Malmö

Malmö

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Malmö (ˈmalːˈmøː), in the southernmost province of Scania
Scania
Scania is the southernmost of the 25 traditional non-administrative provinces of Sweden, constituting a peninsula on the southern tip of the Scandinavian peninsula, and some adjacent islands. The modern administrative subdivision Skåne County is almost, but not totally, congruent with the...

, is the third most populous city
Urban areas in Sweden
Urban area is a common English translation of the Swedish term tätort. The official term in English, used by Statistics Sweden, is, however, locality. There are 1,940 localities in Sweden . They could be compared with census-designated places in the United States.A tätort in Sweden has a minimum of...

 in Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

, after Stockholm
Stockholm
Stockholm is the capital and the largest city of Sweden and constitutes the most populated urban area in Scandinavia. Stockholm is the most populous city in Sweden, with a population of 851,155 in the municipality , 1.37 million in the urban area , and around 2.1 million in the metropolitan area...

 and Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Gothenburg is the second-largest city in Sweden and the fifth-largest in the Nordic countries. Situated on the west coast of Sweden, the city proper has a population of 519,399, with 549,839 in the urban area and total of 937,015 inhabitants in the metropolitan area...

.

Malmö is the seat of Malmö Municipality
Malmö Municipality
Malmö Municipality is a municipality in Skåne County in Sweden. Its seat is located in the city of Malmö.When the first Swedish local government acts were implemented in 1863 the old City of Malmö was made one of the country's 88 city municipalities and the first city council was elected...

 and the capital of Skåne County
Skåne County
Skåne County is the southernmost administrative county or län, of Sweden, basically corresponding to the historical province Scania. It borders the counties of Halland, Kronoberg and Blekinge. The seat of residence for the Skåne Governor is the town of Malmö...

. The administrative entity for most of the city is Malmö Municipality which has 300,515 inhabitants in eight different localities, with 30% being of foreign origin (either born outside of Sweden or having both parents born abroad). Malmö is also a bimunicipal locality, as part of it is Burlöv Municipality
Burlöv Municipality
Burlöv Municipality is a municipality in Skåne County in southern Sweden, just north of Malmö. Its seat is located in a part of Malmö urban area called Arlöv....

. The total population of the urban area was 280,415 by the start of 2011.

Greater Malmö is one of Sweden's three officially recognized Metropolitan areas and since 2005 is defined by the municipality of Malmö and 11 other municipalities in the southwestern corner of Scania. On 30 June 2008, its population was recorded to be 628,388. The region covers an area of 2535.76 square kilometres (979.1 sq mi). The municipalities included, apart from Malmö, are Burlöv
Burlöv Municipality
Burlöv Municipality is a municipality in Skåne County in southern Sweden, just north of Malmö. Its seat is located in a part of Malmö urban area called Arlöv....

, Eslöv
Eslöv Municipality
Eslöv Municipality is one of 290 municipalities of Sweden, situated in Skåne County in southern Sweden. Its seat is located in the city of Eslöv....

, Höör
Höör Municipality
Höör Municipality is a municipality in the central part of Skåne County in southern Sweden. Its seat is located in the town of Höör....

, Kävlinge
Kävlinge Municipality
Kävlinge Municipality is a municipality in Skåne County in southern Sweden. Its seat is located in the town of Kävlinge.-Localities:...

, Lomma
Lomma Municipality
Lomma Municipality is a municipality in Skåne County in southern Sweden, about 10 km north of Malmö. Its seat is located in Lomma....

, Lund
Lund Municipality
Lund Municipality is a municipality in Skåne County, southern Sweden. Its seat is located in the city of Lund.As most municipalities in Sweden, the territory of Lund Municipality consists of a lot of former local government units, united in a series of amalgamations. The number of original...

, Skurup
Skurup Municipality
Skurup Municipality is a municipality in Skåne County in southern Sweden. Its seat is located in the town Skurup. It is considered part of Greater Malmö by Statistics Sweden....

, Staffanstorp
Staffanstorp Municipality
Staffanstorp Municipality is a municipality in Skåne County, southern Sweden. Its seat is located in the town Staffanstorp. Uppåkra, the former location for the city of Lund, is located in the municipality....

, Svedala
Svedala Municipality
Svedala Municipality is a municipality in Skåne County in southern Sweden, just southeast of Malmö. Its seat is located in the town of Svedala....

, Trelleborg
Trelleborg Municipality
Trelleborg Municipality is the southernmost municipality of Sweden, in Skåne County. Its seat is located in the city Trelleborg....

 and Vellinge
Vellinge Municipality
Vellinge Municipality is a municipality in Skåne County in southern Sweden. Its seat is located in the town Vellinge.The municipality is a result of the latest local government reform in Sweden...

. Lund, with a municipal population of over 100,000 and home to one of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
Scandinavia is a cultural, historical and ethno-linguistic region in northern Europe that includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, characterized by their common ethno-cultural heritage and language. Modern Norway and Sweden proper are situated on the Scandinavian Peninsula,...

's major universities
Lund University
Lund University , located in the city of Lund in the province of Scania, Sweden, is one of northern Europe's most prestigious universities and one of Scandinavia's largest institutions for education and research, frequently ranked among the world's top 100 universities...

, is together with Malmö the region's economic and education hub.

Malmö was one of the earliest and most industrialized
Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times...

 towns of Scandinavia, but it struggled with the adaptation to post-industrialism. Since the construction of the Öresund bridge
Oresund Bridge
The Øresund or Öresund Bridge is a combined twin-track railway and dual carriageway bridge-tunnel across the Øresund strait.The bridge connects Sweden and Denmark, and it is the longest road and rail bridge in Europe. The Øresund Bridge also connects two major Metropolitan Areas: those of the...

, Malmö has undergone a major transformation with impressive architectural developments, attracting new biotech and IT companies, and particularly students through Malmö University College. The city contains many historic buildings and parks, and is also a commercial centre for the western part of Scania
Scania
Scania is the southernmost of the 25 traditional non-administrative provinces of Sweden, constituting a peninsula on the southern tip of the Scandinavian peninsula, and some adjacent islands. The modern administrative subdivision Skåne County is almost, but not totally, congruent with the...

. During the last few years a university college (Malmö University) has been established and the city is now trying to focus on education, arts and culture. Malmö was ranked #4 in Grist Magazine
Grist Magazine
Grist is a free American liberal non-profit online magazine that has been publishing environmental news and commentary with a wry twist since 1999. Grists taglines are "Gloom and doom with a sense of humor" and "A beacon in the smog"...

s "15 Green Cities" list in 2007.

History



Malmö is thought to have been founded in the year 1275, as a fortified quay or ferry
Ferry
A ferry is a form of transportation, usually a boat, but sometimes a ship, used to carry primarily passengers, and sometimes vehicles and cargo as well, across a body of water. Most ferries operate on regular, frequent, return services...

 berth of the Archbishop
Archbishop
An archbishop is a bishop of higher rank, but not of higher sacramental order above that of the three orders of deacon, priest , and bishop...

 of Lund
Lund
-Main sights:During the 12th and 13th centuries, when the town was the seat of the archbishop, many churches and monasteries were built. At its peak, Lund had 27 churches, but most of them were demolished as result of the Reformation in 1536. Several medieval buildings remain, including Lund...

