke was an architect and sculptor.Van den Blocke was born in Königsberg , presumably the oldest of seven children of Dorothea and Willem van den Blocke. In 1584 the family lived in Gdańsk, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, where he was educated as a sculptor in his father's workshop...

).
Schumann House 1560 Flemish mannerism. Built for Hans Conert the Younger by unknown architect. The building was known at that time as the King's House. The top of the house is decorated with the sculpture of Zeus
Zeus
In the ancient Greek religion, Zeus was the "Father of Gods and men" who ruled the Olympians of Mount Olympus as a father ruled the family. He was the god of sky and thunder in Greek mythology. His Roman counterpart is Jupiter and his Etruscan counterpart is Tinia.Zeus was the child of Cronus...

. Schumann House's architecture bears strong resemblance to Gildehuis der Kuipers (Coopers' House) and to Huis van de Schutters (Archer's House) in Antwerp.
St. Mary's Church
St. Mary's Church, Gdansk
St. Mary's Church or, properly, Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary is a Roman Catholic church in Gdańsk, Poland, which is the largest brick church in the world. It was begun in 1379. St. Mary's Church (Polish: Bazylika Mariacka, German: Marienkirche) or, properly, Basilica of...

 - Epitaph of Edward Blemke
1591 Dutch mannerism (sculptor Willem van den Blocke). The central relief depicts the resurrection in the Valley of Josaphat
Valley of Josaphat
The Valley of Josaphat is mentioned in only one passage of the Bible, in Joel 3.2 : "I will gather together all nations, and will bring them down into the valley of Josaphat: and I will plead with them there for my people, and for my inheritance Israel, whom they have scattered among the nations"...

 according to prophet Ezekiel
Ezekiel
Ezekiel , "God will strengthen" , is the central protagonist of the Book of Ezekiel in the Hebrew Bible. In Judaism, Christianity and Islam, Ezekiel is acknowledged as a Hebrew prophet...

's vision (the dynamic of skeletons' transformation from bones to corpse is exceptional). The epitaph was crowned with a sculpture of death. Inspiration were epitaphs by Cornelis Floris - the construction bears resemblance to Epitaph of Dirk van Assendelft and his wife Adriana van Nassau in Grote Kerk in Breda
Breda
Breda is a municipality and a city in the southern part of the Netherlands. The name Breda derived from brede Aa and refers to the confluence of the rivers Mark and Aa. As a fortified city, the city was of strategic military and political significance...

 (1555).
Oliwa
Oliwa
Oliwa, also Oliva is one of the quarters of Gdańsk. From east it borders Przymorze and Żabianka, from the north Sopot and from the south with the districts of Strzyża, VII Dwór and Brętowo, while from the west with Matarnia and Osowa...

Oliwa Cathedral - Kos Tomb 1599–1620 Dutch mannerism (sculptor Willem van den Blocke). Established by Mikołaj Kos, landlord
Landlord
A landlord is the owner of a house, apartment, condominium, or real estate which is rented or leased to an individual or business, who is called a tenant . When a juristic person is in this position, the term landlord is used. Other terms include lessor and owner...

 in Żukczyn
Zukczyn
Żukczyn is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Pruszcz Gdański, within Gdańsk County, Pomeranian Voivodeship, in northern Poland. It lies approximately south of Pruszcz Gdański and south of the regional capital Gdańsk....

. Mikołaj and his son Andrzej were depicted wearing armours of Polish hussars
Polish Hussars
The Polish Hussars were the main type of cavalry of the first Polish Army, later also introduced into the Army of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, between the 16th and 18th centuries...

.
Szczecin
Szczecin
Szczecin , is the capital city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. It is the country's seventh-largest city and the largest seaport in Poland on the Baltic Sea. As of June 2009 the population was 406,427....

Pomeranian Dukes Castle
Pomeranian Dukes' Castle, Szczecin
The Ducal Castle in Szczecin, Poland, was the seat of the dukes of Pomerania-Stettin of the House of Pomerania , who ruled the Duchy of Pomerania from 1121 to 1637.-History:...

1573−1582 Pomeranian mannerism (architect Wilhelm Zachariasz Italus). The original castle (built in 1346 by duke Barnim the Great
Barnim III, Duke of Pomerania
Barnim III was a Pomeranian duke from the Griffin dynasty. He ruled Pomerania-Stettin in the years 1344–1368, although he had been a co-regent of his father Otto I since 1320, taking a prominent part in the defence and government of the duchy. Aiming for independence from the Margraviate of...

) was rebuilt in the late renaissance style for duke John Frederick.
Włocławek Włocławek Cathedral - Chapel of the Blessed Virgin Mary 1604–1611 Polish mannerism. Originally built in 1503, it was reconstructed in the mannerist style by bishop Jan Tarnowski. The architecture of the chapel, though inspired by Sigismund's Chapel was adapted and transformed according to Dutch patterns. The dome was hidden behind the balustrade
Baluster
A baluster is a moulded shaft, square or of lathe-turned form, one of various forms of spindle in woodwork, made of stone or wood and sometimes of metal, standing on a unifying footing, and supporting the coping of a parapet or the handrail of a staircase. Multiplied in this way, they form a...

 and the walls were covered with a subtle corner rustication.

Central Poland


Place Building Date of construction Style and history Image
Drobin
Drobin
Drobin is a town in Płock County, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland, with 3,016 inhabitants ....

