Mangalore

Mangalore

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Mangalore is the chief port city of the India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

n state of Karnataka
Karnataka
Karnataka , the land of the Kannadigas, is a state in South West India. It was created on 1 November 1956, with the passing of the States Reorganisation Act and this day is annually celebrated as Karnataka Rajyotsava...

. It is located about 350 kilometres (217.5 mi) west of the state capital, Bangalore
Bangalore
Bengaluru , formerly called Bengaluru is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Bangalore is nicknamed the Garden City and was once called a pensioner's paradise. Located on the Deccan Plateau in the south-eastern part of Karnataka, Bangalore is India's third most populous city and...

. Mangalore lies between the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
The Arabian Sea is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui in northeastern Somalia and Kanyakumari in India...

 and the Western Ghat
Western Ghats
The Western Ghats, Western Ghauts or the Sahyādri is a mountain range along the western side of India. It runs north to south along the western edge of the Deccan Plateau, and separates the plateau from a narrow coastal plain along the Arabian Sea. The Western Ghats block rainfall to the Deccan...

 mountain ranges, and is the administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada
Dakshina Kannada
- Geography :The district geography consists of sea shore in the west and Western Ghats in the east. The major rivers are Netravathi, Kumaradhara, Phalguni, Shambhavi, Nandini or Pavanje and Payaswini which all join Arabian sea. Vast areas of evergreen forests which once covered this district, have...

 (formerly South Canara
South Canara
South Canara was a district under the British empire, located at . It was bifurcated in 1859 from Canara district. It was the undivided Dakshina Kannada district...

) district in south western Karnataka.

Mangalore derives its name from the local Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

 Goddess Mangaladevi. It developed as a port on the Arabian Sea—remaining, to this day, a major port of India. Lying on the backwaters of the Netravati and Gurupura
Gurupura River
The Gurupura river or Phalguni River or sometimes Kulur river has its origins in the Western Ghats, which drains its itself in the Arabian Sea at Mangalore.The New Mangalore port NMPT) and Mangalore Chemicals and Fertilizers is situated at the northern banks of Phalguni river...

 rivers, Mangalore is often used as a staging point for sea traffic along the Malabar Coast
Malabar Coast
The Malabar Coast is a long and narrow coastline on the south-western shore line of the mainland Indian subcontinent. Geographically, it comprises the wettest regions of southern India, as the Western Ghats intercept the moisture-laden monsoon rains, especially on their westward-facing mountain...

. The city has a tropical
Tropics
The tropics is a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator. It is limited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at approximately  N and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere at  S; these latitudes correspond to the axial tilt of the Earth...

 climate and lies in the path of the Arabian Sea branch of the South-West monsoons. Mangalore's port handles 75% of India's coffee exports and the bulk of the nation's cashew exports.

Mangalore was ruled by several major powers, including the Kadambas, Vijayanagar dynasty
Vijayanagara Empire
The Vijayanagara Empire , referred as the Kingdom of Bisnaga by the Portuguese, was an empire based in South Indian in the Deccan Plateau region. It was established in 1336 by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I of the Yadava lineage. The empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts...

, Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Hoysalas, and the Portuguese
Portuguese India
The Portuguese Viceroyalty of India , later the Portuguese State of India , was the aggregate of Portugal's colonial holdings in India.The government started in 1505, six years after the discovery of a sea route to India by Vasco da Gama, with the nomination of the first Viceroy Francisco de...

. The city was a source of contention between the British
British Raj
British Raj was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947; The term can also refer to the period of dominion...

 and the Mysore
Kingdom of Mysore
The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom of southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore. The kingdom, which was ruled by the Wodeyar family, initially served as a vassal state of the Vijayanagara Empire...

 rulers, Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali was the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore in southern India. Born Hyder Naik, he distinguished himself militarily, eventually drawing the attention of Mysore's rulers...

 and Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan , also known as the Tiger of Mysore, was the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore. He was the son of Hyder Ali, at that time an officer in the Mysorean army, and his second wife, Fatima or Fakhr-un-Nissa...

. Eventually annexed by the British in 1799, Mangalore remained part of the Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency
The Madras Presidency , officially the Presidency of Fort St. George and also known as Madras Province, was an administrative subdivision of British India...

 until India's independence in 1947. The city was unified with the state of Mysore
Mysore State
The Kingdom of Mysore was one of the three largest princely states within the erstwhile British Empire of India. Upon India gaining its independence in 1947, the Maharaja of Mysore merged his realm with the Union of India...

 (now called Karnataka) in 1956.

Mangalore is demographically diverse with several languages, including Tulu
Tulu language
The Tulu language |?]]]) is a Dravidian language spoken by 1.95 million native speakers mainly in the southwest part of Indian state Karnataka known as Tulu Nadu. In India, 1.72 million people speak it as their mother tongue , increased by 10 percent over the 1991 census...

, Konkani
Konkani language
KonkaniKonkani is a name given to a group of several cognate dialects spoken along the narrow strip of land called Konkan, on the west coast of India. This is, however, somewhat an over-generalisation. Geographically, Konkan is defined roughly as the area between the river Damanganga to the north...

, Kannada
Kannada language
Kannada or , is a language spoken in India predominantly in the state of Karnataka. Kannada, whose native speakers are called Kannadigas and number roughly 50 million, is one of the 30 most spoken languages in the world...

, and Beary
Beary bashe
Beary bashe is a dialect mainly spoken by the Muslim communities of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts of Karnataka known as Bearys and a small number of Hindus in the District of Kasargod in Kerala state....

 commonly spoken, and is the largest city of Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu is a Tulu-speaking region spread over to parts of present Karnataka and Kerala States of India. It consists of the Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts of Karnataka and the northern parts of the Kasaragod district of Kerala up to the Payaswini River...

 region. The city's landscape is characterized by rolling hills, coconut palms, freshwater streams, and hard red-clay tiled-roof buildings. In an exercise carried out by the Urban Development Ministry
Ministry of Urban Development (India)
The Ministry of Urban Development , a branch of the Government of India, is the apex bodyfor formulation and administration of the rules and regulations and laws relating to the housing and urban development in India. As of February 2011, head of the ministry is the Cabinet Minister Kamal Nath...

 under the national urban sanitation policy, Mangalore was placed as the 8th cleanest city in the country. In Karnataka, it is second after Mysore.

Etymology



Mangalore was named after the local Hindu deity Mangaladevi, the presiding deity of the Mangaladevi temple
Mangaladevi Temple
The Mangaladevi Temple is a Hindu temple at Bolara in the city of Mangalore, India, situated about three km southwest of the city centre.The name Mangalore is usually derived from the name Maṅgaḷadēvī "the goddess Maṅgaḷa", the main deity of the temple. The name Mangalore is the anglicised version...

. According to local legend, Matsyendranath
Matsyendranath
Matsyendranatha or Machindranath was one of the eighty-four Mahasiddhas. He was the guru of Gorakshanath, with whom he founded the school of Hatha yoga. He is considered as the author of the Kaulajñānanirṇaya , one of the earliest texts on Hatha Yoga in Sanskrit...

, the founder of the Nath
Nath
The Sanskrit word nāthá or नाथ, is the proper name of a Hindu initiatory tradition and the word itself literally means "lord, protector, refuge"...

 tradition, arrived in the area with a princess from Kerala
Kerala
or Keralam is an Indian state located on the Malabar coast of south-west India. It was created on 1 November 1956 by the States Reorganisation Act by combining various Malayalam speaking regions....

 named Parimala or Premaladevi. Having converted Premaladevi to the Nath sect, Matsyendranath renamed her Mangaladevi. After her death, the Mangaladevi temple was consecrated in her honour at Bolar
Bolar (Location)
Bolara is a locality in Mangalore City, Karnataka, India.The famous Mangaladevi Temple by which Mangalore derives its name is located in Bolara...

 in Mangalore. The city got its name from the Mangaladevi temple.

One of the earliest references to the city's name was made in 715 CE
Common Era
Common Era ,abbreviated as CE, is an alternative designation for the calendar era originally introduced by Dionysius Exiguus in the 6th century, traditionally identified with Anno Domini .Dates before the year 1 CE are indicated by the usage of BCE, short for Before the Common Era Common Era...

 by the Pandyan
Pandyan Kingdom
The Pandyan dynasty was an ancient Tamil dynasty. The Pandyas were one of the four Tamil dynasties , which ruled South India until the 15th century CE. They initially ruled their country Pandya Nadu from Korkai, a seaport on the Southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula, and in later times moved...

 King Chettian, who called the city Mangalapuram. The 14th-century Arabian traveler Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Battuta , or simply Ibn Battuta, also known as Shams ad–Din , was a Muslim Moroccan Berber explorer, known for his extensive travels published in the Rihla...

 referred to Mangalore as Manjarur in his chronicles. The city is also called Mangalūru, a reference to Mangaladevi (the suffix ūru means town or city). During the British occupation in 1799, Mangalore (anglicized from Mangalūru), stuck as the official appellation. However, according to Mangalorean Historian George M. Moraes, the word "Mangalore" is the Portuguese corruption of Mangalūru.

Mangalore's diverse communities have different names for the city in their languages. In Tulu, the primary spoken language, the city is called Kudla, meaning junction, since the city is situated at the confluence of the Netravati and Phalguni
Gurupura River
The Gurupura river or Phalguni River or sometimes Kulur river has its origins in the Western Ghats, which drains its itself in the Arabian Sea at Mangalore.The New Mangalore port NMPT) and Mangalore Chemicals and Fertilizers is situated at the northern banks of Phalguni river...

 rivers. In Konkani
Konkani language
KonkaniKonkani is a name given to a group of several cognate dialects spoken along the narrow strip of land called Konkan, on the west coast of India. This is, however, somewhat an over-generalisation. Geographically, Konkan is defined roughly as the area between the river Damanganga to the north...

, Mangalore is referred to as Kodial. The Beary
Beary bashe
Beary bashe is a dialect mainly spoken by the Muslim communities of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts of Karnataka known as Bearys and a small number of Hindus in the District of Kasargod in Kerala state....

 name for the city is Maikala, meaning wood charcoal, an attribution to the early practice of producing charcoal from wood on the banks of the Netravati river. On the occasion of Suvarna Karnataka (Golden Karnataka) in 2006, the Government of Karnataka
Government of Karnataka
The Government of Karnataka is a democratically elected body with the Governor as the constitutional head. The Governor who is appointed for a period of five years appoints the Chief Minister and his council of ministers...

 stated that the city would be renamed
Indian renaming controversy
The process of renaming of cities in India started after the end of the British imperial period in 1947 and continues to date. There were political controversies about several renamings. Not all proposed renamings were actually implemented...

 Mangalooru, though this change in name is not implemented.

History



The area that is now Mangalore has been mentioned in many ancient works of Hindu history. The name of this town appears in maps as early as the 1652 Sanson
Nicolas Sanson
Nicolas Sanson was a French cartographer, wrongly termed by some the creator of French geography. He was born of an old Picardy family of Scottish descent, at Abbeville, on the 20th of December 1600, and was educated by the Jesuits at Amiens.In 1627 he attracted the attention of Richelieu by a...

 Map of India. In the epic Ramayana
Ramayana
The Ramayana is an ancient Sanskrit epic. It is ascribed to the Hindu sage Valmiki and forms an important part of the Hindu canon , considered to be itihāsa. The Ramayana is one of the two great epics of India and Nepal, the other being the Mahabharata...