, some 20 km to the north-east. It was, for centuries, Denmark's second biggest city. Its original name was Malmhaug (with alternate spellings), meaning "Gravel pile".
In the 15th century, Malmö became one of Sweden's largest and most frequented cities, reaching a population of approximately 5,000 inhabitants. It became the most important city around the Sound, with the German Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
The Hanseatic League was an economic alliance of trading cities and their merchant guilds that dominated trade along the coast of Northern Europe...

 frequenting it as a marketplace
Marketplace
A marketplace is the space, actual, virtual or metaphorical, in which a market operates. The term is also used in a trademark law context to denote the actual consumer environment, ie. the 'real world' in which products and services are provided and consumed.-Marketplaces and street markets:A...

, notable for its flourishing herring
Herring
Herring is an oily fish of the genus Clupea, found in the shallow, temperate waters of the North Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans, including the Baltic Sea. Three species of Clupea are recognized. The main taxa, the Atlantic herring and the Pacific herring may each be divided into subspecies...

 fishing. During that time, the city arms were granted in 1437 by King Eric of Pomerania
Eric of Pomerania
Eric of Pomerania KG was King Eric III of Norway Norwegian Eirik, King Eric VII of Denmark , and as Eric King of Sweden...

. It was based on Eric's own arms from Pomerania: an argent
Argent
In heraldry, argent is the tincture of silver, and belongs to the class of light tinctures, called "metals". It is very frequently depicted as white and usually considered interchangeable with it...

 with a griffin
Griffin
The griffin, griffon, or gryphon is a legendary creature with the body of a lion and the head and wings of an eagle...

 gules
Gules
In heraldry, gules is the tincture with the colour red, and belongs to the class of dark tinctures called "colours". In engraving, it is sometimes depicted as a region of vertical lines or else marked with gu. as an abbreviation....

. It gave the griffin's head to Malmö, eventually this extended to the entire province of Scania
Scania
Scania is the southernmost of the 25 traditional non-administrative provinces of Sweden, constituting a peninsula on the southern tip of the Scandinavian peninsula, and some adjacent islands. The modern administrative subdivision Skåne County is almost, but not totally, congruent with the...

.

In 1434, a new citadel
Citadel
A citadel is a fortress for protecting a town, sometimes incorporating a castle. The term derives from the same Latin root as the word "city", civis, meaning citizen....

 was constructed at the beach south of the town. This fortress, known today as Malmöhus
Malmö Castle
Malmö Castle is a fortress located in Malmö, Scania, in southern Sweden. The first castle was founded in 1434 by King Eric of Pomerania. This structure was demolished in early 16th century, and a new one was built in its place 1530s by King Christian III of Denmark...

, did not get its current appearance until the mid-16th century. Several other fortifications were constructed, making Malmö Sweden's most fortified city, but only Malmöhus remains.

Lutheran teachings became popular during the 16th century, and Malmö was one of the first cities in Scandinavia to fully convert (1527–29).

In the 17th century, Malmö and the Scanian region
Skåneland
Skåneland or Skånelandene are terms used in historical contexts in Scandinavia to describe the area on the southern and south-western part of the Scandinavian peninsula, which under the Treaty of Roskilde was transferred from Denmark to Sweden. It corresponds to the provinces of Blekinge,...

 (Skåneland) came into Swedish possession. This happened following the Treaty of Roskilde
Treaty of Roskilde
The Treaty of Roskilde was concluded on 26 February or 8 March 1658 during the Second Northern War between Frederick III of Denmark–Norway and Charles X Gustav of Sweden in the Danish city of Roskilde...

, signed in 1658. Fighting was not yet over, however; in June 1677, 14,000 Danish troops laid siege to Malmö for a month, but were unable to conquer the Swedish troops holding it.

By the dawn of the 18th century, Malmö had about 2,300 inhabitants. However, due to the wars of Charles XII of Sweden
Charles XII of Sweden
Charles XII also Carl of Sweden, , Latinized to Carolus Rex, Turkish: Demirbaş Şarl, also known as Charles the Habitué was the King of the Swedish Empire from 1697 to 1718...

 and plague
Black Death
The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, peaking in Europe between 1348 and 1350. Of several competing theories, the dominant explanation for the Black Death is the plague theory, which attributes the outbreak to the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Thought to have...

 epidemics, the population dropped to 1,500 by 1727. The population did not grow much until the modern harbour was constructed by the late 18th century. The city started to expand, and in the year 1800 had 38,054 inhabitants.
In 1840, the Kockums
Kockums
Kockums AB is a shipyard in Malmö, Sweden owned by the German shipyard Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft in Kiel. HDW itself is a subsidiary of the German ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems....

 shipyard was founded and it eventually became one of the largest shipyards in the world. Between 1856 and 1864 the Southern Main Line was built and enabled Malmö to become a center of manufacture, with big textile and mechanical industries. In 1870, Malmö overtook Norrköping
Norrköping
Norrköping is a city in the province of Östergötland in eastern Sweden and the seat of Norrköping Municipality, Östergötland County. The city has a population of 87,247 inhabitants in 2010, out of a municipal total of 130,050, making it Sweden's tenth largest city and eighth largest...

 to become Sweden's third most populous city and by 1900 Malmö had strengthened this position with 60,000 inhabitants. Malmö continued through the first half of the 20th century. The population had swiftly increased to 100,000 by 1915 and to 200,000 by 1952. By 1971, Malmö reached 265,000 inhabitants, but this was the peak which would stand for more than 30 years.

By the mid 1970s, Sweden experienced a recession
Recession
In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction, a general slowdown in economic activity. During recessions, many macroeconomic indicators vary in a similar way...

 that struck especially hard on the industrial sector; shipyards and manufacturing industries were hard hit, which led to high unemployment in many cities of Scania
Scania
Scania is the southernmost of the 25 traditional non-administrative provinces of Sweden, constituting a peninsula on the southern tip of the Scandinavian peninsula, and some adjacent islands. The modern administrative subdivision Skåne County is almost, but not totally, congruent with the...

. Kockums shipyard had become a symbol of Malmö as its greatest employer and when the shipbuilding ceased in 1986 the reassurance for the future of Malmö plummeted among politicians and the public. In addition, many middle class families moved into one-family houses in surrounding municipalities such as Vellinge Municipality
Vellinge Municipality
Vellinge Municipality is a municipality in Skåne County in southern Sweden. Its seat is located in the town Vellinge.The municipality is a result of the latest local government reform in Sweden...

, Lomma Municipality
Lomma Municipality
Lomma Municipality is a municipality in Skåne County in southern Sweden, about 10 km north of Malmö. Its seat is located in Lomma....

 and Staffanstorp Municipality
Staffanstorp Municipality
Staffanstorp Municipality is a municipality in Skåne County, southern Sweden. Its seat is located in the town Staffanstorp. Uppåkra, the former location for the city of Lund, is located in the municipality....

 which profiled themselves as the suburbs of the upper middle class. By 1985, Malmö had lost 35,000 inhabitants and was down to 229,000.