Church of Our Lady of the Rosary and St. Stanisław - Kryski Tomb 1572–1576 Italian/Polish mannerism (circle of Santi Gucci). Established by Stanisław Kryski, voivode of Masovia. It depicts Stanisław's parents Paweł Kryski, his wife Anna Szreńska and their son Wojciech Kryski, chamberlain of Płock. The structure was by most account inspired by the tombs in the Medici Chapel
Medici Chapel
The Medici Chapels is a structure in the Basilica of San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy. It comprises two structures added to Brunelleschi's original design, each intended to celebrate the power of the Medici as Grand Dukes of Tuscany. One is the Sagrestia Nuova, the "New Sacristy", designed by...

 in the Basilica of San Lorenzo in Florence
Florence
Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the province of Florence. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with approximately 370,000 inhabitants, expanding to over 1.5 million in the metropolitan area....

 and The tomb of Julius II in the San Pietro in Vincoli Basilica
San Pietro in Vincoli
San Pietro in Vincoli is a Roman Catholic titular church and minor basilica in Rome, Italy, best known for being the home of Michelangelo's statue of Moses, part of the tomb of Pope Julius II.-History:...

 in Rome
Rome
Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city and comune, with over 2.7 million residents in . The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy.Rome's history spans two and a half...

, designed by Michelangelo
Michelangelo
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni , commonly known as Michelangelo, was an Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, poet, and engineer who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art...

.
Gołąb Church of St. Catherine and St. Florian 1628–1638 Polish mannerism (circle of Santi Gucci) with elements of Dutch mannierism (ferrule ornament). The church was established by priest Szymon Grzybowski.
Loreto House 1634–1642 Italian mannerism, an exact replica of the Loreto House in Italy. Founded by Chancellor Jerzy Ossoliński
Jerzy Ossolinski
Prince Jerzy Ossoliński was a Polish szlachcic, Crown Court Treasurer from 1632, voivode of Sandomierz from 1636, Reichsfürst since 1634, Crown Deputy Chancellor from 1639, Great Crown Chancellor from 1643, starost of Bydgoszcz , Lubomel , Puck and Bolim , magnate, politician and diplomat...

. The main decorating features are ceramic statues of prophets, created under strong influence of Michelangelo
Michelangelo
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni , commonly known as Michelangelo, was an Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, poet, and engineer who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art...

's works.
Kazimierz Dolny
Kazimierz Dolny
Kazimierz Dolny is a small town in Central Poland, on the right bank of the Vistula river in Puławy County, Lublin Province.It is a considerable tourist attraction as one of the most beautifully situated little towns in Poland. It enjoyed its greatest prosperity in the 16th and the first half of...

Celej House before 1635 Polish mannerism (Lublin type
Lublin Renaissance
The Lublin Renaissance - architectural style developed in the Lublin region of Poland at the end of the 16th century.- History :The Lublin region has a fine architectural heritage. It was at the end of the 16th century that the first fully developed forms of Renaissance architecture were imported...

, circle of Santi Gucci), the attic is decorated with folk motives (basilisk
Basilisk
In European bestiaries and legends, a basilisk is a legendary reptile reputed to be king of serpents and said to have the power to cause death with a single glance...

s, dragon
Dragon
A dragon is a legendary creature, typically with serpentine or reptilian traits, that feature in the myths of many cultures. There are two distinct cultural traditions of dragons: the European dragon, derived from European folk traditions and ultimately related to Greek and Middle Eastern...

s and birds among others) Built for a wealthy merchant Bartłomiej Celej.
Church of St. John the Baptist and St. Bartholomew 1586–1613 Polish mannerism (architect Jakub Balin). The original 14th century building burned in 1561. The initiators of the reconstruction and the founders were the Firlejs. The church was enhanced and covered with a cradle vault with lanterns. The gothic gable
Gable
A gable is the generally triangular portion of a wall between the edges of a sloping roof. The shape of the gable and how it is detailed depends on the structural system being used and aesthetic concerns. Thus the type of roof enclosing the volume dictates the shape of the gable...

s were rebuilt in the late renaissance style.
Mikołaj Przybyła Granary 1591 Polish mannerism. In the beginning of the 17th century there was about 60 granaries in the town.
Przybyła Houses 1615 Polish mannerism (Lublin type with folk motives). Built for two brothers Mikołaj and Krzysztof Przybyła.
Lublin
Lublin
Lublin is the ninth largest city in Poland. It is the capital of Lublin Voivodeship with a population of 350,392 . Lublin is also the largest Polish city east of the Vistula river...

Carmelite Church 1635–1644 Polish mannerism (Lublin type). The church was founded by Katarzyna z Kretków Sanguszkowa for Discalced Carmelite Sisters
Discalced Carmelites
The Discalced Carmelites, or Barefoot Carmelites, is a Catholic mendicant order with roots in the eremitic tradition of the Desert Fathers and Mothers...

. The main gabled fasade was decorated with arcade-pilaster
Pilaster
A pilaster is a slightly-projecting column built into or applied to the face of a wall. Most commonly flattened or rectangular in form, pilasters can also take a half-round form or the shape of any type of column, including tortile....

 divisions and frescoes. Nave elevations were divided with pilasters supporting the console cornice
Cornice
Cornice molding is generally any horizontal decorative molding that crowns any building or furniture element: the cornice over a door or window, for instance, or the cornice around the edge of a pedestal. A simple cornice may be formed just with a crown molding.The function of the projecting...

.
Konopnica House 1575 Polish mannerism. The original late gothic house (built before 1512) was obtained by Sebastian Konopnica as a dowry of his wife Katarzyna z Kretków. Konopnica, city mayor of Lublin, rebuilt the house in mannerist style. Rich decorations of windows with medallions bearing effigies of Sebastian Konopnica and his wife Katarzyna are attributed to Pińczów workshop.
Pabianice
Pabianice
Pabianice is a town in central Poland with 69 648 inhabitants . Situated in the Łódź Voivodeship, it is the capital of Pabianice County...