, Lord Rama
Rama
Rama or full name Ramachandra is considered to be the seventh avatar of Vishnu in Hinduism, and a king of Ayodhya in ancient Indian...

 ruled over the region, while in the epic Mahabharata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

, Sahadeva
Sahadeva
Sahadeva was one of the five Pandava brothers according to the epic Mahābhārata. He was one of the twin sons of Madri, who invoked Ashvins using a mantra shared by Kunti for a son. His twin brother was named Nakula...

, the youngest of the Pandava
Pandava
In the Hindu epic Mahābhārata, the Pandava are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu , by his two wives Kunti and Madri. Their names are Yudhisthira, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula and Sahadeva. Although, Karna is told by Lord Krishna that according to the laws and ethics he is the first son of Kunti making...

s, governed the area. Arjuna
Arjuna
Arjuna in Indian mythology is the greatest warrior on earth and is one of the Pandavas, the heroes of the Hindu epic Mahābhārata. Arjuna, whose name means 'bright', 'shining', 'white' or 'silver' Arjuna (Devanagari: अर्जुन, Thai: อรชุน, Orachun, Tamil: Arjunan, Indonesian and Javanese: Harjuna,...

, to Adur, a village near Kasargod. Mangalore's historical importance is highlighted by the many references to the city by foreign travelers. Cosmas Indicopleustes
Cosmas Indicopleustes
Cosmas Indicopleustes was an Alexandrian merchant and later hermit, probably of Nestorian tendencies. He was a 6th-century traveller, who made several voyages to India during the reign of emperor Justinian...

, a Greek monk, referred to the port of Mangalore as Mangarouth. Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
Gaius Plinius Secundus , better known as Pliny the Elder, was a Roman author, naturalist, and natural philosopher, as well as naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and personal friend of the emperor Vespasian...

, a Roman historian, made references to a place called Nitrias, while Greek historian Ptolemy
Ptolemy
Claudius Ptolemy , was a Roman citizen of Egypt who wrote in Greek. He was a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology. He lived in Egypt under Roman rule, and is believed to have been born in the town of Ptolemais Hermiou in the...

 referred to a place called Nitra. Ptolemy's and Pliny the Elder's references were probably made to the Netravati River, which flows through Mangalore. Ptolemy also referred to the city as Maganoor in some of his works.

In the third century BCE, the town formed part of the Maurya Empire, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka
Ashoka
Ashok Maurya or Ashoka , popularly known as Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from ca. 269 BC to 232 BC. One of India's greatest emperors, Ashoka reigned over most of present-day India after a number of military conquests...

 of Magadha
Magadha
Magadha formed one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas or kingdoms in ancient India. The core of the kingdom was the area of Bihar south of the Ganga; its first capital was Rajagriha then Pataliputra...

. The region was known as Sathia (Shantika) during the Mauryan regime. From second century CE
Common Era
Common Era ,abbreviated as CE, is an alternative designation for the calendar era originally introduced by Dionysius Exiguus in the 6th century, traditionally identified with Anno Domini .Dates before the year 1 CE are indicated by the usage of BCE, short for Before the Common Era Common Era...

 to sixth century CE, the Kadamba dynasty ruled over the region. From 567 to 1325, the town was ruled by the native Alupa
Alupas
The Alupas kings were a minor dynasty who ruled parts of coastal Karnataka. Later with the dominance of Kadambas in Banavasi, they became feudatory to them. With the changing political scenario, soon they became the feudatories to Chalukyas, Hoysalas and Vijayanagara Rayas...

 rulers. The Alupas ruled over the region as feudatories of major regional dynasties like the Chalukyas of Badami, Rashtrakutas, Chalukyas of Kalyani
Western Chalukyas
The Western Chalukya Empire ruled most of the western Deccan, South India, between the 10th and 12th centuries. This dynasty is sometimes called the Kalyani Chalukya after its regal capital at Kalyani, today's Basavakalyan in Karnataka and alternatively the Later Chalukya from its theoretical...

, and Hoysalas. Mangalapura (Mangalore) was the capital of the Alupa dynasty until the 14th century. The city, then an important trading zone for Persian merchants, was visited by Aden
Aden
Aden is a seaport city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea , some 170 kilometres east of Bab-el-Mandeb. Its population is approximately 800,000. Aden's ancient, natural harbour lies in the crater of an extinct volcano which now forms a peninsula, joined to the mainland by a...

ese merchant Abraham Ben Yiju. The Moroccan
Moroccan people
The Moroccan people are a people that share a common Moroccan culture, ancestry and speak the Moroccan variant of the Arabic language or a Berber language as a mother tongue....

 traveler Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Battuta , or simply Ibn Battuta, also known as Shams ad–Din , was a Muslim Moroccan Berber explorer, known for his extensive travels published in the Rihla...

, who had visited the town in 1342, referred to it as Manjarun, and stated that the town was situated on a large estuary
Estuary
An estuary is a partly enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea....

. By 1345, the Vijayanagara rulers brought the region under their control. Later, the Jain Kings and the Muslim Bangara Kings ruled the town as feudatories of the Vijayanagar Empire, and brought the town firmly under an efficient and centralised administration. In 1448, Abdul Razak, the Persian ambassador of Sultan Shah Rukh of Samarkand
Samarkand
Although a Persian-speaking region, it was not united politically with Iran most of the times between the disintegration of the Seleucid Empire and the Arab conquest . In the 6th century it was within the domain of the Turkic kingdom of the Göktürks.At the start of the 8th century Samarkand came...

, visited Mangalore, and was amazed at a glorious temple he saw in the city, en route to Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara is in Bellary District, northern Karnataka. It is the name of the now-ruined capital city "which was regarded as the second Rome" that surrounds modern-day Hampi, of the historic Vijayanagara empire which extended over the southern part of India....

.

According to the Scottish physician Francis Buchanan who visited Mangalore in 1801, Mangalore was a rich and prosperous port with flourishing trading activity. Rice was the grand article of export, and was exported to Muscat
Muscat, Oman
Muscat is the capital of Oman. It is also the seat of government and largest city in the Governorate of Muscat. As of 2008, the population of the Muscat metropolitan area was 1,090,797. The metropolitan area spans approximately and includes six provinces called wilayats...

, Bombay, Goa
Goa
Goa , a former Portuguese colony, is India's smallest state by area and the fourth smallest by population. Located in South West India in the region known as the Konkan, it is bounded by the state of Maharashtra to the north, and by Karnataka to the east and south, while the Arabian Sea forms its...

 and Malabar
Malabar District
Malabar District was an administrative district of Madras Presidency in British India and independent India's Madras State. The British district included the present-day districts of Kannur, Kozhikode, Wayanad, Malappuram, Palakkad , and Chavakad Taluk of Thrissur District in the northern part of...

. Supari or Betel-nut was exported to Bombay, Surat
Surat
Surat , also known as Suryapur, is the commercial capital city of the Indian state of Gujarat. Surat is India's Eighth most populous city and Ninth-most populous urban agglomeration. It is also administrative capital of Surat district and one of the fastest growing cities in India. The city proper...

 and Kutch. Pepper and Sandalwood were exported to Bombay. Turmeric
Turmeric
Turmeric is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae. It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20 °C and 30 °C and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive...

 was exported to Muscat, Kutch, Surat and Bombay, along with Cassia Cinnamon
Cinnamon
Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several trees from the genus Cinnamomum that is used in both sweet and savoury foods...

, Sugar
Sugar
Sugar is a class of edible crystalline carbohydrates, mainly sucrose, lactose, and fructose, characterized by a sweet flavor.Sucrose in its refined form primarily comes from sugar cane and sugar beet...

, Iron
Iron
Iron is a chemical element with the symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is the most common element forming the planet Earth as a whole, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust...

, Saltpeter
Potassium nitrate
Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the formula KNO3. It is an ionic salt of potassium ions K+ and nitrate ions NO3−.It occurs as a mineral niter and is a natural solid source of nitrogen. Its common names include saltpetre , from medieval Latin sal petræ: "stone salt" or possibly "Salt...

, Ginger
Ginger
Ginger is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale, consumed as a delicacy, medicine, or spice. It lends its name to its genus and family . Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric, cardamom, and galangal....

, Choir
Choir
A choir, chorale or chorus is a musical ensemble of singers. Choral music, in turn, is the music written specifically for such an ensemble to perform.A body of singers who perform together as a group is called a choir or chorus...

 and Timber
Timber
Timber may refer to:* Timber, a term common in the United Kingdom and Australia for wood materials * Timber, Oregon, an unincorporated community in the U.S...

.
European influence in Mangalore can be traced back to 1498, when the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira was a Portuguese explorer, one of the most successful in the Age of Discovery and the commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India...

 landed at St Mary's Island
St Mary's Island, Karnataka
St. Mary's Islands also known as Coconut Island, are a set of four small islands in the Arabian Sea off the coast of Malpe in Udupi, Karnataka, India. They are known for their distinctive geological formation of columnar basaltic lava ....

 near Mangalore. In 1526, the Portuguese under the viceroyship of Lopo Vaz de Sampaio
Lopo Vaz de Sampaio
Lopo Vaz de Sampaio was an administrator of the Portuguese Empire. He was also the captain of Vasco da Gama, a famous Portuguese explorer. During 1528-29, Lopo Vaz de Sampaio seized the fort of Mahim from the Gujarat Sultanate, when the King was at war with Nizam-ul-mulk, the emperor of Chaul, a...

 succeeded in defeating the Bangara King and his allies and conquered Mangalore. The trade passed out of Muslim hands into Portuguese hands. In the mid-16th century, Goud Saraswat Brahmins, and Goan Catholics
Goan Catholics
The Goan Catholics are an ethno-religious community of Roman Catholics and their descendants from the state of Goa, located on the west coast of India. They are Konkani people and speak the Konkani language...

 from Goa
Goa
Goa , a former Portuguese colony, is India's smallest state by area and the fourth smallest by population. Located in South West India in the region known as the Konkan, it is bounded by the state of Maharashtra to the north, and by Karnataka to the east and south, while the Arabian Sea forms its...

 migrated to Mangalore as a result of Goa Inquisition
Goa Inquisition
The Goa Inquisition was the office of the Inquisition acting in the Indian state of Goa and the rest of the Portuguese empire in Asia. It was established in 1560, briefly suppressed from 1774–1778, and finally abolished in 1812. The Goan Inquisition is considered a blot on the history of...

. In 1640, the Keladi Nayaka
Keladi Nayaka
Keladi Nayaka Kingdom were an important ruling dynasty of post-medieval Karnataka, India. They initially started to rule as a feudatory of the Vijayanagar Empire...

 kingdom defeated the Portuguese and ruled the town until 1762. The Portuguese were allowed to have trade relations with Mangalore. In 1695, the town was torched by Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

s in retaliation to Portuguese restrictions on Arab trade.

Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali was the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore in southern India. Born Hyder Naik, he distinguished himself militarily, eventually drawing the attention of Mysore's rulers...

, the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore
Kingdom of Mysore
The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom of southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore. The kingdom, which was ruled by the Wodeyar family, initially served as a vassal state of the Vijayanagara Empire...

, conquered Mangalore in 1763, consequently bringing the city under his administration until 1767. Mangalore was ruled by the British East India Company from 1767 to 1783, but was subsequently wrested from their control in 1783 by Hyder Ali's son, Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan , also known as the Tiger of Mysore, was the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore. He was the son of Hyder Ali, at that time an officer in the Mysorean army, and his second wife, Fatima or Fakhr-un-Nissa...