The Swedish financial crises of the early 1990s exacerbated Malmö's decline as an industrial city; between 1990-95, Malmö lost about 27,000 jobs and its economy was seriously strained. However, from 1994 and under the leadership of the new mayor Ilmar Reepalu
Ilmar Reepalu
IImar Reepalu is a Swedish Social Democrat politician and currently the mayor of the city of Malmö. After a professional life as a urban planner in Borås and Malmö, he became a municipal commissioner of Malmö in 1985...

, the city of Malmö started to re-conceptualize itself as a center of culture and knowledge. Malmö reached bottom in 1995 and the same year marked the commencement of the massive Øresund Bridge project. A new college, Malmö Högskola, was opened in 1998 on Kockums' former dockside and further redevelopment of the now disused south-western harbor followed; a city architecture exposition (Bo01) was held in the area in 2001 and its buildings and villas forms the core of a new city district, aimed at the urban middle-class and with attractive waterfront vistas.

Since the 1974 the Kockums Crane had been a landmark in Malmö and a symbol of the city's manufacturing industry, but in 2002 it was disassembled and moved to South Korea. In 2005 Malmö got a new landmark with completion of Turning Torso
Turning Torso
HSB Turning Torso is the tallest skyscraper in Sweden and the Nordic countries, situated in Malmö, Sweden, located on the Swedish side of the Öresund strait. Upon completion, it was the tallest building in Scandinavia, the tallest residential building in the EU and the second tallest residential...

, the tallest skyscraper in Scandinavia. Although, the transformation from a city with its economic base in manufacturing have returned growth to Malmö, it have largely benefited the already somewhat well-off. Malmö has the highest proportion of individuals of non-Scandinavian extraction of any Swedish city. And while the inner city are being gentrified
Gentrification
Gentrification and urban gentrification refer to the changes that result when wealthier people acquire or rent property in low income and working class communities. Urban gentrification is associated with movement. Consequent to gentrification, the average income increases and average family size...

 and the upper-middle class have inhabited the Western Harbor, little have changed for the inhabitants of in the districts of the Million Programme
Million Programme
The Million Programme is the common name for an ambitious housing programme implemented in Sweden between 1965 and 1974 by the governing Swedish Social Democratic Party to make sure everyone could have a home at a reasonable price. The aim of the programme was to build a million new dwellings in a...

; Malmö remains a city of sharp social divide and high unemployment.

At the 27th of April, 2011 Malmö reached 300,000 inhabitants.

Geography



Malmö is located at 13°00' east
13th meridian east
The meridian 13° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole....

 and 55°35' north. Its location in southernmost Sweden makes it closer to the Italian city of Milan
Milan
Milan is the second-largest city in Italy and the capital city of the region of Lombardy and of the province of Milan. The city proper has a population of about 1.3 million, while its urban area, roughly coinciding with its administrative province and the bordering Province of Monza and Brianza ,...

 than to the northernmost Swedish town Kiruna
Kiruna
Kiruna is the northernmost city in Sweden, situated in Lapland province, with 18,154 inhabitants in 2005. It is the seat of Kiruna Municipality Kiruna (Northern Sami: Giron, Finnish: Kiiruna) is the northernmost city in Sweden, situated in Lapland province, with 18,154 inhabitants in 2005. It is...

.

Malmö is part of the transnational Oresund Region
Oresund Region
The Øresund or Öresund Region is a transnational region in northern Europe, centred on the cities of Copenhagen and Malmö. Located by the shores of the Øresund strait and connected by the Oresund Bridge, the Capital Region of Denmark and Region Zealand constitute the Danish side, while Skåne...

 and since 2000 the Øresund Bridge crosses the Sound to Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Copenhagen is the capital and largest city of Denmark, with an urban population of 1,199,224 and a metropolitan population of 1,930,260 . With the completion of the transnational Øresund Bridge in 2000, Copenhagen has become the centre of the increasingly integrating Øresund Region...

, Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

. The bridge was inaugurated 1 July 2000, and measures 8 kilometres (the whole link totalling 16 km), with pylons reaching 204.5 metres vertically. Apart from the Helsingborg
Helsingborg
Helsingborg is a city and the seat of Helsingborg Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden with 97,122 inhabitants in 2010. Helsingborg is the centre of an area in the Øresund region of about 320,000 inhabitants in north-west Scania, and is Sweden's closest point to Denmark, with the Danish city...

-Helsingør ferry links further north, most ferry connections have been discontinued.

Climate


Malmö, like the rest of southern Sweden, has an oceanic climate
Oceanic climate
An oceanic climate, also called marine west coast climate, maritime climate, Cascadian climate and British climate for Köppen climate classification Cfb and subtropical highland for Köppen Cfb or Cwb, is a type of climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of some of the...

. Despite its northern location, the climate is relatively mild compared to other locations in similar latitudes, or even somewhat farther south, mainly because of the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension towards Europe, the North Atlantic Drift, is a powerful, warm, and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates at the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean...

. Because of its northern latitude, daylight extends 17 hours in midsummer, to only around 7 hours in midwinter.

Summers are warm and pleasant with average high temperatures of 20 to 21 °C (68 to 69.8 F) and lows of around 11 to 13 °C (51.8 to 55.4 F), but temperatures do sometimes exceed 25 °C (77 °F) and occasional heat waves are common during the summer. Winters are cold, with temperatures steady between -3 C, and it rarely drops below -10 °C.

Rainfall is light to moderate throughout the year with 169 wet days. Snowfall occurs mainly in December through March, but snow covers do not remain for a long time, and some winters are virtually free of snow.

Transport


Oresundtrain
Oresundtrain
Oresundtrain or Øresundståg is a regional rail network serving the Oresund Region. The train consists of multiple units manufactured by Bombardier Transportation in Kalmar, previously known as Kalmar Verkstad and lately in Hennigsdorf by LEW Hennigsdorf...

s cross Øresund Bridge every 20 minutes (every 10 minutes during rush hour) connecting Malmö to Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Copenhagen is the capital and largest city of Denmark, with an urban population of 1,199,224 and a metropolitan population of 1,930,260 . With the completion of the transnational Øresund Bridge in 2000, Copenhagen has become the centre of the increasingly integrating Øresund Region...

, and the Copenhagen Airport
Copenhagen Airport
Copenhagen Airport is the main international airport serving Copenhagen, Denmark and the Oresund Region. It is located on the island of Amager, south of Copenhagen city centre, and west of Malmö city centre on the other side of the Oresund Bridge. The airport lies mainly in the municipality...

. Also some of the X 2000
X 2000
X 2000 is the brand name of Sweden's tilting 200 km/h high-speed train class X2, which was constructed by Kalmar Verkstad in Kalmar, Sweden and operated by SJ. It was launched in 1990 as a first-class only train with a meal included in the ticket price, and free use of the train's fax machine...

 and Intercity trains to Stockholm
Stockholm
Stockholm is the capital and the largest city of Sweden and constitutes the most populated urban area in Scandinavia. Stockholm is the most populous city in Sweden, with a population of 851,155 in the municipality , 1.37 million in the urban area , and around 2.1 million in the metropolitan area...

, Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Gothenburg is the second-largest city in Sweden and the fifth-largest in the Nordic countries. Situated on the west coast of Sweden, the city proper has a population of 519,399, with 549,839 in the urban area and total of 937,015 inhabitants in the metropolitan area...