Manor house 1565–1571 Polish mannerism (architect Wawrzyniec Lorek). Built for canon
Canon (priest)
A canon is a priest or minister who is a member of certain bodies of the Christian clergy subject to an ecclesiastical rule ....

 Stanisław Dąbrowski.
Poznań
Poznan
Poznań is a city on the Warta river in west-central Poland, with a population of 556,022 in June 2009. It is among the oldest cities in Poland, and was one of the most important centres in the early Polish state, whose first rulers were buried at Poznań's cathedral. It is sometimes claimed to be...

City Hall
Poznan City Hall
Poznań Town Hall or Ratusz is a building in the city of Poznań in western Poland, located in the Old Market Square in the centre of the Old Town neighbourhood. It served as the city's administrative building until 1939, and now houses a museum...

1550–1567 Italian/Polish mannerism (architect Giovanni Battista di Quadro). The town hall was built during the turn of the 13th and 14th centuries. In the 16th century the building was enhanced, roofs were covered with attics and facade was embellished with a three-story loggia.
Poznań Cathedral - Tomb of bishop Izdbieński 1557–1560 Polish mannerism (sculptor Jan Michałowicz of Urzędów
Urzedów
Urzędów is a village in Kraśnik County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland. It is the seat of the gmina called Gmina Urzędów. It lies approximately north-west of Kraśnik and south-west of the regional capital Lublin....

). It was established for Benedykt Izdbieński, bishop of Poznań by his heirs. The tomb was carved in sandstone and red marble and adorned with profuse floral decorations. Characteristic for Michałowicz blend of Flemish and Italian inflences is visible in the tomb.
Ridt House 1576 Polish mannerism (Greater Poland type, architect Giovanni Battista di Quadro). The gothic building was purchased in 1566 by Zachariasz Ridt, a rich cloth and leather merchant. Zachariasz, who was also a senior pastor
Pastor
The word pastor usually refers to an ordained leader of a Christian congregation. When used as an ecclesiastical styling or title, this role may be abbreviated to "Pr." or often "Ps"....

 of the Lutheran
Lutheranism
Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the theology of Martin Luther, a German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation...

 community in Poznań, rebuilt the house in mannerist style. The tuscan order, decorational features of the gable (volutes and pillars) as well as division of facade surfaces with simple details are typical for Greater Poland mannerism.
Siedlisko
Siedlisko, Nowa Sól County
Siedlisko is a village on the Oder river in Nowa Sól County, Lubusz Voivodeship, in western Poland. It is the seat of the gmina called Gmina Siedlisko...

Schönaich Castle 1597–1618 German mannerism (architect Melchior Duckhardt). The original wooden castrum in Sedlscho was replaced between 1550-1560 by a brick building. It was later enlarged and reconstructed for Georg Schönaich, who also built a chapel (Protestant rood screen
Rood screen
The rood screen is a common feature in late medieval church architecture. It is typically an ornate partition between the chancel and nave, of more or less open tracery constructed of wood, stone, or wrought iron...

) with mannerist decorations.
Uchanie
Uchanie
Uchanie is a village in Hrubieszów County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland. It is the seat of the gmina called Gmina Uchanie. It lies approximately north-west of Hrubieszów and south-east of the regional capital Lublin....

Church of the Assumption of Mary - Uchański Tomb c. 1607 Polish mannerism (sculptor Santi Gucci). Established by Anny Herburtówna to commemorate herself and her husband Paweł Uchański, voivode of Bełz. Made of sandstone with marble incrustatins, adorned with profuse floral and animal decorations. The effigies of the deceased were carved in alabaster
Alabaster
Alabaster is a name applied to varieties of two distinct minerals, when used as a material: gypsum and calcite . The former is the alabaster of the present day; generally, the latter is the alabaster of the ancients...

.
Warsaw
Warsaw
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River, roughly from the Baltic Sea and from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population in 2010 was estimated at 1,716,855 residents with a greater metropolitan area of 2,631,902 residents, making Warsaw the 10th most...

Jesuit Church
Jesuit Church, Warsaw
Jesuit Church , otherwise the Church of the Gracious Mother of God is an ornate church in Warsaw, Poland. Immediately adjacent to St. John's Cathedral, it is one of the most notable mannerist churches in Poland's capital...

1609–1626 Polish mannerism (Lublin type, architect Jan Frankiewicz). The church was founded by King Sigismund III Vasa
Sigismund III Vasa
Sigismund III Vasa was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, a monarch of the united Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1587 to 1632, and King of Sweden from 1592 until he was deposed in 1599...

 and a chamberlain Andrzej Bobola (the Old) at Piotr Skarga
Piotr Skarga
Piotr Skarga was a Polish Jesuit, preacher, hagiographer, polemicist, and leading figure of the Counter-reformation in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. He was called the "Polish Bossuet" due to his oratorical abilities.He was born February 2, 1536 in Grójec, to a family of lesser landless gentry...

's initiative, in 1609.
Negro House 1622–1628 Polish mannerism. The reconstruction of the gothic
Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

 house (built before 1449) in the mannierist style was started by Jana Kluga and accomplished by Jakub Gianotti, who get a special tax exemption
Tax exemption
Various tax systems grant a tax exemption to certain organizations, persons, income, property or other items taxable under the system. Tax exemption may also refer to a personal allowance or specific monetary exemption which may be claimed by an individual to reduce taxable income under some...

 for this undertaking from the city municipalities. The facade was adorned with two richly decorated portals and a medallion with effigy of Negro, attributed to Gucci's workshop. This sculpture gave its name to the house. One of the portals bears a mark of ownership (gmerk) with initials 'IG' of Jakub Gianotti.
Royal Castle
Royal Castle, Warsaw
The Royal Castle in Warsaw is a castle residency and was the official residence of the Polish monarchs. It is located in the Castle Square, at the entrance to the Warsaw Old Town. The personal offices of the king and the administrative offices of the Royal Court of Poland were located there from...