; who renamed it Jalalabad. The Second Anglo–Mysore War
Second Anglo-Mysore War
The Second Anglo-Mysore War was a conflict in Mughal India between the Sultanate of Mysore and the British East India Company. At the time, Mysore was a key French ally in India, and the Franco-British conflict raging on account of the American Revolutionary War helped spark Anglo-Mysorean...

 ended with the Treaty of Mangalore
Treaty of Mangalore
The Treaty of Mangalore was signed between Tippu Sultan and the British East India Company on 11 March 1784. It was signed in Mangalore and brought an end to the Second Anglo-Mysore War.-Background:...

, signed between Tipu Sultan and the British East India Company on 11 March 1784. After the defeat of Tipu at the Fourth Anglo–Mysore War
Fourth Anglo-Mysore War
The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War was a war in South India between the Sultanate of Mysore and the British East India Company under the Earl of Mornington....

, the city remained in control of the British, headquartering the Canara
Kanara
The Kanara or Canara region comprises three coastal districts of Karnataka, namely Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Uttara Kannada and Kasaragod district of Kerala in southwestern India. Kanara forms the southern part of the Konkan coast...

 district under the Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency
The Madras Presidency , officially the Presidency of Fort St. George and also known as Madras Province, was an administrative subdivision of British India...

.


The city was largely peaceful during British rule, with urban and infrastructural developments affected during the period. Mangalore flourished in education and in industry, becoming a commercial centre for trade. The opening of the Lutheran German Basel Mission
Basel Mission
The Basel Mission is a Christian missionary society active from 1815 to 2001, when it was merged into Mission 21, the successor organization of Kooperation Evangelischer Kirchen und Missione founded in 2001....

 in 1834 brought many cotton weaving and tile manufacturers to the city. When Canara (part of the Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency
The Madras Presidency , officially the Presidency of Fort St. George and also known as Madras Province, was an administrative subdivision of British India...

 until this time) was bifurcated into North Canara and South Canara in 1860, Mangalore was transferred into South Canara and became its headquarters. South Canara remained under Madras Presidency, while North Canara was transferred to Bombay Presidency in 1861. The enactment of the Madras Town Improvement Act (1865) mandated the establishment of the Municipal council
Municipal council
A municipal council is the local government of a municipality. Specifically the term can refer to the institutions of various countries that can be translated by this term...

 on 23 May 1866, which was responsible for urban planning and providing civic amenities. Roman Catholic missions to Mangalore like the Italian Jesuit "Mangalore Mission" of 1878 played an important role in education, health, and social welfare. The linking of Mangalore in 1907 to the Southern Railway
Southern Railway (India)
The Southern Railway is the earliest of the 16 zones of the Indian Railways created in independent India. It was created on April 14, 1951 by merging three state railways namely Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway, the South Indian Railway, and the Mysore State Railway. The South Indian Railway...

, and the subsequent proliferation of motor vehicles in India, further increased trade and communication between the city and the rest of the country.

As a result of the States Reorganisation Act
States Reorganisation Act
The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 was a major reform of the boundaries and governance of India's states and territories. The act reorganised the boundaries of India's states along linguistic lines, and amended the Indian Constitution to replace the three types of states, known as Parts A, B,...

 (1956), Mangalore (part of the Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency
The Madras Presidency , officially the Presidency of Fort St. George and also known as Madras Province, was an administrative subdivision of British India...

 until this time) was incorporated into the dominion of the newly created Mysore State
Mysore State
The Kingdom of Mysore was one of the three largest princely states within the erstwhile British Empire of India. Upon India gaining its independence in 1947, the Maharaja of Mysore merged his realm with the Union of India...

 (now called Karnataka
Karnataka
Karnataka , the land of the Kannadigas, is a state in South West India. It was created on 1 November 1956, with the passing of the States Reorganisation Act and this day is annually celebrated as Karnataka Rajyotsava...

). Mangalore is a major city of Karnataka, providing the state with access to the Arabian Sea coastline. Mangalore experienced significant growth in the decades 1970–80, with the opening of New Mangalore Port on 4 May 1974 and commissioning of Mangalore Chemicals & Fertilizers Limited
Mangalore Chemicals & Fertilizers
Mangalore Chemicals & Fertilizers Limited, with a turnover Rs. 2,523.83 crores , is the only manufacturer of chemical fertilizers in the state of Karnataka, India...

 on 15 March 1976. The late 20th century saw Mangalore develop as a business, commercial and information technology (IT) centre, although the traditional red tile-roofed houses are still retained in the city. In September 2008, the city was at the centre of Hindu-Christian conflict after churches, convents and prayer centres were attacked in the area by right-wing Hindu nationalists.

Geography and climate


Mangalore is located at 12.87°N 74.88°E in the Dakshina Kannada
Dakshina Kannada
- Geography :The district geography consists of sea shore in the west and Western Ghats in the east. The major rivers are Netravathi, Kumaradhara, Phalguni, Shambhavi, Nandini or Pavanje and Payaswini which all join Arabian sea. Vast areas of evergreen forests which once covered this district, have...

 district of Karnataka
Karnataka
Karnataka , the land of the Kannadigas, is a state in South West India. It was created on 1 November 1956, with the passing of the States Reorganisation Act and this day is annually celebrated as Karnataka Rajyotsava...

. It has an average elevation of 22 metres (72.2 ft) above mean sea level. It is the administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada district, the largest urban coastal center of Karnataka, and the fourth largest city in the state. Mangalore is situated on the west coast of India, and is bounded by the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
The Arabian Sea is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui in northeastern Somalia and Kanyakumari in India...

 to its west and the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
The Western Ghats, Western Ghauts or the Sahyādri is a mountain range along the western side of India. It runs north to south along the western edge of the Deccan Plateau, and separates the plateau from a narrow coastal plain along the Arabian Sea. The Western Ghats block rainfall to the Deccan...

 to its east. Mangalore city, as a municipal entity, spans an area of 132.45 km² (51.14 sq mi). Mangalore experiences moderate to gusty winds during day time and gentle winds at night. The topography
Topography
Topography is the study of Earth's surface shape and features or those ofplanets, moons, and asteroids...

 of the city is plain up to 30 km (18.64 mi) inside the coast and changes to undulating hilly terrain sharply towards the east in Western Ghats. There are four hilly regions with natural valleys within the city. The geology
Geology
Geology is the science comprising the study of solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which it evolves. Geology gives insight into the history of the Earth, as it provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and past climates...

 of the city is characterized by hard laterite
Laterite
Laterites are soil types rich in iron and aluminium, formed in hot and wet tropical areas. Nearly all laterites are rusty-red because of iron oxides. They develop by intensive and long-lasting weathering of the underlying parent rock...

 in hilly tracts and sandy soil along the seashore. The Geological Survey of India
Geological Survey of India
Geological Survey of India , established in 1851 is a government organization in India which is an attached office to the Ministry of Mines of Union Government of India for conducting geological surveys and studies. It is one of the oldest of such organizations in the world and the second oldest...

 has identified Mangalore as a moderately earthquake-prone urban centre and categorized the city in the Seismic III Zone.


Mangalore lies on the backwaters of the Netravati and Gurupura
Gurupura
Gurupura is a small town near the city of Mangalore in the state of Karnataka, India. This town is sutuated on the banks of river Phalguniwhich is also known as Gurupura Nadi. This town is sitauted 15 kilometers away from Mangalore....

 rivers. These rivers effectively encircle the city, with the Gurupura flowing around the north and the Netravti flowing around the south of the city. The rivers form an estuary at the south-western region of the city and subsequently flow into the Arabian sea. The city is often used as a staging point for traffic along the Malabar Coast
Malabar Coast
The Malabar Coast is a long and narrow coastline on the south-western shore line of the mainland Indian subcontinent. Geographically, it comprises the wettest regions of southern India, as the Western Ghats intercept the moisture-laden monsoon rains, especially on their westward-facing mountain...

. The coastline of the city is dotted with several beaches, such as Mukka
Mukka
Mukka is suburb of Mangalore city on the shore of Arabian sea. It is located to north of NITK, Surathkal campus on National Highway 17. There is a beach in Mukka which has escaped public attention....

, Panambur
Panambur
Panambur is the site of New Mangalore Port. It is located in Dakshina Kannada district of Karnataka state, India, north of the Gurupura river. The name Panambur is derived from 'Panam' which means Money and 'Ur' which means place or village in Tulu language.There is a Nandaneshwara temple in...

, Tannirbavi
Tannirubhavi Beach
Tannirubhavi beach is a beach in Mangalore, Karnataka, India. Currently, it can only be reach by land via Panambur or by ferry via Gurupura river from Sultan Battery....

, Suratkal, and Someshwara. Coconut trees, palm trees, and Ashoka tree
Ashoka tree
Saraca asoca is a plant belonging to the Caesalpiniaceae subfamily of the legume family. It is an important tree in the cultural traditions of the Indian Subcontinent and adjacent areas.-Description:...

s comprise the primary vegetation of the city.

Under the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

, Mangalore has a tropical monsoon climate
Tropical monsoon climate
Tropical monsoon climate, occasionally also known as a tropical wet climate or tropical monsoon and trade-wind littoral climate in climate classification, is a relatively rare type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification category "Am."Tropical monsoon climates have monthly...

 and is under the direct influence of the Arabian Sea branch of the southwest monsoon. It receives about 95% of its total annual rainfall within a period of about six months from May to October, while remaining extremely dry from December to March. The annual precipitation in Mangalore is 3479 millimetres (137 in). Humidity
Humidity
Humidity is a term for the amount of water vapor in the air, and can refer to any one of several measurements of humidity. Formally, humid air is not "moist air" but a mixture of water vapor and other constituents of air, and humidity is defined in terms of the water content of this mixture,...

 is approximately 75% on average, and peaks during May, June and July.The maximum average humidity is 93% in July and average minimum humidity is 56% in January.

The most pleasant months in Mangalore are from December to February, during which time the humidity and heat are at their lowest. During this period, temperatures during the day stay below 30 °C (86 °F) and drop to about 19 °C (66 °F) at night. This season is soon followed by a hot summer, from March to May, when temperatures rise as high as 38 °C (100 °F). The summer gives way to the monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

 season, when the city experiences more precipitation than most urban centres in India, due to the Western Ghats. Rainfall up to 4000 millimetres (157 in) could be recorded during the period from June to September. The rains subside in September, with the occasional rainfall in October.

Economy




Mangalore's economy is dominated by the agricultural processing and port-related activities. The New Mangalore Port is India's ninth largest port, in terms of cargo handling. It handles 75% of India's coffee exports and the bulk of its cashew nuts. During 2000–01, Mangalore generated a revenue of to the state. The city's major enterprises include Mangalore Chemicals and Fertilizers Ltd. (MCF), Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Ltd.
Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Ltd.
Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Ltd is a Govt of India enterprise having its head office in Bangalore. It has iron ore mines in Kudremukh on the Western Ghats and a pelletisation plant in Mangalore.The Kudremukh is known to be one of the largest iron ore mine in the world....

 (KIOCL), Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Ltd. (MRPL), BASF
BASF
BASF SE is the largest chemical company in the world and is headquartered in Germany. BASF originally stood for Badische Anilin- und Soda-Fabrik . Today, the four letters are a registered trademark and the company is listed on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange, London Stock Exchange, and Zurich Stock...

, and Total Oil India Limited (ELF Gas).

The leaf spring
Leaf spring
Originally called laminated or carriage spring, a leaf spring is a simple form of spring, commonly used for the suspension in wheeled vehicles...

 industry has an important presence in Mangalore, with Canara Workshops Ltd. and Lamina Suspension Products Ltd. in the city. The Baikampady
Baikampady
Baikampady is a place north of Panambur in Dakshina Kannada district. It is at 6 km from Surathkal.There is an industrial estate, where many small scale industries are located. The Baikampadi industrial estate has many electrical, engineering, leaf spring, hollow blocks and pharmaceutical industries...

 and Yeyyadi Industrial areas harbour several small-scale industries. Imports through Mangalore harbour include crude oil, edible oil, LPG, and timber
Timber
Timber may refer to:* Timber, a term common in the United Kingdom and Australia for wood materials * Timber, Oregon, an unincorporated community in the U.S...