, and Kalmar
Kalmar
Kalmar is a city in Småland in the south-east of Sweden, situated by the Baltic Sea. It had 62,767 inhabitants in 2010 and is the seat of Kalmar Municipality. It is also the capital of Kalmar County, which comprises 12 municipalities with a total of 233,776 inhabitants .From the thirteenth to the...

 cross the bridge, stopping at Copenhagen Airport
Copenhagen Airport
Copenhagen Airport is the main international airport serving Copenhagen, Denmark and the Oresund Region. It is located on the island of Amager, south of Copenhagen city centre, and west of Malmö city centre on the other side of the Oresund Bridge. The airport lies mainly in the municipality...

. In March 2005, digging began on a new railway connection called the City Tunnel, which opened for traffic on December 4 2010. The tunnel runs from under Malmö Central Station to Triangeln continuing to Hyllievång
Hyllie railway station
Hyllie Station is a new railway station south of central Malmö, Sweden. The stationed opened in 2010 as a part of the newly built City Tunnel along with Triangeln railway station and a new underground part of Malmö Central Station....

 (Hyllie Meadow), where it emerges to connect with the Øresund Bridge, effectively changing Malmö Central from being a terminus
Terminal Station
Terminal Station is a 1953 film by Italian director Vittorio De Sica. It tells the story of the love affair between an Italian man and an American woman. The film was entered into the 1953 Cannes Film Festival.-Production:...

 to being a transit station.

Besides the Copenhagen Airport, Malmö has an airport of its own, Malmö Airport, today chiefly used for low-cost carrier
Low-cost carrier
A low-cost carrier or low-cost airline is an airline that generally has lower fares and fewer comforts...

s, charter flight routes, and domestic Swedish destinations.

The motorway system has been incorporated with the Øresund Bridge; the European route E20
European route E20
The European route E 20 is part of the United Nations International E-road network.It runs roughly west-east through Ireland, the United Kingdom, Denmark, Sweden, Estonia and finally Russia. The length is . The road is not continuous, at three points, a sea crossing is required. ...

 goes over the bridge and then, together with the European route E6
European route E6
European route E 6 is the designation for the main north-south road in Norway, and the west coast of Sweden, running from the southern tip of Sweden, at Trelleborg, into Norway and through almost all of the country north to Finnmark. The route ends close to the Norwegian border with Russia...

 follows the Swedish west coast from Malmö–Helsingborg
Helsingborg
Helsingborg is a city and the seat of Helsingborg Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden with 97,122 inhabitants in 2010. Helsingborg is the centre of an area in the Øresund region of about 320,000 inhabitants in north-west Scania, and is Sweden's closest point to Denmark, with the Danish city...

 to Gothenburg. E6 goes further north along the west coast and through Norway
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

 to the Norwegian town Kirkenes
Kirkenes
is a town in the municipality of Sør-Varanger in the county of Finnmark in the far northeast of Norway...

 at Barents Sea
Barents Sea
The Barents Sea is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located north of Norway and Russia. Known in the Middle Ages as the Murman Sea, the sea takes its current name from the Dutch navigator Willem Barents...

. The European route to Jönköping
Jönköping
-Notable people:*Lillian Asplund, RMS Titanic survivor*John Bauer, illustrator, painter*Amy Diamond, singer*Agnetha Fältskog, ABBA*Carl Henrik Fredriksson, editor-in-chief and co-founder of Eurozine*Anders Gustafsson, kayaker, Olympian...

Stockholm
Stockholm
Stockholm is the capital and the largest city of Sweden and constitutes the most populated urban area in Scandinavia. Stockholm is the most populous city in Sweden, with a population of 851,155 in the municipality , 1.37 million in the urban area , and around 2.1 million in the metropolitan area...

 (E4
European route E4
European route E 4 passes from north to south through Sweden from the border with Finland, total length . The Finnish part lies entirely within Tornio in northern Finland, and is actually only long...

) starts at Helsingborg. Main roads in direction of Växjö
Växjö
Växjö is a city and the seat of Växjö Municipality, Kronoberg County, Sweden with 64 200 inhabitants in 2010. It is the administrative, cultural and industrial centre of Kronoberg County. Furthermore it is the episcopal see of the Diocese of Växjö. It has a population of about 64 200, out of a...

Kalmar
Kalmar
Kalmar is a city in Småland in the south-east of Sweden, situated by the Baltic Sea. It had 62,767 inhabitants in 2010 and is the seat of Kalmar Municipality. It is also the capital of Kalmar County, which comprises 12 municipalities with a total of 233,776 inhabitants .From the thirteenth to the...

, Kristianstad
Kristianstad
Kristianstad is a city and the seat of Kristianstad Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden with 35,711 inhabitants in 2010.-History:The city was founded in 1614 by King Christian IV of Denmark, the city's name literally means 'Town of Christian', as a planned city after the burning of the town of Vä...

Karlskrona
Karlskrona
Karlskrona is a locality and the seat of Karlskrona Municipality, Blekinge County, Sweden with 35,212 inhabitants in 2010. It is also the capital of Blekinge County. Karlskrona is known as Sweden's only baroque city and is host to Sweden's only remaining naval base and the headquarters of the...

, Ystad
Ystad
Ystad is a "locality", or town, and the seat of Ystad Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden, with 17,286 inhabitants .Settlement dates back to the 11th century and the town has become a busy ferryport, local administrative centre and tourist attraction...

 (E65
European route E65
European route E 65 is a north-south Class-A European route that begins in Malmö, Sweden and ends in Chaniá, Greece. The road is about in length.-Itinerary:* Sweden** E 65: Malmö – Ystad* Baltic sea, ferry Ystad-Świnoujście* Poland...

), and Trelleborg
Trelleborg
Trelleborg is a locality and the seat of Trelleborg Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden with 25,643 inhabitants in 2005. It is the southernmost town in Sweden.-History:...

 start as freeways.

Malmö has 410 kilometres (254.8 mi) of bike paths and approximately 40% of all commuting is done by bicycle.

Malmö has 2 industrial harbours; one is still in active use and is the biggest Nordic port for car importation.
Also, there are two marinas: the publicly owned Limhamn Marina (55°35′N 12°55′E) and the private Lagunen (55°35′N 12°56′E), both offering a limited number of guest docks.
Free marine charts are available.

Municipality


Malmö Municipality is an administrative unit defined by geographical borders, consisting of the City of Malmö and its immediate surroundings.

The Malmö urban area
Malmö urban area
The Malmö Urban Area is the third largest of the 1,940 localities or urban areas of Sweden. As such it has no political or administrative significance, but is a geographical and statistical entity. It is not the same as Metropolitan Malmö , which is a much larger area.It is a bimunicipal locality...

, Malmö tätort consists of the urban part of the municipality together with the small town of Arlöv
Arlöv
Arlöv is the seat of Burlöv Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden. It is statistically not defined as a locality of its own, but forms part of the contiguous Malmö urban area, 5 km northeast of downtown Malmö. Out of Malmö's 280,000 inhbitants, 11000 live in Arlöv...

 in the municipality of Burlöv
Burlöv Municipality
Burlöv Municipality is a municipality in Skåne County in southern Sweden, just north of Malmö. Its seat is located in a part of Malmö urban area called Arlöv....