1598–1619 Polish mannerism/early baroque (architect Giovanni Battista Trevano
Giovanni Battista Trevano
Giovanni Battista Trevano was an Italian architect from Lombardy who worked in Poland as royal architect for King Sigismund III Vasa, of the Swedish dynasty of Vasa, who was ruling Poland at the time....

 - his plans were probably amended by Vincenzo Scamozzi
Vincenzo Scamozzi
thumb|250px|Portrait of Vincenzo Scamozzi by [[Paolo Veronese]]Vincenzo Scamozzi was a Venetian architect and a writer on architecture, active mainly in Vicenza and Republic of Venice area in the second half of the 16th century...

). The original castle, built between 1407–1410, was expanded for king Sigismund III Vasa by a group of Italian architects and sculptors, including Giacomo Rodondo, Paolo del Corte and Matteo Castelli.
Zamość
Zamosc
Zamość ukr. Замостя is a town in southeastern Poland with 66,633 inhabitants , situated in the south-western part of Lublin Voivodeship , about from Lublin, from Warsaw and from the border with Ukraine...

Armenian Houses No. 30-26 first half of the 17th century Polish mannerism. No. 30 (green) - rebuilt in 1665-1674 for Jan Wilczek and adorned with profuse floral-animal motives, No. 28 (dark yellow) - built in 1645-1647 for Bazyli Rudomicz professor of the Zamojski Academy, No. 26 (red) - built in 1632-1634 for Armenian merchant Gabriel Bartoszewicz.
Cathedral 1587–1637 Polish mannerism (Lublin type, architect Bernardo Morando
Bernardo Morando
Bernardo Morando, also known as Bernardino or Morandi was a Polish-Italian architect. He is notable as the author of a new town of Zamość, modelled on Renaissance theories of the 'ideal city'....

). It was constructed as a three-nave basilica
Basilica
The Latin word basilica , was originally used to describe a Roman public building, usually located in the forum of a Roman town. Public basilicas began to appear in Hellenistic cities in the 2nd century BC.The term was also applied to buildings used for religious purposes...

 with side chapels. The main 20m high nave was covered with a cradle vault with lanterns. The naves are divided by thick corinthian
Corinthian order
The Corinthian order is one of the three principal classical orders of ancient Greek and Roman architecture. The other two are the Doric and Ionic. When classical architecture was revived during the Renaissance, two more orders were added to the canon, the Tuscan order and the Composite order...

 pillars crowned with richly decorated entablature
Entablature
An entablature refers to the superstructure of moldings and bands which lie horizontally above columns, resting on their capitals. Entablatures are major elements of classical architecture, and are commonly divided into the architrave , the frieze ,...

. Vaults were embellished with moldings
Molding (decorative)
Molding or moulding is a strip of material with various profiles used to cover transitions between surfaces or for decoration. It is traditionally made from solid milled wood or plaster but may be made from plastic or reformed wood...

 (geometric, floral and figural motives).
Synagogue
Zamosc Synagogue
Zamość Synagogue, , was built between 1610 and 1618 Zamość in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The synagogue had functioned as a place of worship until World War II, when the Nazis turned the interior into a carpenters’ workshop...

1610–1620 Jewish mannerism. Built for the Sephardi Jews
Sephardi Jews
Sephardi Jews is a general term referring to the descendants of the Jews who lived in the Iberian Peninsula before their expulsion in the Spanish Inquisition. It can also refer to those who use a Sephardic style of liturgy or would otherwise define themselves in terms of the Jewish customs and...

. The interior was richly decorated with stucco in Kalisian-Lublin style. The main part was a great pray hall (11.5 x 12.2 m).
Town Hall 1591–1622 Polish mannerism (architect Bernardo Morando). Between 1639-1651 it was rebuilt by Jan Jaroszewicz and Jan Wolff. The building was enlarged and enhanced by adding another storey with high mannerist attic, while the horseshoe shaped staircase is an 18th century addition. The clock tower is 52 meters tall and consist of five levels on square and octagonal plan.

Southern Poland


Place Building Date of construction Style and history Image
Baranów Sandomierski
Baranów Sandomierski
Baranów Sandomierski is a small town in southern Poland, in the Subcarpathian Voivodship, Tarnobrzeg County on the Vistula River, with 1,440 inhabitants .-Castle:...

Leszczyński Castle
Baranów Sandomierski Castle
Baranów Sandomerski Castle is a Mannerist castle located in Baranów Sandomierski in the Subcarpathian Voivodship, south-east Poland. The castle is one of the most important Mannerist structures in Poland....

1591–1606 Polish mannerism (circle of Santi Gucci). The castle was built for Rafał Leszczyński and his son Andrzej as a fortified palace (palazzo in fortezza). The architecture of the castle merge all the characteristics of Polish mannerism - side towers, arcade courtyard and richly decorated attic.
Brzeg
Brzeg
Brzeg is a town in southwestern Poland with 38,496 inhabitants , situated in Silesia in the Opole Voivodeship on the left bank of the Oder...

Piast Castle Courtyard 1556–1558 Silesian mannerism (architect Francesco de Pario of Bissone
Bissone
Bissone is a municipality in the district of Lugano, in the canton of Ticino in Switzerland.-History:Bissone is first mentioned in 735 and again in 854 as Blixuni. In German it was known as Byssen, though that name is no longer used....