. The city along with Tuticorin is also one of two points for import of wood to South India
South India
South India is the area encompassing India's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep and Pondicherry, occupying 19.31% of India's area...

.

Major information technology (IT) and outsourcing
Outsourcing
Outsourcing is the process of contracting a business function to someone else.-Overview:The term outsourcing is used inconsistently but usually involves the contracting out of a business function - commonly one previously performed in-house - to an external provider...

 companies like Infosys
Infosys
Infosys Limited, formerly Infosys Technologies Limited is a global technology services company headquartered in Bangalore, India. It is the second largest IT exporter in India with 133,560 employees as of March 2011. It has offices in 33 countries and development centers in India, China,...

, Wipro, and MphasiS BPO
MphasiS
MphasiS , a unit of Hewlett-Packard Co., is an information technology services company based in Bangalore, India. MphasiS is certified with ISO 9001:2008, ISO/IEC 27001:2005 and is assessed at CMMI v 1.2 Level 5.It is the sixth largest IT company in India with more than 38,000 employees as of 2010...

 have established a presence in Mangalore. Plans to create three dedicated I.T. parks are underway, with two parks (Export Promotion Industrial park
Industrial park
An industrial park is an area zoned and planned for the purpose of industrial development...

 (EPIP) at Ganjimutt and Special Economic Zone
Special Economic Zone
A Special Economic Zone is a geographical region that has economic and other laws that are more free-market-oriented than a country's typical or national laws...

 (SEZ) near Mangalore University
Mangalore University
Mangalore University is a public university located in Konaje, Karnataka State of India. Ranked with a four star by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council in June 2000, this young university offers higher education and conducts research in various fields...

) currently under construction. A third IT SEZ is being proposed at Ganjimutt. Another IT SEZ, sponsored by the BA group, is under construction at Thumbe
Thumbe
Thumbe is a census town in Dakshina Kannada district in the Indian state of Karnataka. Thumbe in Kannada literally means a minute white flower without any fragrance but considered extremely auspicious for worship of Shiva.-Demographics:...

 and spans 2 million square feet (180,000 m²).


The Oil and Natural Gas Corporation
Oil and Natural Gas Corporation
The Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited is an Indian state-owned oil and gas company headquartered in New Delhi, India. It is one of the largest Asia-based oil and gas exploration and production companies, and produces around 77% of India's total crude oil production and around 81% of...

 (ONGC) plans to invest over in a new 15 million tonne refinery
Refinery
A refinery is a production facility composed of a group of chemical engineering unit processes and unit operations refining certain materials or converting raw material into products of value.-Types of refineries:Different types of refineries are as follows:...

, petrochemical
Petrochemical
Petrochemicals are chemical products derived from petroleum. Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are also obtained from other fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, or renewable sources such as corn or sugar cane....

 plant and power, as well as LNG plants at the Mangalore Special Economic Zone. Indian Strategic Petroleum Reserves Ltd, a special purpose vehicle
Special purpose entity
A special purpose entity is a legal entity created to fulfill narrow, specific or temporary objectives...

 under the Oil Industry Development Board, is developing strategic crude oil reserves
Global strategic petroleum reserves
Global strategic petroleum reserves refer to crude oil inventories held by the government of a particular country, as well as private industry, for the purpose of providing economic and national security during an energy crisis...

 in Mangalore and two other places in India. Out of the proposed 5 million metric tonne
Tonne
The tonne, known as the metric ton in the US , often put pleonastically as "metric tonne" to avoid confusion with ton, is a metric system unit of mass equal to 1000 kilograms. The tonne is not an International System of Units unit, but is accepted for use with the SI...

s per annum (MMTPA) storage, 1.5 MMTPA would be at Mangalore. According to an International edition of India Today
India Today
India Today is an Indian weekly news magazine published by Living Media India Limited, in publication since 1975 based in Mumbai. India Today is also the name of its sister-publication in Hindi...

(28 November – 4 December 2006), Mangalore is the fastest growing non-metro in South India.

Corporation Bank
Corporation Bank
Corporation Bank is an India-based banking company based in Mangalore, India. The bank was founded with an initial capital of Rs. 5000 , and first day’s canvassed resources of less than one USD 1, has currently 12,724 full time employees, and operates from several branches in India.The Bank is a...

, Canara Bank
Canara Bank
Canara Bank is a state-owned financial services company in India. It was established in 1906, making it one of the oldest banks in the country. As on 2009 November, the bank had a network of 3057 branches, spread across India...

, and Vijaya Bank
Vijaya Bank
-History:Vijaya Bank , a medium sized bank with presence across India. It was founded on October 23, 1931 by A. B. Shetty and a few other farmers in Mangalore, Karnataka in India.. The objective was to promote banking habits, thrift and entrepreneurship among the farming community of Dakshina...

 were the three nationalised banks established in Mangalore during the first half of the 20th century. Karnataka Bank
Karnataka Bank
Karnataka Bank Limited is a private sector banking institution based in the town of Mangalore in Karnataka, India. The Reserve Bank of India has designated Karnataka Bank as an A1+-class scheduled commercial bank....

, founded in Mangalore, was one of the largest banks to have not been taken over by the Government. The Mangalore Catholic Co-operative Bank (MCC Bank) Ltd. and SCDCC Bank were the scheduled banks established in Mangalore.

The boat building and fishing industry have been core businesses in Mangalore for generations. The Old Mangalore Port is a fishing port located at Bunder in Mangalore, where a large number of mechanised boats anchor. The traffic at this port was 122,000 tonnes during the years 2003–04. The fishing industry employs thousands of people, their products being exported to around the region. Mangalorean firms have a major presence in the tile, beedi
Beedi
A beedi is a thin, South Asian cigarette filled with tobacco flake and wrapped in a tendu leaf tied with a string at one end.The word comes from beeda, Marwari for a leaf wrapped in betel nuts, herbs, and condiments....

, coffee, and cashew nut industry, although the tile industry has declined due to concrete being preferred in modern construction. The Albuquerque tile factory
Albuquerque tile factory
Albuquerque tile factory is a tile factory located at Pani-Mangalore in Mangalore. It is the only tile factory whose tiles are recommended for Government buildings.-History:...

 in Mangalore was India's first red roof tile manufacturing factory. Cotton industries also flourish in Mangalore. The Ullal
Ullal
Ullāḷ is a panchayat town in Dakshina Kannada district in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is a small town about 8–10 km south of Mangalore close to the border between the two southern states of Karnataka and Kerala. It comprises two revenue villages, Ullal and Parmannur, in Mangalore Taluk...

 suburb of Mangalore produces hosiery
Hosiery
Hosiery, also referred to as legwear, describes garments worn directly on the feet and legs. The term originated as the collective term for products of which a maker or seller is termed a hosier; and those products are also known generically as hose...

 and coir
Coir
Coir is a natural fibre extracted from the husk of coconut and used in products such as floor mats, doormats, brushes, mattresses etc. Technically coir is the fibrous material found between the hard, internal shell and the outer coat of a coconut. Other uses of brown coir are in upholstery...

 yarn
Yarn
Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery and ropemaking. Thread is a type of yarn intended for sewing by hand or machine. Modern manufactured sewing threads may be finished with wax or...

s, while beedi rolling is an important source of revenue to many in the city.

Demographics



Mangalore has a population of 484,785 per the 2011 census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

 of India. The urban area has a population of 619,664, while the metropolitan area
Mangalore City Corporation
-History:Mangalore came under Municipal administration following enactment of the Madras Town Improvement Act 1865 and the thereafter the establishment of the Municipal Council on 23 May 1866. Prior to the introduction of the local self-government system, the district collector was in charge of the...

 has a population of 484,785 (2011). The number of males was 240,651, constituting 50% of the population, while the number of females were 244,134. The decadal growth rate was 45.90. Male literacy was 96.49%, while female literacy was 91.63%. About 8.5% population was under six years of age. Mangalore's literacy rate is 94.03%—significantly higher than the national average of 59.5%. Birth rate
Birth rate
Crude birth rate is the nativity or childbirths per 1,000 people per year . Another word used interchangeably with "birth rate" is "natality". When the crude birth rate is subtracted from the crude death rate, it reveals the rate of natural increase...

 was 13.7%, while death rate
Mortality rate
Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths in a population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit time...

 and infant mortality rate
Infant mortality
Infant mortality is defined as the number of infant deaths per 1000 live births. Traditionally, the most common cause worldwide was dehydration from diarrhea. However, the spreading information about Oral Re-hydration Solution to mothers around the world has decreased the rate of children dying...

 were at 3.7% and 1.2% respectively. The Mangalore urban area had 32 recognised slums, and nearly 22,000 migrant labourers lived in slums within the city limits. According to the Crime Review Report (2006) by the Dakshina Kannada Police, Mangalore registered a drop in the crime rate in 2005, compared with 2003.

The four main languages in Mangalore are Tulu
Tulu language
The Tulu language |?]]]) is a Dravidian language spoken by 1.95 million native speakers mainly in the southwest part of Indian state Karnataka known as Tulu Nadu. In India, 1.72 million people speak it as their mother tongue , increased by 10 percent over the 1991 census...

, Konkani
Konkani language
KonkaniKonkani is a name given to a group of several cognate dialects spoken along the narrow strip of land called Konkan, on the west coast of India. This is, however, somewhat an over-generalisation. Geographically, Konkan is defined roughly as the area between the river Damanganga to the north...

, Kannada
Kannada language
Kannada or , is a language spoken in India predominantly in the state of Karnataka. Kannada, whose native speakers are called Kannadigas and number roughly 50 million, is one of the 30 most spoken languages in the world...

, and Beary
Beary bashe
Beary bashe is a dialect mainly spoken by the Muslim communities of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts of Karnataka known as Bearys and a small number of Hindus in the District of Kasargod in Kerala state....

 with Tulu language being the mother tongue of the plurality. Malayalam, Hindi
Hindi
Standard Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, also known as Manak Hindi , High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardized and sanskritized register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi...

, Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

 and English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 are also spoken in the city. A resident of Mangalore is known as a Mangalorean
Mangaloreans
Mangaloreans are generally considered to be a collection of ethnic group from the South Canara district on the south western coast of India. It can also refer to residents of Mangalore.-History:Historically, Tulu Nadu included the two separate lands of Haiva and Tuluva...

in English, Kudladaru in Tulu, Kodialghar in Catholic Konkani, Kodialchi or Manglurchi in Goud Saraswat Brahmin Konkani, Manglurnavaru in Kannada, and Maikaaltanga in Beary bashe. Hinduism is the largest religion in Mangalore, with Mogaveeras
Mogaveeras
Mogaveeras are the major fishing community in coastal Karnataka, India. They form one of the largest communities in the Tulu ethnic group. The word 'Mogaveera' is a modernised version of the old word 'Mogeyar'....