. Both municipalities also include smaller urban areas
Urban areas in Sweden
Urban area is a common English translation of the Swedish term tätort. The official term in English, used by Statistics Sweden, is, however, locality. There are 1,940 localities in Sweden . They could be compared with census-designated places in the United States.A tätort in Sweden has a minimum of...

 and rural areas, such as the suburbs of Oxie
Oxie
Oxie is a locality and a city district in Malmö Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden with 9,225 inhabitants in 2005.Notable buildings include the medieval Oxie church, and the water tower. From the train station commuter trains proceed to Malmö and Ystad.It is dominated by residential areas of...

 and Åkarp
Åkarp
Åkarp is a locality situated in Burlöv Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden with 5,393 inhabitants in 2005.It lies approximately 9 km northeast of Malmö and 12 km southwest of Lund. It has a station on the Skåne commuter rail network.- References :...

. Malmö tätort is to be distinguished from Malmö stad (the city of Malmö), which is a semi-official name of Malmö Municipality
Malmö Municipality
Malmö Municipality is a municipality in Skåne County in Sweden. Its seat is located in the city of Malmö.When the first Swedish local government acts were implemented in 1863 the old City of Malmö was made one of the country's 88 city municipalities and the first city council was elected...

.

Demographics


After 1971, Malmö had 265,000 inhabitants, the population then dropped to 229,000 by 1985. It then began to rise again, and had passed the previous record by the 1 January 2003 census, when it had 265,481 inhabitants.

30% of Malmö's inhabitants, 87,554 persons, are born abroad and even without counting second generation immigrants, this places Malmö as the Swedish city with the most immigrants per capita.

The largest groups of immigrants have arrived from:
  1.  Kingdom of Yugoslavia Former Yugoslavia
    Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
    The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was the Yugoslav state that existed from the abolition of the Yugoslav monarchy until it was dissolved in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars. It was a socialist state and a federation made up of six socialist republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia,...

     (14,450)
  2.  Iraq Iraq
    Iraq
    Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

     (10,000)
  3.  Denmark Denmark
    Denmark
    Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

     (9,200)
  4.  Poland Poland
    Poland
    Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

     (6,900)
  5.  Lebanon Lebanon
    Lebanon
    Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Arabic is the most common language spoken among...

     (3,900)
  6.  Iran Iran
    Iran
    Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

     (3,600)
  7.  Palestinian territories Palestine
    Palestine
    Palestine is a conventional name, among others, used to describe the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands....

     (2,500)
  8.  Turkey Turkey
    Turkey
    Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

     (2,300)
  9.  Afghanistan Afghanistan
    Afghanistan
    Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

     (2,100)
  10.  Kingdom of Romania Romania
    Romania
    Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

     (2.050)


As of 2005, Malmö had the third-highest proportion of foreign-born residents of any municipality in Sweden. There were 171 different nationalities represented in Malmö in 2007.

Economy


The economy of Malmö was traditionally based on shipbuilding (Kockums
Kockums
Kockums AB is a shipyard in Malmö, Sweden owned by the German shipyard Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft in Kiel. HDW itself is a subsidiary of the German ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems....

) and construction related industries, such as concrete factories. The region's leading university, along with its associated hi-tech and pharmaceutical industries, is located in Lund
Lund
-Main sights:During the 12th and 13th centuries, when the town was the seat of the archbishop, many churches and monasteries were built. At its peak, Lund had 27 churches, but most of them were demolished as result of the Reformation in 1536. Several medieval buildings remain, including Lund...

 about 16 km to the north-east. As a result, Malmö had a troubled economic situation following the mid-1970s. Between 1990-1995, 27,000 jobs were lost, and the budget deficit was more than one billion Swedish krona
Swedish krona
The krona has been the currency of Sweden since 1873. Both the ISO code "SEK" and currency sign "kr" are in common use; the former precedes or follows the value, the latter usually follows it, but especially in the past, it sometimes preceded the value...

. In 1995, Malmö had Sweden's highest unemployment rate

However, during the last few years there has been a revival. The main contributing factor has been the economic integration with Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

 brought about by the Øresund Bridge. Almost 10% of the population in Malmö works in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Copenhagen is the capital and largest city of Denmark, with an urban population of 1,199,224 and a metropolitan population of 1,930,260 . With the completion of the transnational Øresund Bridge in 2000, Copenhagen has become the centre of the increasingly integrating Øresund Region...

, Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

 . Also the university college (Malmö Högskola) founded in 1998 and the effects of integration into the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

 have contributed.

Malmö still has comparatively high unemployment figures, particularly among the ethnically and socially diverse areas in the eastern and southern parts. In 2004, the rate of wage-earners was 63%, compared to 74% in Stockholm
Stockholm
Stockholm is the capital and the largest city of Sweden and constitutes the most populated urban area in Scandinavia. Stockholm is the most populous city in Sweden, with a population of 851,155 in the municipality , 1.37 million in the urban area , and around 2.1 million in the metropolitan area...

 and 71% in Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Gothenburg is the second-largest city in Sweden and the fifth-largest in the Nordic countries. Situated on the west coast of Sweden, the city proper has a population of 519,399, with 549,839 in the urban area and total of 937,015 inhabitants in the metropolitan area...

. This in turn lead to Malmö municipality in 2007 having the 9th lowest median income in Sweden, ranked far below the other larger Swedish cities Stockholm (31st) and Gothenburg (94th).

As of 2005, the largest companies were:
  • Skanska
    Skanska
    Skanska AB, is a multinational construction and development company based in Sweden, where it also is the largest construction company. The company's head office is in Solna, north of Stockholm.-History:...

     – heavy construction: 3,025 employees
  • ISS Facility Service AB – hospital service, cleaning, etc.: 1,725 employees
  • E.ON Sverige – electricity: 1,025 employees
  • Sydsvenskan
    Sydsvenskan
    -External links:*...

     – newspaper: 1,025 employees
  • Pågen
    Pågen
    Pågen is a Swedish bakery company founded in 1878 by Anders and Matilda Påhlsson. The company started off as a little bakery shop in Malmö in the southern province of Scania. Their bakeries are run by around 1350 employees, and are located in Malmö and Gothenburg. Their products include various...

     – bakery: 975 employees

Education


Malmö has the country's eighth largest school of higher education with the university college
University college
The term "university college" is used in a number of countries to denote college institutions that provide tertiary education but do not have full or independent university status. A university college is often part of a larger university...

 Malmö Högskola established in 1998. It has 1,400 employees and 23,900 students (as of 2011).

In addition, the venerable Lund University
Lund University
Lund University , located in the city of Lund in the province of Scania, Sweden, is one of northern Europe's most prestigious universities and one of Scandinavia's largest institutions for education and research, frequently ranked among the world's top 100 universities...

 (established in 1666) has some education located in Malmö:
  • Malmö Art Academy (Konsthögskolan i Malmö)
  • Malmö Academy of Music (Musikhögskolan i Malmö)
  • Malmö Theatre Academy (Teaterhögskolan i Malmö)
  • The Faculty of Medicine, which is located in both Malmö and Lund
    Lund
    -Main sights:During the 12th and 13th centuries, when the town was the seat of the archbishop, many churches and monasteries were built. At its peak, Lund had 27 churches, but most of them were demolished as result of the Reformation in 1536. Several medieval buildings remain, including Lund...