). The original gothic castle was rebuilt for Jerzy II the Magnificent, duke of Brzeg and Legnica. It was probably inspired by Wawel Castle courtyard. The architecture of the castle's arcades bears strong resemblance to Opočno Castle
Opocno Castle
The Opočno Castle is a complex of buildings in a renaissance style in the Town of Opočno it was already mentioned in 1068 and built on the location of a former gothic castle. Before Opocno was modified in the 19th century it belonged to the family Trčka from 1553 until 1634. In 1634 when Jan Rudolf...

 in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

 and Schloss Güstrow
Güstrow
Güstrow is a town in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany the capital of the district of Güstrow. It has a population of 30,500 and is the seventh largest town in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Since 2006 Güstrow has the official suffix Barlachstadt.-Geography:The town of Güstrow is located...

 in Germany.
Piast Castle Gate 1554–1560 Silesian mannerism. The gate was adorned with profuse mannerist reliefs and sculptures of Jerzy II and his wife Barbara of Brandenburg
Barbara of Brandenburg, Duchess of Brieg
Barbara of Brandenburg , was a German princess member of the House of Hohenzollern and by marriage Duchess of Brzeg.She was the second child but eldest daughter of Joachim II Hector, Elector of Brandenburg, by his first wife Magdalena, daughter of George, Duke of Saxony.-Life:In 1537 Barbara was...

. The busts depicts 24 Piasts
Piast dynasty
The Piast dynasty was the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland. It began with the semi-legendary Piast Kołodziej . The first historical ruler was Duke Mieszko I . The Piasts' royal rule in Poland ended in 1370 with the death of king Casimir the Great...

, ancestors of Jerzy II - 12 rulers of Poland from the legendary Piast the Wheelwright
Piast the Wheelwright
Piast Kołodziej was a semi-legendary figure in prehistoric Poland , the founder of the Piast dynasty that would rule the future Kingdom of Poland.- Legend and aftermath :...

 to Władysław II the Exile and 12 dukes of Silesia from Henry I the Bearded
Henry I the Bearded
Henry I the Bearded , of the Silesian line of the Piast dynasty, was Duke of Silesia at Wrocław from 1201 and Duke of Kraków and thus High Duke of all Poland - internally divided - from 1232 until his death.-Heir of Wroclaw:...

 to Frederick II of Legnica
Frederick II of Legnica
Frederick II of Legnica , also known as the Great of Legnica , was a Duke of Legnica from 1488 , of Brzeg from 1521...

. The inspiration for this decoration were woodcuts from the 1521 Chronica Polonorum by Maciej Miechowita
Maciej Miechowita
Maciej Miechowita was a Polish renaissance scholar, professor of Jagiellonian University, historian, chronicler, geographer, medical doctor , alchemist, astrologist and canon in Cracow.He studied at the...

.
Jarosław Orsetti House 1570–1593, 1646 Polish mannerism. Built for Stanisław Smiszowic, Jarosław's apothecary
Apothecary
Apothecary is a historical name for a medical professional who formulates and dispenses materia medica to physicians, surgeons and patients — a role now served by a pharmacist and some caregivers....

. In 1633 the building was purchased by Wilhelm Orsetti and rebuilt in 1646.
Kalwaria Zebrzydowska
Kalwaria Zebrzydowska
Kalwaria Zebrzydowska is a town in southern Poland with 4,429 inhabitants . It is situated in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship ; previously it was in the Bielsko-Biała Voivodeship ....

Ecce Homo Chapel 1605–1609 Dutch mannerism (architect Paul Baudarth). It was built on the plan of the Greek cross. The vault adorned with profuse stucco decorations in the style of Dutch mannerism.
Kielce
Kielce
Kielce ) is a city in central Poland with 204,891 inhabitants . It is also the capital city of the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship since 1999, previously in Kielce Voivodeship...

Bishops’ Palace 1637–1644 Italian/Dutch mannerism (architect Tommaso Poncino). The palace was established by Jakub Zadzik
Jakub Zadzik
Jakub Zadzik was a Polish Great Crown Secretary from 1613 to 1627, bishop of Chełmno from 1624, Crown Deputy Chancellor from 1627, Great Crown Chancellor from 1628 to 1635, bishop of Kraków from 1635, diplomat, szlachcic, magnate in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth...

, bishop of Kraków. The building was inspired by the royal residences in Warsaw and modelled in the so-called Poggio–Reale style. Steep roofs, towers and decorations are Dutch style features.
Kraków
Kraków
Kraków also Krakow, or Cracow , is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, cultural, and artistic life...

Ciborium in St. Mary's Basilica
St. Mary's Basilica, Kraków
St. Mary's Basilica , is a Brick Gothic church re-built in the 14th century , adjacent to the Main Market Square in Kraków, Poland...

1552 Polish mannerism (sculptor Giovanni Maria Padovano). The St. Mary's Basilica's Ciborium
Ciborium (architecture)
In ecclesiastical architecture, a ciborium is a canopy or covering supported by columns, freestanding in the sanctuary, that stands over and covers the altar in a basilica or other church. It may also be known by the more general term of baldachin, though ciborium is often considered more correct...

 was established by Kraków's goldsmiths Andrzej Mastelli and Jerzy Pipan. It was made of sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized minerals or rock grains.Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. Like sand, sandstone may be any colour, but the most common colours are tan, brown, yellow,...

 and adorned with red Salzburg
Salzburg
-Population development:In 1935, the population significantly increased when Salzburg absorbed adjacent municipalities. After World War II, numerous refugees found a new home in the city. New residential space was created for American soldiers of the postwar Occupation, and could be used for...

 marble, alabaster and stucco
Stucco
Stucco or render is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water. Stucco is applied wet and hardens to a very dense solid. It is used as decorative coating for walls and ceilings and as a sculptural and artistic material in architecture...