, Billava
Billava
The Billava, or Ilava people make up one of the largest Hindu communities of the Tulu ethnic group in India. They are also found in the Kannada-speaking Kundapura region of Karnataka and some parts of Kerala, including Kasaragod district...

s, Ganiga
Ganiga
Ganiga or Gandla is the name given to oil pressers in the Ganiga or Gandla is the name given to oil pressers in the Ganiga or Gandla is the name given to oil pressers in the [[India]...

s and Bunts
Bunt (community)
Bunt , previously spelled Bant, are a community of erstwhile nobility, feudatory and gentry from the region of Tulu Nadu in the south west of India which comprises the districts of Udupi and Dakshina Kannada in the Indian state of Karnataka and Kasaragod taluk of Kerala...

 forming the largest groups. Kota Brahmin
Kota brahmin
Kota Brahmins hail from the Kundapur and surrounding areas of Udupi district in Karnataka, Bantwal and Puttur Taluk in Mangalore District and Kasargod District in Kerala...

s, Shivalli Brahmins, Havyaka Brahmin
Havyaka Brahmin
Havyaka Brahmins are a Hindu Pancha Dravida Brahmin subsect primarily from the Indian state of Karnataka and Northern Kerala. Havyakas profess the Advaita philosophy propounded by Adi Shankaracharya.-Etymology:...

s, Goud Saraswat Brahmins (GSBs) and others form the remaining sections of Hindus. Christians form a sizable section of Mangalorean society, with Konkani-speaking Catholics, popularly known as Mangalorean Catholics, accounting for the largest Christian community. Protestants
Protestantism
Protestantism is one of the three major groupings within Christianity. It is a movement that began in Germany in the early 16th century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices, especially in regards to salvation, justification, and ecclesiology.The doctrines of the...

 in Mangalore known as Mangalorean Protestants
Mangalorean Protestants
-The community:The biggest denomination among Mangalorean Protestants is the Church of South India , composed of the Basel Mission Protestant church and the Anglican church. They number about 60,434 and are spread all over the South Canara district. They have a Theological College of their own and...

 typically speak Kannada. Most Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

s in Mangalore are Beary
Beary
The Beary is a small Muslim community concentrated mostly in coastal South Kanara , in the district of Karnataka, a south Indian state. It is an ethnic society, having its own unique traditions and distinct cultural identity...

s, who speak a dialect of Malayalam called Beary bashe
Beary bashe
Beary bashe is a dialect mainly spoken by the Muslim communities of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts of Karnataka known as Bearys and a small number of Hindus in the District of Kasargod in Kerala state....

. There is also a sizeable group of landowners following Jainism
Jainism
Jainism is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation. Any soul that has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state...

.

Culture



Many classical dance forms and folk art are practised in the city. The Yakshagana
Yakshagana
Yakshagana is a musical theater popular in the coastal and Malenadu regions of Karnataka, India. Yakshagana is the recent scholastic name for what are known as kēḷike, āṭa, bayalāṭa, bayalāṭa, daśāvatāra . It is believed to have evolved from pre-classical music and theatre during Bhakti movement...

, a night-long dance and drama performance, is held in Mangalore, while Pilivesha
Hulivesha
Hulivesha "Tiger Masque" is a folk dance unique to the Tulu Nadu region of Karnataka. Hulivēṣa is performed during Navratri to honour the goddess Sharada - an aspect of Saraswati whose favoured animal is the tiger...

(literally, tiger dance), a folk dance
Folk dance
The term folk dance describes dances that share some or all of the following attributes:*They are dances performed at social functions by people with little or no professional training, often to traditional music or music based on traditional music....

 unique to the city, is performed during Dasara and Krishna Janmashtami. Karadi Vesha (bear dance) is another well known dance performed during Dasara. Paddanas
Paddanas
Paād-danāas are songs rendered in Tulu language, describing the origin and the deeds of the holy spirits. Paād-danāas are an integral part of Tulu culture and are sung during the Bhuta Kola ceremony. Some of the well known spirits worshipped by the Tuluvas include Panjurli, Jumādi, Pilichāndi,...

(Ballad-like epics passed on through generations by word of mouth) are sung by a community of impersonators in Tulu and are usually accompanied by the rhythmic drum beats. The Bearys' unique traditions are reflected in such folk songs as kolkai (sung during kolata
Kolata
Kolata is the traditional folk dance of the state of Karnataka, located in Southern India on the western coast. Unlike its North Indian counterpart Dandiya Ras, it comes in two forms. First, it is performed with coloured sticks and usually involves both men and women dancing together. Second, very...

, a valour folk-dance during which sticks used as props), unjal pat (traditional lullaby), moilanji pat, and oppune pat (sung at weddings). The Eucharist
Eucharist
The Eucharist , also called Holy Communion, the Sacrament of the Altar, the Blessed Sacrament, the Lord's Supper, and other names, is a Christian sacrament or ordinance...

ic procession is an annual Catholic religious procession led on the first Sunday of each New Year. The Srimanthi Bai Museum, in Bejai, is the only museum of Mangalore.

Most of the popular Indian festivals are celebrated in the city, the most important being Dasara, Diwali
Diwali
Diwali or DeepavaliThe name of the festival in various regional languages include:, , , , , , , , , , , , , popularly known as the "festival of lights," is a festival celebrated between mid-October and mid-December for different reasons...

, Christmas
Christmas
Christmas or Christmas Day is an annual holiday generally celebrated on December 25 by billions of people around the world. It is a Christian feast that commemorates the birth of Jesus Christ, liturgically closing the Advent season and initiating the season of Christmastide, which lasts twelve days...

, Easter
Easter
Easter is the central feast in the Christian liturgical year. According to the Canonical gospels, Jesus rose from the dead on the third day after his crucifixion. His resurrection is celebrated on Easter Day or Easter Sunday...

, Eid
Eid ul-Fitr
Eid ul-Fitr, Eid al-Fitr, Id-ul-Fitr, or Id al-Fitr , often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting . Eid is an Arabic word meaning "festivity," while Fiṭr means "breaking the fast"...

, and Ganesh Chaturthi
Ganesh Chaturthi
Ganesh Chaturthi , also known as Vinayaka Chaturthi is the Hindu festival of Ganesha also called Vinayagar in Tamil Nadu, the son of Shiva and Parvati, who is believed to bestow his presence on earth for all his devotees in the duration of this festival...

. Kodial Theru, also known as Mangaluru Rathotsava (Mangalore Car Festival) is a festival unique to the Goud Saraswat Brahmin community, and is celebrated at the Sri Venkatramana Temple. The Catholic community's unique festivals include Monti Fest
Monti Fest
Monti Fest is one of the major festivals of Goan, Mangalorean Catholic and other Konkani Catholic communities celebrated on September 8 every year...

(Mother Mary
Mary (mother of Jesus)
Mary , commonly referred to as "Saint Mary", "Mother Mary", the "Virgin Mary", the "Blessed Virgin Mary", or "Mary, Mother of God", was a Jewish woman of Nazareth in Galilee...

's feast), which celebrates the Nativity feast and the blessing of new harvests. The Jain Milan, a committee comprising Jain
Jain community
The Jains in India have been the last direct representatives of the Shramana tradition in India. They follow Jainism, as the dharma taught by the 24 Tirthankaras, the last of whom was Mahavira.-Cultural influence:...

 families of Mangalore, organises the Jain food festival annually, while festivals such as Mosaru Kudike, which is part of Krishna Janmashtami festival, is celebrated by the whole community. Aati, a festival worshiping Kalanja, a patron spirit of the city, occurs during the Aashaadha
Aashaadha
Aashaadha is a month of the Hindu calendar. In India's national civil calendar, Aashaadh is the fourth month of the year, beginning on 22 June and ending on 22 July. The month is known as Aadi in Tamil...

month of Hindu calendar. Festivals such as Karavali Utsav and Kudlostava are highlighted by national and state-level performances in dance, drama and music. Bhuta Kola (spirit worship), is usually performed by the Tuluva community at night. Nagaradhane
Nagaradhane
Nagaradhane is a form of snake worship which, along with Bhuta Kola, is one of the unique traditions prevalent in coastal districts of Dakshina Kannada , Udupi and Kasaragod alternatively known as Tulu Nadu- Origin of Nagaradhane :...

(snake worship) is performed in the city in praise of Naga Devatha
Naga
Naga or NAGA may refer to:* Nāga, a group of serpent deities in Hindu and Buddhist mythology.-People:* Nayan / Nayar/Nair people of Kerala Society* Naga people, a diverse ethnic identity in Northeast India...

(the serpent king), who is said to be the protector of all snakes.


Mangalorean cuisine is largely influenced by the South Indian cuisine
South Indian cuisine
South Indian Cuisine is a term used to refer to the cuisines found in the four southern states of India: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.-Similarities and differences in "Four states' cuisines":...

, with several cuisines being unique to the diverse communities of the city. Coconut and curry leaves are common ingredients to most Mangalorean Curry, as are ginger, garlic and chili. Mangalorean Fish Curry is a popular dish in Kanara
Kanara
The Kanara or Canara region comprises three coastal districts of Karnataka, namely Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Uttara Kannada and Kasaragod district of Kerala in southwestern India. Kanara forms the southern part of the Konkan coast...

. The Tulu community's well-known dishes include Kori Rotti
Kori Rotti
Kori rotti is a popular spicy Coastal Karnataka dish, a combination of red-chili based chicken curry and crisp dry wafers made from boiled rice...

(dry rice flakes dipped in gravy), Bangude Pulimunchi (silver-grey mackerels), Beeja-Manoli Upkari, Neer dosa
Neer dosa
Neer dosa literally meaning Water dosa is a crepe prepared from rice batter. It is light type of dosa, an Indian dish. Neer dosa is a delicacy from Tulu Nadu region of Karnataka. 'Neer' is the word for water in Tulu and a few other Indian languages.-Basic cooking method:Rice is soaked in water for...

(lacy rice-crêpe
Crêpe
A crêpe or crepe , is a type of very thin pancake, usually made from wheat flour or buckwheat flour . The word is of French origin, deriving from the Latin crispa, meaning "curled". While crêpes originate from Brittany, a region in the northwest of France, their consumption is widespread in France...

s), Boothai Gasi, Kadubu, and Patrode
Patrode
Patrode is a dish made in the Konkan region of the western coast of India. It is a popular dish for festive occasions among Konkanis. Regional variations of Patrode are Aluwadi made by the Marathis and Patra made by the Gujaratis, both of which are normally deep fried rather than steamed as in the...

. The Konkani community's specialities include Daali thoy, beebe-upkari (cashew based), val val, avnas ambe sasam, Kadgi chakko, paagila podi, and chana gashi. Vegetarian cuisine in Mangalore, also known as Udupi cuisine
Udupi cuisine
Udupi cuisine is a world-renowned cuisine of South India. It forms an important part of the Cuisine of Karnataka and takes its name from Udupi, a town on the southwest coast of India in the state of Karnataka. The Udupi cuisine has its origin in the Ashta mathas of Udupi founded by...

, is known and liked throughout the state and region. Since Mangalore is a coastal town, fish forms the staple diet of most people. Mangalorean Catholics' Sanna-Dukra Maas (Sannaidli fluffed with toddy
Hot toddy
A hot toddy is a mixed drink, usually including alcohol, that is served hot. Hot toddies are traditionally drunk before going to bed, or in wet or cold weather...

 or yeast; Dukra MaasPork
Pork
Pork is the culinary name for meat from the domestic pig , which is eaten in many countries. It is one of the most commonly consumed meats worldwide, with evidence of pig husbandry dating back to 5000 BC....

), Pork Bafat, Sorpotel
Sorpotel
Sarapatel, also called Sorpotel, is a dish of Portuguese origin now commonly cooked in the coastal Konkan region of India primarily Goa and Mangalore and in northeastern Brazil. Ingredients include meat and offal, which varies depending on region from pork to lamb and even beef...

and the Mutton Biryani
Biryani
Biryani, biriani, or beriani is a set of rice-based foods made with spices, rice and meat, fish, eggs or vegetables. The name is derived from the Persian word beryā which means "fried" or "roasted"....

 of the Muslims are well-known dishes. Pickles such as happala, sandige and puli munchi are unique to Mangalore. Shendi (toddy), a country liquor prepared from coconut flower sap, is popular.