    .


The UN World Maritime University
World Maritime University
World Maritime University was established in 1983 by the International Maritime Organization. It is located in Malmö, Sweden with campuses in Shanghai and Dalian, China....

 is also located in Malmö. The World Maritime University (WMU) operates under the auspices of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), a specialized agency of the United Nations. WMU thus enjoys the status, privileges and immunities of a UN institution in Sweden.

Culture


A striking depiction of Malmö was made by Bo Widerberg in his engaging debut film Kvarteret Korpen (Raven's End) (1963), largely shot in the shabby Korpen working-class district in Malmö. With humour and tenderness it depicts the tensions between classes and generations. The movie was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film
Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film
The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film is one of the Academy Awards of Merit, popularly known as the Oscars, handed out annually by the U.S.-based Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences...

 in 1965.

Theatre



In 1944, one of the city's most enduring cultural hubs was inaugurated, Malmö Stadsteater (Malmö Municipal Theatre) with a repertory embracing both stage theatre, opera, musical, ballet, musical recitals and theatrical experiments. In 1993 it was split into three separate units, Dramatiska Teater (Dramatical Theatre), Malmö Musikteater (Music Theatre) and Skånes Dansteater (Scanian Dance Theatre) and the name was abandon. When the ownership of the last two where transferred to Region Skåne in 2006 Dramatiska Teatern retained its old name. In the 1950s Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
Ernst Ingmar Bergman was a Swedish director, writer and producer for film, stage and television. Described by Woody Allen as "probably the greatest film artist, all things considered, since the invention of the motion picture camera", he is recognized as one of the most accomplished and...

 was the Director and Chief Stage Director of Malmö Stadsteater and many of his actors, like Max von Sydow
Max von Sydow
Max von Sydow is a Swedish actor. He has also held French citizenship since 2002. He has starred in many films and had supporting roles in dozens more...

 and Ingrid Thulin
Ingrid Thulin
Ingrid Lilian Thulin was a Swedish film actress.-Biography:Thulin was born in Sollefteå, Ångermanland, northern Sweden, the daughter of Nanna and Adam Thulin, a fisherman...

 were brought to stardom through his films. Later stage directors include Staffan Valdemar Holm
Staffan Valdemar Holm
Staffan Valdemar Holm is a Swedish-German theatre director.Staffan Valdemar Holm was trained at Statens Teaterskole in Copenhagen, Denmark...

 and Göran Stangertz
Göran Stangertz
Göran Nils Robert Stangertz is a Swedish actor and director and presently director at Helsingborgsteatern. He has won Sweden's most prestigious film award Guldbaggen twice in the category best male leading role for his roles in Det sista äventyret and Spring för livet .-External links:...

. Malmö Musikteater were renamed Malmö Operan
Malmö Opera and Music Theatre
Malmö Opera and Music Theatre is an opera house in Malmö, Sweden. An opera company of the same name presents seasons of opera in this house....

 and plays operas and musicals, classics as newly composed, on one of Scandinavia's largest opera scenes with 1,511 seats. Skånes dansteater is also active and plays contemporary dance repertory and present works by Swedish and international choreographers in their house in Malmö harbour.

Since the 1970s the city has also been home to a rich, if fluctuating, array of independent theatre groups and some show/musical companies. It also hosts a rich rock/dance/dub culture; in the 1960s The Rolling Stones
The Rolling Stones
The Rolling Stones are an English rock band, formed in London in April 1962 by Brian Jones , Ian Stewart , Mick Jagger , and Keith Richards . Bassist Bill Wyman and drummer Charlie Watts completed the early line-up...

 played the Klubb Bongo, and in recent years stars like Morrissey
Morrissey
Steven Patrick Morrissey , known as Morrissey, is an English singer and lyricist. He rose to prominence in the 1980s as the lyricist and vocalist of the alternative rock band The Smiths. The band was highly successful in the United Kingdom but broke up in 1987, and Morrissey began a solo career,...

, Nick Cave
Nick Cave
Nicholas Edward "Nick" Cave is an Australian musician, songwriter, author, screenwriter, and occasional film actor.He is best known for his work as a frontman of the critically acclaimed rock band Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds, established in 1984, a group known for its eclectic influences and...

, B.B. King and Pat Metheny
Pat Metheny
Patrick Bruce "Pat" Metheny is an American jazz guitarist and composer.One of the most successful and critically acclaimed jazz musicians to come to prominence in the 1970s and '80s, he is the leader of the Pat Metheny Group and is also involved in duets, solo works and other side projects...

 have made repeated visits.

The Cardigans
The Cardigans
The Cardigans are a Swedish rock band formed in the town of Jönköping in October 1992.Their debut album Emmerdale gave them a solid base in their home country and enjoyed some success abroad, especially in Japan. It was not until their second album Life that an international reputation was secured...

 made their start in Malmö and recorded their albums there. On 7 January 2009 CNN
CNN
Cable News Network is a U.S. cable news channel founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. Upon its launch, CNN was the first channel to provide 24-hour television news coverage, and the first all-news television channel in the United States...

 Travel broadcasted a segment called "MyCity_MyLife" featuring Nina Persson
Nina Persson
is the lead singer and lyricist for the Swedish pop group The Cardigans. She has also worked as a solo artist, releasing two albums as A Camp and appearing on the tribute album to Serge Gainsbourg entitled Monsieur Gainsbourg Revisited...

 taking the camera to some of the sites in Malmö that she enjoys.

The Rooseum
Rooseum
The Rooseum Center for Contemporary Art, located in Malmö, Sweden, was a formally private-owned centre for contemporary art. Founded in 1988 by the Swedish art collector and financier Fredrik Roos, the Rooseum promoted experimental relationships between art, artists and audience, by offering...

 Centre for Contemporary Art, founded in 1988 by the Swedish art collector and financier Fredrik Roos and housed in a former power station which had been built in 1900, was one of the foremost centres for contemporary art
Contemporary art
Contemporary art can be defined variously as art produced at this present point in time or art produced since World War II. The definition of the word contemporary would support the first view, but museums of contemporary art commonly define their collections as consisting of art produced...

 in Europe during the 1980s and 1990s. By 2006, most of the collection had been sold off and the museum was on a time-out; by 2010 Rooseum had been dismantled and a subsidiary of the national Museum of Modern Design inaugurated in its place.

Museums


On 26 December 2009, Moderna Museet
Moderna Museet
Moderna museet, the Museum of Modern Art, Stockholm, Sweden, is a state museum located on the island of Skeppsholmen in central Stockholm, that was first opened in 1958. Its first manager was Pontus Hultén...

 ("the modern museum") opened its first outpost in the old Rooseum building in Malmö. The collection of Moderna Museet holds key pieces of, among others, Marcel Duchamp
Marcel Duchamp
Marcel Duchamp was a French artist whose work is most often associated with the Dadaist and Surrealist movements. Considered by some to be one of the most important artists of the 20th century, Duchamp's output influenced the development of post-World War I Western art...

, Louise Bourgeois
Louise Bourgeois
Louise Joséphine Bourgeois , was a renowned French-American artist and sculptor, best known for her contributions to both modern and contemporary art, and for her spider structures, titled Maman, which resulted in her being nicknamed the Spiderwoman...

, Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso
Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso known as Pablo Ruiz Picasso was a Spanish expatriate painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, and stage designer, one of the greatest and most influential artists of the...

, Niki de Saint Phalle
Niki de Saint Phalle
Niki de Saint Phalle, born Catherine-Marie-Agnès-Brandon Fal de Saint Phalle was a French sculptor, painter, and film maker.-The early years:...

, Salvador Dalí
Salvador Dalí
Salvador Domènec Felip Jacint Dalí i Domènech, Marquis de Púbol , commonly known as Salvador Dalí , was a prominent Spanish Catalan surrealist painter born in Figueres,Spain....

, Carolee Schneemann
Carolee Schneemann
Carolee Schneemann is an American visual artist, known for her discourses on the body, sexuality and gender. She received a B.A. from Bard College and an M.F.A. from the University of Illinois. Her work is primarily characterized by research into visual traditions, taboos, and the body of the...

, Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse was a French artist, known for his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a draughtsman, printmaker, and sculptor, but is known primarily as a painter...

 och Robert Rauschenberg
Robert Rauschenberg
Robert Rauschenberg was an American artist who came to prominence in the 1950s transition from Abstract Expressionism to Pop Art. Rauschenberg is well-known for his "Combines" of the 1950s, in which non-traditional materials and objects were employed in innovative combinations...


The Malmö Konsthall is one of the largest exhibition halls in Europe for contemporary art, opened in 1975.

Architecture




Malmö's oldest building is St Peter's Church
St Petri, Malmö
The Church of Saint Peter is a large church in Malmö. Construction was started in 1319. It is built in the Gothic style and has a 105-metre tall tower.-References:...

. It was built in the early 14th century in Baltic Brick Gothic probably after St Mary's Church
St. Mary's Church, Lübeck
The Lutheran Marienkirche in Lübeck was constructed between 1250 and 1350. For many years it has been a symbol of the power and prosperity of the old Hanseatic city, and as Germany's third largest church it remains the tallest building of the old part of Lübeck. It is larger than Lübeck Cathedral...

 in Lübeck. The church is built with a nave
Nave
In Romanesque and Gothic Christian abbey, cathedral basilica and church architecture, the nave is the central approach to the high altar, the main body of the church. "Nave" was probably suggested by the keel shape of its vaulting...

, two aisles, a transept
Transept
For the periodical go to The Transept.A transept is a transverse section, of any building, which lies across the main body of the building. In Christian churches, a transept is an area set crosswise to the nave in a cruciform building in Romanesque and Gothic Christian church architecture...

 and a tower. Its exterior is characterized above all by the flying buttress
Buttress
A buttress is an architectural structure built against or projecting from a wall which serves to support or reinforce the wall...

es spanning its airy arches over the aisles and ambulatory
Ambulatory
The ambulatory is the covered passage around a cloister. The term is sometimes applied to the procession way around the east end of a cathedral or large church and behind the high altar....

. The tower, which fell down twice during the 15th century, got its current look in 1890.

Another old building is Tunneln, 300 metres (984.3 ft) to the west of St Peter's church, which also dates back to around 1300.

The oldest parts of Malmö were built between 1300-1600 during its first major period of expansion. The central city's layout as well as some of its oldest buildings are from this time. Many of the smaller buildings from this time are typical Scanian: two story urban houses that show a strong Danish influence.

Recession followed in the ensuing centuries. The next expansion period was in the mid 19th century and led to the modern stone and brick city. This expansion lasted into the 20th century and can be seen by a number of Jugendstil buildings for which the city is known, including the Malmö synagogue
Malmö Synagogue
Malmö Synagogue is the only synagogue in Malmö, Sweden. It was built in 1903 - designed by the architect John Smedberg, and has an Art Nouveau and Moorish Revival design. The services of worship are orthodox.-Attacks:...

. Malmö was relatively late to be influenced by modern ideas of functionalist
Functionalism (architecture)
Functionalism, in architecture, is the principle that architects should design a building based on the purpose of that building. This statement is less self-evident than it first appears, and is a matter of confusion and controversy within the profession, particularly in regard to modern...

 tenement architecture in the 1930s.
Around 1965, the government initiated the so-called Million Programme
Million Programme
The Million Programme is the common name for an ambitious housing programme implemented in Sweden between 1965 and 1974 by the governing Swedish Social Democratic Party to make sure everyone could have a home at a reasonable price. The aim of the programme was to build a million new dwellings in a...

, intending to offer affordable apartments in the outskirts of major Swedish cities. But this period also saw the reconstruction (and razing) of much of the historical city centre.

Recent years have seen a bolder, more cosmopolitan architecture. Västra Hamnen
Västra hamnen
Västra hamnen is a neighbourhood of Malmö, situated in the Borough of Centrum, Malmö Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden....

 (The Western Harbour), like most of the harbour to the north of the city centre, was industrial. In 2001, however, its reconstruction began as an exclusive, albeit secluded, urban residential neighbourhood. The 500 dwelling units are extremely unique and inventive, and most were part of the exhibition Bo01. The exhibition had two main objectives: develop self-sufficient housing units in terms of energy and greatly diminish phosphorus emissions. Among the new buildings towers the Turning Torso
Turning Torso
HSB Turning Torso is the tallest skyscraper in Sweden and the Nordic countries, situated in Malmö, Sweden, located on the Swedish side of the Öresund strait. Upon completion, it was the tallest building in Scandinavia, the tallest residential building in the EU and the second tallest residential...

, a spectacular twisting skyscraper, 190 metres (623.4 ft) tall, the majority of which is residential. It quickly became Malmö's new landmark within Sweden.

Other sights


The beach Ribersborg in the western harbour, is a man-made shallow beach, stretching along Malmö's coastline. Despite Malmö's chilly climate, it is sometimes referred to as the "Riviera of the North" or the "Swedish Riviera". It is the site of Ribersborgs open-air bath
Ribersborgs open-air bath
Ribersborg open-air bath is an open-air public bath on the Ribersborg beach in Malmö, Sweden approximately one kilometre southwest of Turning Torso...

, opened in the 1890s.

The long boardwalk at The Western Harbour has become a new favourite summer hang-out for the people of Malmö and is a popular place for bathing. The harbour is particularly popular with Malmö's vibrant student community and has been the scene of several impromptu outdoor parties and gatherings.

Events


In the third week of August each year a festival, Malmöfestivalen, fills the streets of Malmö with different kinds of cuisines and events.

BUFF
BUFF (Malmö Film Festival)
The International Children and Young People's Film Festival in Malmö. Swedish: Barn- och ungdomsfilmfestivalen i Malmö – BUFF, is a film festival in Malmö, Sweden, held in March.-External links:* - official web page in English...

, the International Children and Young People's Film Festival in Malmö, takes place every year in March.

In 1914 the Baltic Exhibition
Baltic Exhibition
The Baltic Exhibition was held in Malmö, Sweden from May 15, 1914 until October 4, 1914. It presented exhibits of industry, art and crafts from Sweden, Denmark, Germany and Russia — the four countries then bordering the Baltic Sea...

 was held in Malmö which consisted of exhibitions about industry, art and crafts from Sweden, Denmark, Germany and Russia. In 1992 Malmö was the host of the Eurovision Song Contest 1992
Eurovision Song Contest 1992
The Eurovision Song Contest 1992 was the 37th Eurovision Song Contest and was held on 9 May 1992 in Malmö, Sweden. The presenters were Lydia Cappolicchio and Harald Treutiger. Linda Martin, representing Ireland, was the winner of this Eurovision with the song Why Me?. The song was written by Johnny...