. A cast bronze
Bronze
Bronze is a metal alloy consisting primarily of copper, usually with tin as the main additive. It is hard and brittle, and it was particularly significant in antiquity, so much so that the Bronze Age was named after the metal...

 balustrade was created in 1595 by Michał Otto and decorated with Polish and Lithuanian coat of arms.
Decjusz Villa 1630 Italian mannerism (architect Maciej Trapola). The original villa, built between 1528-1535 for Justus Decjusz, was rebuilt for Sebastian Lubomirski
Sebastian Lubomirski
Count Sebastian Lubomirski was a Polish-Lithuanian nobleman .He was owner of Wiśnicz and Siercza. He was Żupnik of Kraków in 1581–1592, burgrave of Kraków since 1584, castellan of Małogoszcz since 1591, Biecz since 1598, Wojnicz since 1603 and starost of Sandomierz, Sącz and of Spisz....

. Inspiration for this reconstruction was a renaissance treaty by Sebastiano Serlio
Sebastiano Serlio
Sebastiano Serlio was an Italian Mannerist architect, who was part of the Italian team building the Palace of Fontainebleau...

.
Holy Trinity Church - Gonzaga-Myszkowski Chapel 1603–1614 Polish mannerism/early baroque (architect Santi Gucci), decorated with rustication
Rustication (architecture)
thumb|upright|Two different styles of rustication in the [[Palazzo Medici-Riccardi]] in [[Florence]].In classical architecture rustication is an architectural feature that contrasts in texture with the smoothly finished, squared block masonry surfaces called ashlar...

. The chapel was modelled after the Sigismund's Chapel
Sigismund's Chapel
"Sigismund's Chapel" of the Wawel Cathedral is one of the most notable pieces of architecture in Kraków. Built as a funerary chapel for the last Jagiellons, it has been hailed by many art historians as "the most beautiful example of the Tuscan Renaissance north of the Alps"...

 (1519–1533). It was founded by Zygmunt Gonzaga-Myszkowski (together with his brother Piotr, he was adopted in 1597 by Vincenzo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua
Duchy of Mantua
The Duchy of Mantua was a duchy in Lombardy, Northern Italy, subject to the Holy Roman Empire.-History:After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Mantua was invaded by Byzantines, Longobards and Franks. In the 11th century it became a possession of Boniface of Canossa, marquis of Toscana...

).
Prelate House 1618–1619 Polish mannerism (architects Maciej Litwinkowicz and Jan Zatorczyk). The characteristics are late renaissance attic by Zatorczyk (1625) and sgraffito decoration imitating diamond-pointed rustication.
Wawel Cathedral
Wawel Cathedral
The Wawel Cathedral, also known as the Cathedral Basilica of Sts. Stanisław and Vaclav, is a church located on Wawel Hill in Kraków–Poland's national sanctuary. It has a 1,000-year history and was the traditional coronation site of Polish monarchs. It is the Cathedral of the Archdiocese of Kraków...

 - Stephen Báthory Tomb
1594–1595 Polish mannerism (sculptor Santi Gucci). Established by Queen Anna Jagiellon to commemorate her husband Stephen Báthory. Made of sandstone, red marble
Marble
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone; however stonemasons use the term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone.Marble is commonly used for...

 and alabaster
Alabaster
Alabaster is a name applied to varieties of two distinct minerals, when used as a material: gypsum and calcite . The former is the alabaster of the present day; generally, the latter is the alabaster of the ancients...

.
Krasiczyn
Krasiczyn
Krasiczyn is a village in Przemyśl County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland. It is the seat of the gmina called Gmina Krasiczyn. The village has a population of 440...

Krasicki Palace 1580–1631 Polish mannerism (architect Galleazzo Appiani
Galleazzo Appiani
Galleazzo Appiani was an Italian architect who worked in Poland. Amongst his designs are the Carmelite Church in Przemyśl and the Krasicki Palace, built between 1592 and 1618 for the Krasicki family in Krasiczyn....

). The construction was started by Stanisław Krasicki and accomplished by his son Marcin Krasicki, voivode of Podolia
Podole Voivodeship
The Podole Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland, since the 14th century till 1793/1795, except for a short period of Ottoman Empire administration as Podolia Eyalet. Together with the Bracław Voivodeship it formed the historical province...

. It was built as a fortified palace. Each tower of the Krasicki Palace is different and both inner and the outer facades were decorated with profuse sgraffitos (they cover more than 7000 square meters in total).
Książ Wielki
Ksiaz Wielki
Książ Wielki is a village in Miechów County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland. It is the seat of the gmina called Gmina Książ Wielki. It lies approximately north-east of Miechów and north of the regional capital Kraków....

Mirów Palace 1585–1595 Polish mannerism (architect Santi Gucci). Founded by Piotr Myszkowski, bishop of Cracow as a fortified palace (palazzo in fortezza). The palace is decorated with rusticated stonework.
Lesko
Lesko
Lesko ; is a town in south-eastern Poland with a population of 5,755 . situated in the Bieszczady mountains. It is located in the heartland of the Doły , and its average altitude is above sea level, although there are some hills located within the confines of the city...

Fortified Synagogue
Lesko Synagogue
Lesko Synagogue is a synagogue in Lesko, Poland. The synagogue had functioned as a place of worship until World War II.-History:The synagogue was built during the years 1626-1654. During the Second World War the interior was devastated by the Germans. For almost two decades after the war, it was...

1626–1654 Jewish mannerism. The facade bears a Hebrew inscription that reads: He was afraid and said, "How awesome is this place! This is none other than the house of God; this is the gate of heaven." (Genesis 28:17)
Oleśnica
Olesnica
Oleśnica is a town in the Trzebnickie Hills in southwestern Poland with 36,951 inhabitants . It is situated in Lower Silesian Voivodeship...