Civic administration


Mangalore City officials
Mayor
Mayor
In many countries, a Mayor is the highest ranking officer in the municipal government of a town or a large urban city....

Praveen Kumar
Deputy Mayor
Deputy Mayor
Deputy mayor is an elective or appointive office of the second-ranking official in many local governments. Many elected deputy mayors are members of the city council who are given the title and serve as acting mayor in the mayor's absence...

Geetha N Nayak
Superintendent of Police A.S. Rao

The Mangalore City Corporation
Mangalore City Corporation
-History:Mangalore came under Municipal administration following enactment of the Madras Town Improvement Act 1865 and the thereafter the establishment of the Municipal Council on 23 May 1866. Prior to the introduction of the local self-government system, the district collector was in charge of the...

 (MCC) is the municipal corporation
Municipal corporation
A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which...

 in charge of the civic and infrastructural assets of the city. Municipal limits begin with Mukka
Mukka
Mukka is suburb of Mangalore city on the shore of Arabian sea. It is located to north of NITK, Surathkal campus on National Highway 17. There is a beach in Mukka which has escaped public attention....

 in the north, to Netravati river bridge in the south and western sea shore to Vamanjoor in the east. The MCC council comprises 60 elected representatives, called corporators, one from each of the 60 wards (localities) of the city. Elections to the council are held once every five years, with results being decided by popular vote. A corporator from the majority party is selected as a Mayor. The headquarters of Mangalore City Corporation is at Lalbagh
Lalbagh, Mangalore
Lalbagh is situated about 3 km to the north of Hampankatta and is the most happening place in Mangalore these daysThe main office of the Mangalore City Corporation is also located here- Popular hangouts :...

. Its sub-offices are at Surathkal
Surathkal
Surathkal is a locality under Mangalore City Corporation located in the Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka state, India...

 and Bikarnakatta. As of 2001, the Mangalore municipality covered an area of 73.71 km² (28.46 sq mi).
Until the revision of Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
The Lok Sabha or House of the People is the lower house of the Parliament of India. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by direct election under universal adult suffrage. As of 2009, there have been fifteen Lok Sabhas elected by the people of India...

 and the legislative constituencies by the Delimitation commission, Mangalore contributed two members to the Lok Sabha, one for the southern part of the city which fell under the Mangalore Lok Sabha Constituency, and another for the northern part of the city which fell under the Udupi Lok Sabha Constituency. Additionally, Mangalore sent three members to the Karnataka State Legislative Assembly
Legislative Assembly
Legislative Assembly is the name given in some countries to either a legislature, or to one of its branch.The name is used by a number of member-states of the Commonwealth of Nations, as well as a number of Latin American countries....

. With the revision, the entire Mangalore Taluk now falls under the Dakshina Kannada Lok Sabha constituency, resulting in Mangalore contributing only one Member of Parliament
Member of Parliament
A Member of Parliament is a representative of the voters to a :parliament. In many countries with bicameral parliaments, the term applies specifically to members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different title, such as senate, and thus also have different titles for its members,...

 (MP).

The Dakshina Kannada Police is responsible for the law and order maintenance in Mangalore. The department is headed by a Commissioner of Police. Mangalore is also the headquarters of the Western Range Police, covering the western districts of Karnataka, which is headed by an Inspector General of Police (IGP).

Education




The pre-collegiate medium of instruction
Medium of instruction
Medium of instruction is a language used in teaching. It may or may not be the official language of the country or territory. Where the first language of students is different from the official language, it may be used as the medium of instruction for part or all of schooling. Bilingual or...

 in schools is predominantly English and Kannada, and medium of instruction in educational institutions after matriculation
Matriculation
Matriculation, in the broadest sense, means to be registered or added to a list, from the Latin matricula – little list. In Scottish heraldry, for instance, a matriculation is a registration of armorial bearings...

 in colleges is English. Additionally, other media of instruction exist in Mangalore. Recently, a committee of experts constituted by the Tulu Sahitya Academy recommended the inclusion of Tulu (in Kannada script
Kannada script
The Kannada script is an alphasyllabary of the Brahmic family, used primarily to write the Kannada language, one of the Dravidian languages of southern India and also Sanskrit in the past. The Telugu script is derived from Old Kannada, and resembles Kannada script...

) as a medium of instruction in education.

Schools and colleges in Mangalore are either government-run or run by private trusts and individuals. The schools are affiliated with either the Karnataka State Board, Indian Certificate of Secondary Education
Indian Certificate of Secondary Education
The Indian Certificate of Secondary Education or ICSE examination is an examination conducted by the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations, a private, non-governmental board of school education in India, for class 10, i.e., grade 10...

 (ICSE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE) and the National Institute of Open Schooling
Nios
Nios may refer to:*National Institute of Open Schooling, Board of Education for school level in India *Nios embedded processor*Nios II*Lake Nyos, a crater lake in the Northwest Province of Cameroon in Africa...

 (NIOS) boards. After completing 10 years of schooling in secondary education
Secondary education
Secondary education is the stage of education following primary education. Secondary education includes the final stage of compulsory education and in many countries it is entirely compulsory. The next stage of education is usually college or university...

, students enroll in Higher Secondary School
Junior college
The term junior college refers to different educational institutions in different countries.-India:In India, most states provide schooling through 12th grade...

, specializing in one of the three streams – Arts, Commerce or Science. Since the 1980s, there have been a large number of professional institutions established in a variety of fields including engineering, medicine, homoeopathic medicine, dentistry, business management and hotel management. The earliest schools established in Mangalore were the Basel Evangelical School (1838) and Milagres School (1848). The Kasturba Medical College
Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore
Kasturba Medical College , Mangalore, is a medical college based in Mangalore, Karnataka, India.It is a constituent college of Manipal University , which is a deemed University...

 established in 1953, was India's first private medical college
Medical school
A medical school is a tertiary educational institution—or part of such an institution—that teaches medicine. Degree programs offered at medical schools often include Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, Bachelor/Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Philosophy, master's degree, or other post-secondary...

. Popular educational institutions in the city are National Institute of Technology (Karnataka)
National Institute of Technology Karnataka
National Institute of Technology Karnataka , formerly known as Karnataka Regional Engineering College , is an autonomous university along the western shores of India. It was founded in 1960 is today one of the 30 National Institutes of Technology in India and is recognized as an Institute of...

, KS Hegde Medical Academy
KS Hegde Medical Academy
The K S Hegde Medical Academy, commonly referred to as KSHEMA, is a medical college in Deralakatte, near the city of Mangalore. It is managed by the Nitte education trust, which runs a number of professional colleges in the state of Karnataka. The colleges offer the an MBBS course along with...

, A. J. Institute Of Medical Science, Father Muller Medical College
Father Muller Medical College
Father Muller Medical College, located about a kilometre from the National Highway-17 at Kankanady in Mangalore, is a religious minority educational institution forming a part of Fr. Muller's Charitable Institutions...

, Father Muller Homeopathic Medical College, Yenepoya Medical College, Mangalore Institute of Technology & Engineering
Mangalore Institute of Technology & Engineering
The Mangalore Institute of Technology And Engineering is a college of engineering and technology located in Mangalore, India. It was established by Mr...

 (MITE), Bearys Institute of Technology, P.A. College of Engineering, St. Aloysius College, Canara College
Canara College
Canara College was started in 1973 by the C.H.S. Association, which has been efficiently managing a number of educational institutions since 1891. The college provides three years degree courses in Arts, Science, Commerce and Computers to men and women students without distinction of caste or creed...

, Canara Engineering College, S.D.M. College and St. Joseph Engineering College
St. Joseph Engineering College
St. Joseph Engineering College is an engineering college in Vamanjoor, Mangalore, India. Being a unit of the Catholic Diocese of Mangalore, it is the only Catholic engineering institute in Karnataka...

. The Bibliophile's Paradise, a hi-tech public library run by the Corporation Bank
Corporation Bank
Corporation Bank is an India-based banking company based in Mangalore, India. The bank was founded with an initial capital of Rs. 5000 , and first day’s canvassed resources of less than one USD 1, has currently 12,724 full time employees, and operates from several branches in India.The Bank is a...

, is located at Mannagudda in Mangalore. Mangalore University
Mangalore University
Mangalore University is a public university located in Konaje, Karnataka State of India. Ranked with a four star by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council in June 2000, this young university offers higher education and conducts research in various fields...

 was established on September 10, 1980. It caters to the higher educational needs of Dakshina Kannada
Dakshina Kannada
- Geography :The district geography consists of sea shore in the west and Western Ghats in the east. The major rivers are Netravathi, Kumaradhara, Phalguni, Shambhavi, Nandini or Pavanje and Payaswini which all join Arabian sea. Vast areas of evergreen forests which once covered this district, have...

, Udupi
Udupi district
Udupi district , ಉಡುಪಿ ಜಿಲ್ಲೆ) in the Karnataka state of India was created in August 1997. The three northern taluks, Udupi, Kundapur and Karkal, were separated from Dakshina Kannada District to form Udupi district. Udupi district is surrounded by Uttara Kannada district in north, Dakshina Kannada...

 and Kodagu
Kodagu
Kodagu , also known by its anglicised former name of Coorg, is an administrative district in Karnataka, India. It occupies an area of in the Western Ghats of southwestern Karnataka. As of 2001, the population was 548,561, 13.74% of which resided in the district's urban centres, making it the least...

 districts and is a National Assessment and Accreditation Council
National Assessment and Accreditation Council
The National Assessment and Accreditation Council is an organization that assesses and accredits institutions of higher education in India. It is an autonomous body funded by University Grants Commission of Government of India headquartered in Bangalore.-History:NAAC was established in 1994 in...

 (NAAC) accredited four-star level institution.

Sports



Kambala
Kambala
Kambaḷa is a traditional water buffalo race in muddy waters held from December until March. It is the native sport of Tulu Nadu region of South India.-Format :...

(buffalo race), contested in water filled paddy field
Paddy field
A paddy field is a flooded parcel of arable land used for growing rice and other semiaquatic crops. Paddy fields are a typical feature of rice farming in east, south and southeast Asia. Paddies can be built into steep hillsides as terraces and adjacent to depressed or steeply sloped features such...

s, and Korikatta (cockfight
Cockfight
A cockfight is a blood sport between two roosters , held in a ring called a cockpit. Cockfighting is now illegal throughout all states in the United States, Brazil, Australia and in most of Europe. It is still legal in several U.S. territories....

) are popular. Cricket is the most popular sport in the city. Dakshina Kannada
Dakshina Kannada
- Geography :The district geography consists of sea shore in the west and Western Ghats in the east. The major rivers are Netravathi, Kumaradhara, Phalguni, Shambhavi, Nandini or Pavanje and Payaswini which all join Arabian sea. Vast areas of evergreen forests which once covered this district, have...

's only full-fledged cricket stadium, the Mangala Stadium, is in Mangalore. The Sports Authority of India
Sports Authority of India
The Sports Authority of India is a body set up by the Government of India. It was created in 1984 to help promote sport throughout the country. Presently, it has seven regional centres at Bangalore, Gandhinagar, Kolkata, Sonepat, Delhi, Mumbai and Imphal and two sub-centres at Guwahati and...