, after Sweden won it the previous year.

The Nordic Games Conference, one of the most important events in the game development industry, takes place in Malmö every May. The event consists of conference itself, recruitment expo and game expo and attracts hundreds of gamedev professionals every year.

Malmö hosts many other different types of contests and special events in Entré, inside the city centre. These include the events such as the Swedish version of Oktoberfest, modelling catwalk contests showing the latest fashion to jackets and coats, to lingerie and garments.

Malmö also known to host other 3rd party events that cater to all communities that reside in Malmö, including religious and political celebrations.

Media


Sydsvenska Dagbladet, founded in 1870, is Malmö's largest daily newspaper, and also one of its larger employers (see section Economy). It has an average circulation of 130,000. Its main competitor is the regional daily Skånska Dagbladet, which has a circulation of 34,000. In addition to these, a number of free-of-charge papers, generally dealing with entertainment, music and fashion have local editions (for instance City, Rodeo, Metro and Nöjesguiden). Malmö is also home to the Egmont media group's Swedish magazine operations. A number of local and regional radio and TV broadcasters are based in the Greater Malmö area.

Sports


Sports in southern Sweden is dominated by football. Over the years the city's best football team has been Malmö FF
Malmö FF
Malmö Fotbollförening, also known simply as Malmö FF, are a Swedish professional football club based in Malmö. The club is affiliated with Skånes Fotbollförbund and play their home games at Swedbank Stadion. The club colours, reflected in their crest and kit, are sky blue and white...

 who play in the top level Allsvenskan
Allsvenskan
Allsvenskan is a Swedish professional league for association football clubs. At the top of the Swedish football league system, it is the country's primary football competition. Contested by 16 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with Superettan...

. They had their most successful periods in the 1970s and 1980s, when they won the league several times. In 1979, they advanced to the final of the European Cup defeating AS Monaco, Dynamo Kiew, Wisla Krakow and Austria Vienna but lost in the final at the Munich Olympic Stadium against Nottingham Forest by a single goal just before half time scored by Trevor Francis
Trevor Francis
Trevor John Francis , is a former footballer who won the European Cup with Nottingham Forest and played for England 52 times. He was England's first £1 million player...

. To date, they are the only Swedish football club to have reached the final of the competition. Malmö FF is the club where Zlatan Ibrahimović
Zlatan Ibrahimovic
Zlatan Ibrahimović is a Swedish footballer who plays as a striker for Serie A club Milan and the Swedish national team for which he is captain....

 began his professional football career. A second football team, IFK Malmö
IFK Malmö
IFK Malmö is a Swedish football club located in Malmö. The club was founded April 23, 1899.- History :The club was founded in 1899 making it the oldest football club in Malmö. IFK participated in the first season of Allsvenskan in 1924/25. The club has altogether played 13 seasons in the premier...

 played in Sweden's top flight for about 20 years and the club's quarterfinal in the European Cup is the club's greatest achievement in its history. Today, the club resides in the sixth tier of the Swedish league system. Examples of other Malmö based clubs are IF Limhamn Bunkeflo
IF Limhamn Bunkeflo
IF Limhamn Bunkeflo 2007, sometimes referred to as LB07, is a Swedish professional football club located in the suburb Limhamn of Malmö. The club play in Division 1 Södra, the third tier of the Swedish football league system. The club is affiliated to Skånes Fotbollförbund...

 and FC Rosengård
FC Rosengård
FC Rosengård is a Swedish professional football club located in the area Rosengård of Malmö. The club was founded in 1917 as Malmö Boll & Idrottsförening but has since been merged once and renamed twice...

. Both in Division 1 South, the third tier. Held in Sweden, Malmö was one of the four cities to host the 2009 UEFA European Under-21 Football Championship
2009 UEFA European Under-21 Football Championship
The 2009 UEFA European Under-21 Football Championship began on 15 June 2009, and was the 17th UEFA European Under-21 Football Championship. This was the first tournament after the competition reverted to a two-year format, following the single-year 2006-07 competition, which allowed the change to...

 and hosted the final.

The most notable other sports team is the ice hockey team Malmö Redhawks
Malmö Redhawks
The Malmö Redhawks is an ice hockey club from Malmö, Sweden. The team is currently playing in the second highest league in Sweden, HockeyAllsvenskan. Malmö has played 16 seasons in the top Swedish league Elitserien .-History:...

. They were the creation of millionaire Percy Nilsson and quickly rose to the highest rank in the early to mid-1990s and won two Swedish championships, but for a number of years have found themselves residing outside of the top flight. Malmö also has teams that play first division handball HK Malmö
HK Malmö
HK Malmö is a handball club based in Malmö, Sweden. It plays in the highest handball division in Sweden.The club was formed in May 2007 through a merger....

, baseball, American football and Australian football. Of these last mentioned sports only handball attracts a fair amount of attendance. Gaelic football has also been introduced to Malmö, with the new Malmö G.A.A. club winning the Scandinavian Championships in their inauguaral year, 2009, and are again in the running for 2011.

Among non-team sports badminton
Badminton
Badminton is a racquet sport played by either two opposing players or two opposing pairs , who take positions on opposite halves of a rectangular court that is divided by a net. Players score points by striking a shuttlecock with their racquet so that it passes over the net and lands in their...

 and athletics are the most popular together with east Asian martial arts and boxing. Basketball is also fairly a big sport in the city, including the clubs Malbas
Malbas
Malbas is a basketball team based in Malmö, Sweden. The club was founded in 1969 as Malmö BF....

 and SF Srbija among others.

Women are permitted by the city council to swim topless in public swimming pools. Everyone must wear bathing attire, but covering of the breasts is not mandatory. "We don’t decide what men should do with their torso, why then do women have to listen to the men. Moreover, many men have larger breasts than women", remarked a council spokesman.

See also

  • Oresund Region
    Oresund Region
    The Øresund or Öresund Region is a transnational region in northern Europe, centred on the cities of Copenhagen and Malmö. Located by the shores of the Øresund strait and connected by the Oresund Bridge, the Capital Region of Denmark and Region Zealand constitute the Danish side, while Skåne...

  • Ports of the Baltic Sea
    Ports of the Baltic Sea
    There are over 200 ports in the Baltic Sea. When only those ports that handle minimum of 50,000 tonnes of cargo annually, and where at least part of this cargo is international, are taken into account the number of ports reaches approximately 190. In 2008, the total amount of cargo handled in the...

  • List of people connected to Malmö
  • Governors of Malmö
  • Chronicle of the Expulsion of the Grayfriars#Chapter 4 Concerning the Friary in Malmø
  • Bulltofta Airport
    Bulltofta Airport
    Bulltofta Airport was, from 1923 to 1972, the main airport serving the city of Malmö, Sweden, until it was replaced by Sturup Airport. The former airport area, in the district of Kirseberg, has been converted into, in part, a major park, in part a commercial area.The route Malmö-Copenhagen, started...


External links