Ducal Castle 1585–1608 German mannerism (architect Bernard Niuron). The original gothic castle (built by duke Konrad I of Oleśnica
Konrad I of Olesnica
Konrad I of Oleśnica was a Duke of Żagań, Ścinawa, etc., during 1309–1312 , Duke of Oleśnica, Namysłów, Gniezno and Kalisz during 1312–1313 , Duke of Kalisz during 1313–1314 , Duke of Namysłów since 1313 and Duke of Oleśnica since 1321 until his death .He was the second son...

) was successively enlarged and rebuilt by the powerful bohemian magnats the Poděbrads. The reconstruction in mannerist style began in 1585. Duke Charles II built a new eastern and southern wings. He also rebuilt the so-called Widow Palace. The courtyard was emebllished with characteristic balconies
Balcony
Balcony , a platform projecting from the wall of a building, supported by columns or console brackets, and enclosed with a balustrade.-Types:The traditional Maltese balcony is a wooden closed balcony projecting from a...

 and the main gate portal was adorned with Silesian and Poděbrad family crests.
Pińczów
Pinczów
Pińczów is a town in Poland, in Świętokrzyskie Voivodship, about 40 km south of Kielce. It is the capital of Pińczów County. Population is 12,304 .-History:...

St. Anne's Chapel 1600 Polish mannerism (architect Santi Gucci). The building was established by Zygmunt Gonzaga-Myszkowski, marquess
Marquess
A marquess or marquis is a nobleman of hereditary rank in various European peerages and in those of some of their former colonies. The term is also used to translate equivalent oriental styles, as in imperial China, Japan, and Vietnam...

 in Mirów to commemorate a Jubilee
Jubilee (Christian)
The concept of the Jubilee is a special year of remission of sins and universal pardon. In the Biblical Book of Leviticus, a Jubilee year is mentioned to occur every fifty years, in which slaves and prisoners would be freed, debts would be forgiven and the mercies of God would be particularly...

 of 1600.
Przemyśl
Przemysl
Przemyśl is a city in south-eastern Poland with 66,756 inhabitants, as of June 2009. In 1999, it became part of the Podkarpackie Voivodeship; it was previously the capital of Przemyśl Voivodeship....

Carmelite Church 1624–1630 Polish mannerism (architect - probably Galleazzo Appiani). The church was founded in 1620 by Marcin Krasicki, starost of Przemyśl and owner of Krasiczyn. The construction started in 1630 and was conducted by master craftsman Ligęski of Przemyśl.
Przemyśl Cathedral - Fredro Tomb after 1622 Polish mannerism. The tomb monument was constructed for Jan Fredro, castellan of Przemyśl and his wife Anna ze Stadnickich. It was carved in limestone and alabaster in tuscan order. The top of the tomb is decorated with a sculpture of archangel Michael
Michael (archangel)
Michael , Micha'el or Mîkhā'ēl; , Mikhaḗl; or Míchaël; , Mīkhā'īl) is an archangel in Jewish, Christian, and Islamic teachings. Roman Catholics, Anglicans, and Lutherans refer to him as Saint Michael the Archangel and also simply as Saint Michael...

.
Staszów
Staszów
Staszów is a town in Poland, in Świętokrzyskie Voivodship, about 54 km southeast of Kielce. It is the capital of Staszów County. Population is 15,108 .- Demography :...

Church of St. Bartholomew - Tęczyński Chapel 1618–1625 Polish mannerism (Pińczów workshop, circle of Santi Gucci). Tęczyński Chapel was founded by Katarzyna Leszczyńska to commemorate her husband Andrzej Tęczyński, castellan of Bełz and son Jacek. The chapel was modelled after the Sigismund's Chapel and decorated with rustication.
Sucha Beskidzka
Sucha Beskidzka
-Famous people from Sucha Beskidzka:* Billy Wilder* Walery Goetel - geologist and palaeontologist; researcher of geological structure of the Tatra Mountains-Twin towns — sister cities:...

Komorowski Castle 1608–1614 Polish mannerism (architect - probably Paul Baudarth). The original defensive mansion built between 1554-1580 was enlarged and rebuilt for Piotr Komorowski.
Tarnów
Tarnów
Tarnów is a city in southeastern Poland with 115,341 inhabitants as of June 2009. The city has been situated in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship since 1999, but from 1975 to 1998 it was the capital of the Tarnów Voivodeship. It is a major rail junction, located on the strategic east-west connection...

Tarnów Cathedral - Ostrogski Tomb 1612–1620 Dutch mannerism (design by Willem van den Blocke). Established by Janusz Ostrogski
Janusz Ostrogski
Prince Janusz Ostrogski was a Polish-Lithuanian noble.Janusz Ostrog - statesman of the Commonwealth...

, voivode of Volhyn. Made of black and red marble
Marble
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone; however stonemasons use the term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone.Marble is commonly used for...

 and yellow alabaster
Alabaster
Alabaster is a name applied to varieties of two distinct minerals, when used as a material: gypsum and calcite . The former is the alabaster of the present day; generally, the latter is the alabaster of the ancients...

. It depicts the kneeling figures of the founder and his first wife Zsuzsanna Serédi of Felsőnovaj. The monument was enlarged using the trompe-l'œil technique.
Ujazd
Ujazd, Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship
Ujazd is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Iwaniska, within Opatów County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, in south-central Poland. It lies approximately south-east of Iwaniska, south-west of Opatów, and east of the regional capital Kielce....