 (SAI) has also set up a sports training centre at the stadium. The Central Maidan in Mangalore is another important venue hosting domestic tournaments and many inter-school and collegiate tournaments. The Mangalore Sports Club (MSC) is a popular organization in the city and has been elected as the institutional member for the Mangalore Zone of the Karnataka State Cricket Association
Karnataka State Cricket Association
Karnataka State Cricket Association is the governing body of the Cricket in the Indian state of Karnataka. The association is affiliated to the Board of Control for Cricket in India and governs the Karnataka cricket team. The association was founded in the year 1933 and has been affiliated to the...

 (KSCA). Football
Football (soccer)
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball...

 is also quite popular in the city and is usually played in the maidans (grounds), with the Nehru Maidan being the most popular venue for domestic tournaments. Chess is also a popular indoor sport in the city. Mangalore is headquarters to the South Kanara District Chess Association (SKDCA), which has hosted two All India Open Chess tournaments.

Other sports such as tennis, squash, billiards, badminton, table tennis and golf are played in the numerous clubs and gymkhana
Gymkhana
Gymkhana is a typical Anglo-Indian expression, which is derived from the Hindi-Urdu word for "racket court," is an Indian term which originally referred to a place where sporting events take place. The meaning then altered to denote a place where skill-based contests were held...

s. Pilikula Nisargadhama
Pilikula Nisargadhama
Pilikula Nisargadhama is picnic spot / hangout at Vamanjoor near Mangalore in Karnataka- About Pilikula Lake :Pilikula literally means Tiger's lake. In Tulu language "pili" means tiger and "kula" means lake. In olden days, tigers used to come to this lake to drink water...

, an integrated theme park, has a fully functional nine-hole golf course at Vamanjoor
Vamanjoor
Vamanjoor is a small town which falls within the city corporation of Mangalore in Karnataka, India, it is located 15 km away from Mangalore city. It is en route to Moodabidri and Karkala by National Highway # 13.-Vamanjoor in Detail:...

 in Mangalore. Budhi Kunderan
Budhi Kunderan
Budhisagar Krishnappa Kunderan was an Indian cricketer...

, a former Indian wicket keeper was from Mangalore. Ravi Shastri
Ravi Shastri
Ravishankar Jayadritha Shastri is a former Indian cricketer and captain. He was an all–rounder who batted right-handed and bowled left arm spin. His international career started when he was 18 years old and lasted for 12 years...

, who represented India for several years in international cricket as an all-rounder
All-rounder
An all-rounder is a cricketer who regularly performs well at both batting and bowling. Although all bowlers must bat and quite a few batsmen do bowl occasionally, most players are skilled in only one of the two disciplines and are considered specialists...

 and captained the team, is of Mangalorean descent.

Media



Major national English language newspapers such as Times of India, The Hindu
The Hindu
The Hindu is an Indian English-language daily newspaper founded and continuously published in Chennai since 1878. According to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, it has a circulation of 1.46 million copies as of December 2009. The enterprise employed over 1,600 workers and gross income reached $40...

, The New Indian Express
The New Indian Express
The New Indian Express is an Indian English-language broadsheet daily newspaper published by the Express Publications. It was founded in 1932 as the Indian Express, under the ownership of Chennai-based P. Varadarajulu Naidu. In 1991, following the death of the then owner Ramnath Goenka, the Goenka...

and Deccan Herald
Deccan Herald
The Deccan Herald is a leading English-language daily newspaper distributed in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is published by the Printers Private Limited and has a number of editions in Bangalore, Hubli, Mysore, Mangalore and Gulbarga....

publish localized Mangalore editions. The Madipu, Mogaveera, Samparka and Saphala are well-known Tulu periodicals in Mangalore. Popular Konkani language periodicals published in the city are Rakno, Konknni Dirvem and Kannik. Beary periodicals like Jyothi and Swatantra Bharata are also published from Mangalore. Among Kannada newspapers, Udayavani
Udayavani
UDAYAVANI Udayavani is a leading Kannada Daily Newspaper with editions from Manipal, Bangalore, Mumbai, Hubli and Gulbarga.Launched in 1971 by Shri. Mohandas Pai and Shri...

, Vijaya Karnataka
Vijaya Karnataka
Vijaya Karnataka is a Kannada newspaper. It is the largest circulated Kannada daily and published from a number of cities in Karnataka. This was founded by VRL group, started in October 2000. During its initial days this news paper was distributed for free for one month. Later on this paper was...

, Prajavani
Prajavani
Prajavani is a leading Kannada-language newspaper in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is a sister publication of the Deccan Herald. , it had a circulation of 364,000, making it the second-largest-circulation newspaper in Karnataka , and the largest-circulation Kannada-language newspaper in the...

, Kannada Prabha
Kannada Prabha
Kannada Prabha a morning daily from the house of The New Indian Express Group, is a major Kannada newspaper in Karnataka. The tag line on its masthead is The Most Powerful Kannada Newspaper...

and Varthabharathi
Varthabharathi
VarathabharathiAlso spelled as Vartha Baharathi or Vaartha Bhaarathi, is a daily Newspaper published from Mangalore and Bangalore....

are popular. Evening newspapers such as Karavali Ale
Karavali Ale
Karavali Ale is a Kannada daily local newspaper published in Mangalore, Karnataka, India since 1992. Karavali Ale, The Canara Times, Sanje Ale and Kannada Janataranga are the newspapers from Coastal and Malnad region published by Chitra Publications pvt Ltd...

, Mangalooru Mitra, Sanjevani, and Jayakirana are also published in the city. The first Kannada language newspaper Mangalore Samachara was published from Mangalore in 1843.

The state run, nationally broadcast Doordarshan
DoorDarshan
Doordarshan is an Indian public service broadcaster, a division of Prasar Bharati. It is one of the largest broadcasting organizations in India in terms of the infrastructure of studios and transmitters. Recently, it has also started Digital Terrestrial Transmitters. On September 15, 2009,...

 provides both national and localised television coverage. Cable television also provides broadcast cable channels of independently owned private networks. Canara TV transmits daily video news channels from Mangalore. Mangalore is not covered by the Conditional access system (CAS); however, a proposal to provide CAS to television viewers in Mangalore sometime in the future has been initiated by V4 Media, the local cable service provider. Direct-to-Home
Direct broadcast satellite
Direct broadcast satellite is a term used to refer to satellite television broadcasts intended for home reception.A designation broader than DBS would be direct-to-home signals, or DTH. This has initially distinguished the transmissions directly intended for home viewers from cable television...

 (DTH) services are available in Mangalore via Dish TV
Dish TV
Dish TV India Limited is an Indian company engaged in the business of providing direct-to-home satellite television service, which includes teleport service, customer support and transponder space leasing. Dishtv is a division of Zee Network Enterprise . It uses MPEG-2 digital compression...

, Tata Sky
Tata Sky
TATA Sky is a direct broadcast satellite television provider in India, using MPEG-2 digital compression technology, transmitting using INSAT 4A at 83.0°E....

, Sun Direct DTH
Sun Direct DTH
Sun Direct is an Indian direct broadcast satellite service provider. Its satellite service, launched on 2005, transmits digital satellite television and audio to households in India. Sun Direct uses MPEG-4 digital compression technology, transmitting on INSAT 4B at 93.5°E. and MEASAT-3 at 91.5°E...

, Airtel digital TV
Airtel digital TV
Airtel digital TV is an Indian direct broadcast satellite service provider owned and operated by Bharti Airtel. Its satellite service, launched on 2008, transmits digital satellite television and audio to households in India. It uses MPEG-4 digital compression with DVB-S2 technology, transmitting...

, Reliance BIG TV
BIG TV
Reliance Digital TV is one of the largest Indian pay TV providers, providing direct broadcast satellite service—including satellite television, audio programming, and interactive television services—to commercial and residential customers in India. It uses MPEG-4 digital compression technology,...

 and Videocon D2h
Videocon d2h
Videocon d2h is one of the largest Indian pay TV provider, providing direct broadcast satellite service—including satellite television, audio programming, and interactive television services—to commercial and residential customers in India...

 . All India Radio
All India Radio
All India Radio , officially known since 1956 as Akashvani , is the radio broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati. Established in 1936, it is the sister service of Prasar Bharati's Doordarshan, the national television broadcaster. All India Radio is one of the largest radio networks...

 (AIR) has a studio at Kadri
Kadri, Mangalore
Kadri is a location in Mangalore city within the Coproration limits. Kadri is home to the famous Kadri Manjunath Temple.Kadri is also famous for its annual buffalo race known as Kambala...

 (with frequency 100.3 MHz) that airs program during scheduled hours. Mangalore's private FM stations include Radio Mirchi 98.3 FM
Radio Mirchi
Radio Mirchi is a nationwide network of private FM radio stations in India. It is owned by the Entertainment Network India Ltd , which is one of the subsidiaries of The Times Group....

, Big 92.7 FM  and Red 93.5 FM
Red FM (India)
Red FM is an Indian FM radio brand, with stations broadcasting at 93.5 megahertz in the cities of Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata and Kanpur in addition to Jamshedpur, Bhopal, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Indore, Nashik, Aurangabad, Nagpur, Bangalore, Mysore, Mangalore, Gulbarga, Kochi, Trivandrum, Thrissur, Kannur,...

.

Mangalore is home to the Tulu Film Industry, which has a catalogue of 31 films, and releases one film annually, on average. Popular Tulu films
Tulu language
The Tulu language |?]]]) is a Dravidian language spoken by 1.95 million native speakers mainly in the southwest part of Indian state Karnataka known as Tulu Nadu. In India, 1.72 million people speak it as their mother tongue , increased by 10 percent over the 1991 census...

 include Kadala Mage and Suddha. Tulu dramas, mostly played in the Town Hall at Hampankatta
Hampankatta
Hampankatta is the heart of Mangalore city in Karnataka. Most of the public utilities are located here. This used be the most buzzing commercial area in the city. However nowadays, M G Road, Lalbagh have become the favorurite place for people to spend time....

, are very popular. In 2006, a Tulu film festival was organised in Mangalore.

Transport





Mangalore's location makes it accessible via all forms of transport. Transport systems in Mangalore include private buses, KSRTC buses
Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation
Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation or KSRTC is the state owned road transportation company in Karnataka.-About:KSRTC was set up in the year 1961 under the provisions of Road Transport Corporation Act, 1950. It is wholly owned by the Government of Karnataka. The Government of India is also...

, trains, taxis and autorickshaws.

Four National Highways
Indian highways
The National Highways Network of India, is a network of highways that is managed and maintained by agencies of the Government of India. These highways measured over as of 2010, including over of limited-access Expressways....

 pass through Mangalore. NH-17
National Highway 17 (India)
National Highway 17, commonly referred to as NH 17, now renamed as NH 66, is a busy National Highway in India that runs roughly north-south along the western coast of India, parallel to western ghats. It connects Panvel, near Mumbai to Kochi, passing through the states of Maharashtra, Goa,...

, which runs from Panvel
Panvel
Panvel is city and a municipal council in Raigad district in the state of Maharashtra. Panvel is also known as the gateway of Konkan region. It adjoins Navi Mumbai, and is just after the Thane district border. Panvel is located on the Yashwantrao Chavan Expressway about 21 kilometres from...

 (in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra is a state located in India. It is the second most populous after Uttar Pradesh and third largest state by area in India...

) to Edapally Junction (near Cochin in Kerala
Kerala
or Keralam is an Indian state located on the Malabar coast of south-west India. It was created on 1 November 1956 by the States Reorganisation Act by combining various Malayalam speaking regions....

), passes through Mangalore in a north–south direction, while NH-48
National Highway 48 (India)
National Highway 48 or NH-48, now renamed as NH-75 is a National Highway of India running entirely within the state of Karnataka. It links the coastal city of Mangalore with the state capital Bangalore, two major cities of Karnataka state. NH 48 passes through towns of Nelamangala, Kunigal,...

 runs eastward to Bangalore
Bangalore
Bengaluru , formerly called Bengaluru is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Bangalore is nicknamed the Garden City and was once called a pensioner's paradise. Located on the Deccan Plateau in the south-eastern part of Karnataka, Bangalore is India's third most populous city and...

. NH-13
National Highway 13 (India)
National Highway 13 , now renamed as NH 169 is a National Highway in India that runs from Solapur in Maharashtra to Mangalore in Karnataka. The total length of NH 13 is . The original NH 13 ran from Solapur to Chitradurga at the intersection of NH 4. It has recently been extended to Mangalore...

 runs north-east from Mangalore to Solapur
Solapur
Solapur is a city in South Western Maharashtra, India governed by municipal corporation.Solapur is one of the four districts that form the region of Western Maharashtra . It is the fourth largest district in Maharashtra in terms of land area and seventh largest in terms of population...

. National Highways Authority of India
National Highways Authority of India
The National Highways Authority of India is an autonomous agency of the Government of India, responsible for management of a network of over 60,000 km of National Highways in India...

 (NHAI) is upgrading the national highways connecting New Mangalore Port to Surathkal
Surathkal
Surathkal is a locality under Mangalore City Corporation located in the Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka state, India...

 on NH-17
National Highway 17 (India)
National Highway 17, commonly referred to as NH 17, now renamed as NH 66, is a busy National Highway in India that runs roughly north-south along the western coast of India, parallel to western ghats. It connects Panvel, near Mumbai to Kochi, passing through the states of Maharashtra, Goa,...

 and BC Road junction on NH-48
National Highway 48 (India)
National Highway 48 or NH-48, now renamed as NH-75 is a National Highway of India running entirely within the state of Karnataka. It links the coastal city of Mangalore with the state capital Bangalore, two major cities of Karnataka state. NH 48 passes through towns of Nelamangala, Kunigal,...

. Under the port connectivity programme of the National Highways Development Project
National Highways Development Project
The National Highways Development Project is a project to upgrade, rehabilitate and widen major highways in India to a higher standard. The project was implemented in 1998. "National Highways" account for only about 2% of the total length of roads, but carry about 40% of the total traffic across...

 (NHDP), a 37.5 kilometres (23.3 mi) stretch of these highways will be upgraded from two-lane to four-lane roads. NH-234
National Highway 234 (India)
National Highway 234 , is a National Highway in India that Originates in Mangalore,Karnataka, travels through Venkatagirikota, Andrha Pradesh and Vellore,Thiruvannamalai,Tamil Nadu terminates at Villupuram,Tamil Nadu- Route :...

, 715-km long Highway connects Mangalore to Villupuram.

Mangalore's city bus service is operated by private operators and provides access within city limits and beyond. Two distinct sets of routes for the buses exist – city routes are covered by city buses, while intercity routes are covered by service and express buses. Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation
Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation
Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation or KSRTC is the state owned road transportation company in Karnataka.-About:KSRTC was set up in the year 1961 under the provisions of Road Transport Corporation Act, 1950. It is wholly owned by the Government of Karnataka. The Government of India is also...

 (KSRTC) operates long distance bus services from Mangalore to other parts of the state. The other key players who run bus services from Mangalore are the Dakshina Kannada Bus Operators Association (DKBOA) and the Canara Bus Operators Association (CBOA). These buses usually ply from the Mangalore Bus Station. White coloured taxis also traverse most of the city. Another mode for local transport is the autorickshaw.

Rail connectivity in Mangalore was established in 1907. Mangalore was also the starting point of India's longest rail route. The city has two railway stations—Mangalore Central
Mangalore Central
Mangalore Central is a terminus station located in the heart of Mangalore .Mangalore Central is the origin point of many long distance trains. It handles as many as 19 daily trains and 6 weekly/bi-weekly/tri-weekly trains. This station provides rail connectivity to important places like Chennai,...

 (at Hampankatta
Hampankatta
Hampankatta is the heart of Mangalore city in Karnataka. Most of the public utilities are located here. This used be the most buzzing commercial area in the city. However nowadays, M G Road, Lalbagh have become the favorurite place for people to spend time....

) and Mangalore Junction (at Kankanadi
Kankanadi
Kankanadi or Kankanady is a locality within municipal limits of Mangalore city corporation.-Overview:The Mahaveera Circle on the NH-17, is the starting point of NH-48, the national highway connecting Mangalore and Bangalore.The Father Muller's Hospital located in Kankanadi is one of the famous...

). A metre gauge
Metre gauge
Metre gauge refers to narrow gauge railways and tramways with a track gauge of . In some African, American and Asian countries it is the main gauge. In Europe it has been used for local railways in France, Germany, and Belgium, most of which were closed down in mid 20th century. Only in Switzerland...

 railway track, built through the Western Ghats, connects Mangalore with Hassan. The broad gauge
Broad gauge
Broad-gauge railways use a track gauge greater than the standard gauge of .- List :For list see: List of broad gauges, by gauge and country- History :...

 track connecting Mangalore to Bangalore via Hassan was opened to freight traffic in May 2006 and passenger traffic in December 2007. Mangalore is also connected to Chennai
Chennai
Chennai , formerly known as Madras or Madarasapatinam , is the capital city of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, located on the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal. Chennai is the fourth most populous metropolitan area and the sixth most populous city in India...

 through the Southern Railway
Southern Railway (India)
The Southern Railway is the earliest of the 16 zones of the Indian Railways created in independent India. It was created on April 14, 1951 by merging three state railways namely Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway, the South Indian Railway, and the Mysore State Railway. The South Indian Railway...

 and to Mumbai via the Konkan Railway
Konkan Railway
The Konkan Railway is a railway line which runs along the Konkan coast of India. It was constructed and is operated by the Konkan Railway Corporation...

.

The Mangalore Harbour has shipping, storage, and logistical services, while the New Mangalore Port handles dry, bulk, and fluid cargoes. The New Mangalore Port is also well equipped to handle petroleum oil lubricants, crude products
Petroleum
Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling...

 and LPG containers. It is also the station for the coast guard. This artificial harbour is India's ninth largest port, in terms of cargo handling, and is the only major port in Karnataka.

Mangalore International Airport
Mangalore International Airport
Mangalore Airport, formerly known as Bajpe Airport, is a domestic and customs airport serving the coastal city of Mangalore, India...

 (IATA: IXE) is near Bajpe
Bajpe
Bajpe is a census town in located close to Mangalore city in Dakshina Kannada district in the state of Karnataka, India. It is around 18 km from the heart of the city of Mangalore. The Mangalore International Airport is located at Bajpe and is popularly known as the Bajpe...

/Kenjar, and is located about 15 kilometres (9 mi) north-east of the city centre. It is the second airport in Karnataka
Karnataka
Karnataka , the land of the Kannadigas, is a state in South West India. It was created on 1 November 1956, with the passing of the States Reorganisation Act and this day is annually celebrated as Karnataka Rajyotsava...

 to operate flights to international destinations.

Utility services



Electricity in Mangalore is regulated by the Karnataka Power Transmission Corporation Limited (KPTCL) and distributed through Mangalore Electricity Supply Company (MESCOM). Mangalore experiences scheduled and unscheduled power cuts, especially during the summer, due to excess consumption demands. Major industries like Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals (MRPL) and Mangalore Chemicals & Fertilizers
Mangalore Chemicals & Fertilizers
Mangalore Chemicals & Fertilizers Limited, with a turnover Rs. 2,523.83 crores , is the only manufacturer of chemical fertilizers in the state of Karnataka, India...

 (MCF) operate their own captive power plants.

Potable water to the city is supplied by MCC
Mangalore City Corporation
-History:Mangalore came under Municipal administration following enactment of the Madras Town Improvement Act 1865 and the thereafter the establishment of the Municipal Council on 23 May 1866. Prior to the introduction of the local self-government system, the district collector was in charge of the...

. Almost all water is from the vented dam constructed across the Netravati River at Thumbe
Thumbe
Thumbe is a census town in Dakshina Kannada district in the Indian state of Karnataka. Thumbe in Kannada literally means a minute white flower without any fragrance but considered extremely auspicious for worship of Shiva.-Demographics:...

, 14 kilometres (9 mi) from Mangalore. The Karnataka Urban Development and Coastal Environment Management Project (KUDCEMP) aim to improve safe water supply systems and reduce leakage and losses in the distribution system in Mangalore. The official garbage dumping ground of Mangalore is in Vamanjoor
Vamanjoor
Vamanjoor is a small town which falls within the city corporation of Mangalore in Karnataka, India, it is located 15 km away from Mangalore city. It is en route to Moodabidri and Karkala by National Highway # 13.-Vamanjoor in Detail:...

. The city generates an average of 175 tons per day of waste, which is handled by the health department of the Mangalore City Corporation. The city has developed and maintains public parks such as Pilikula Nisargadhama
Pilikula Nisargadhama
Pilikula Nisargadhama is picnic spot / hangout at Vamanjoor near Mangalore in Karnataka- About Pilikula Lake :Pilikula literally means Tiger's lake. In Tulu language "pili" means tiger and "kula" means lake. In olden days, tigers used to come to this lake to drink water...

, Kadri Park
Kadri Park
Kadri Park is a garden , 5 km from the city near AIR studios. It is located in Kadri gudde .It's the largest park within city limits of Mangalore. The park has beautifully laid gardens along with a Snake Park, zoo and a toy train....

 at Kadri
Kadri, Mangalore
Kadri is a location in Mangalore city within the Coproration limits. Kadri is home to the famous Kadri Manjunath Temple.Kadri is also famous for its annual buffalo race known as Kambala...

, Tagore Park at Light House Hill, Gandhi Park at Gandhinagar. and Corporation Bank Park at Nehru Maidan.

Fixed Line telecom services are offered along side GSM and Code division multiple access
Code division multiple access
Code division multiple access is a channel access method used by various radio communication technologies. It should not be confused with the mobile phone standards called cdmaOne, CDMA2000 and WCDMA , which are often referred to as simply CDMA, and use CDMA as an underlying channel access...

 (CDMA) mobile services. Mangalore is the headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada Telecom District, the second largest telecom district in Karnataka
Karnataka
Karnataka , the land of the Kannadigas, is a state in South West India. It was created on 1 November 1956, with the passing of the States Reorganisation Act and this day is annually celebrated as Karnataka Rajyotsava...

. The telephone density in the city is 8.74 per 100 population. Prominent broadband internet
Broadband Internet access
Broadband Internet access, often shortened to just "broadband", is a high data rate, low-latency connection to the Internet— typically contrasted with dial-up access using a 56 kbit/s modem or satellite Internet with inherently high latency....

 service providers in the city include Tata
Tata Group
Tata Group is an Indian multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Tata Group is one of the largest companies in India by market capitalization and revenue. It has interests in communications and information technology, engineering, materials, services, energy,...

, Airtel
Bharti Airtel
Bharti Airtel Limited , commonly known as Airtel, is an Indian telecommunications company that operates in 20 countries across South Asia, Africa and the Channel Islands. It operates a GSM network in all countries, providing 2G or 3G services depending upon the country of operation...

 and DataOne
BSNL Broadband
BSNL Broadband is an Internet access service from state-owned Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited available in India since 14 January 2005. Until 30 September 2007 it was known as Data One....

 by BSNL
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited is a state-owned telecommunications company headquartered in New Delhi, India. It is the largest provider of fixed telephony and fourth largest mobile telephony provider in India, and is also a provider of broadband services...

.

External links