Krzyżtopór
Krzyztopór
Krzyżtopór is a castle located in the village of Ujazd, Iwaniska commune, Opatów County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, in southern Poland. It was originally built by a Polish nobleman and Voivode of Sandomierz, Krzysztof Ossoliński...

1621–1644 Polish mannerism/early baroque (architect Wawrzyniec Senes of Sent
Sent
Sent is a municipality in the district of Inn in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.-History:Sent is first mentioned in 930 when King Henry the Fowler sent the Ramosch priest Hartpert to the church in vicus Sindes. It is unclear whether he meant the Church of St. Peter or St. Lorenz...

). The palace was built for Krzysztof Ossoliński
Krzysztof Ossolinski
Krzysztof Ossoliński was a Polish-Lithuanian szlachcic .He was Podstoli of Sandomierz since 1618, Podkomorzy of Sandomierz since 1619, Castellan sadecki in 1633, wojnicki in 1636, voivode of Sandomierz Voivodeship in 1638, Starost stobnicki, ropczycki and wolbromski.Brother of Kanclerz Jerzy...

 as a fortified palace with bastions on plan of a regular pentagon
Pentagon
In geometry, a pentagon is any five-sided polygon. A pentagon may be simple or self-intersecting. The sum of the internal angles in a simple pentagon is 540°. A pentagram is an example of a self-intersecting pentagon.- Regular pentagons :In a regular pentagon, all sides are equal in length and...

. Krzyżtopór has 4 towers (seasons of the year), 12 halls (months), 52 chambers (weeks of the year) and 365 windows (days of the year).
Wrocław House of the Griffins 1587–1589 German/Dutch mannerism (architect Friedrich Gross). It is the largest merchant house in Wrocław (16.25m wide), originally built in about 1300. The house was rebuilt for Daniel von Turnau und Kueschmalz and his wife Dorothea von Matte. The mannerist portal with founders' crests was carved by Gerhard Hendrik of Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Amsterdam is the largest city and the capital of the Netherlands. The current position of Amsterdam as capital city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands is governed by the constitution of August 24, 1815 and its successors. Amsterdam has a population of 783,364 within city limits, an urban population...

. The house was named after griffins decorating the attic.
Żórawina
Zórawina
Żórawina is a village in Wrocław County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland. It is the seat of the administrative district called Gmina Żórawina. Prior to 1945 it was in Germany.The village has a population of 1,700...

Holy Trinity Church 1600–1608 German/Dutch mannerism. The 14th century church was reconstructed in mannerist style at Adam von Hanniwaldt's initiative. The undertaking was financially supported by Adam's brother Andreas, councillor at the court of Emperor Rudolph II
Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor
Rudolf II was Holy Roman Emperor , King of Hungary and Croatia , King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria...

. Among the artists employed in decoration of the church were eminent Dutch sculptors Adriaen de Vries
Adriaen de Vries
Adriaen de Vries was a Northern Mannerist sculptor born in the Netherlands, whose international style crossed the threshold to the Baroque; he excelled in refined modelling and bronze casting and in the manipulation of patina and became the most famous European sculptor of his generation...

 and Gerhard Hendrik.

Not existing structures

Place Building Date of construction Style and history Image
Elbląg
Elblag
Elbląg is a city in northern Poland with 127,892 inhabitants . It is the capital of Elbląg County and has been assigned to the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship since 1999. Before then it was the capital of Elbląg Voivodeship and a county seat in Gdańsk Voivodeship...

Artus Court 1578–1581 Dutch mannerism (architect Hans Schneker of Lindau
Lindau
Lindau is a Bavarian town and an island on the eastern side of Lake Constance, the Bodensee. It is the capital of the Landkreis or rural district of Lindau. The historic city of Lindau is located on an island which is connected with the mainland by bridge and railway.- History :The name Lindau was...

). The building of the St. George
Saint George
Saint George was, according to tradition, a Roman soldier from Syria Palaestina and a priest in the Guard of Diocletian, who is venerated as a Christian martyr. In hagiography Saint George is one of the most venerated saints in the Catholic , Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, and the Oriental Orthodox...

 Guild
Guild
A guild is an association of craftsmen in a particular trade. The earliest types of guild were formed as confraternities of workers. They were organized in a manner something between a trade union, a cartel, and a secret society...

 was established and financed by the members of the guild. The official inauguration of the new abode occurred in 1583. It served as a place of meetings of merchants, receptions and performances. The facade of the house represented typical for Dutch mannerism merge of stone and brick elements.
Warsaw
Warsaw
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River, roughly from the Baltic Sea and from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population in 2010 was estimated at 1,716,855 residents with a greater metropolitan area of 2,631,902 residents, making Warsaw the 10th most...

Town Hall 1580 Polish mannerism (architect Antoneo de Ralia). It was rebuilt between 1620-1621. The architecture of the building was similar to many other structures of that type in Poland. It was adorned with attic and four side towers. Clock tower, embellished with an arcade loggia, was covered with a bulbous spire typical for Warsaw mannerist architecture (e.g. Royal Castle, not existing timber manor house of Opaliński family in Warsaw New Town
Warsaw New Town
Warsaw's New Town is a neighbourhood dating from the 15th century. It lies just north of the Old Town and is connected to it by ulica Freta , which begins at the Barbican...

).

See also



  • Renaissance in Poland
    Renaissance in Poland
    The Renaissance in Poland lasted from the late 15th to the late 16th century and is widely considered to have been the Golden Age of Polish culture. Ruled by the Jagiellon dynasty, the Kingdom of Poland actively participated in the broad European Renaissance...

  • Northern Mannerism
    Northern Mannerism
    Northern Mannerism is the term in European art history for the versions of Mannerism practiced in the visual arts north of the Alps in the 16th and early 17th century...