Lundbeck

Lundbeck

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Lundbeck'
Start a new discussion about 'Lundbeck'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
H. Lundbeck A/S is a Danish
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

 international pharmaceutical company
Pharmaceutical company
The pharmaceutical industry develops, produces, and markets drugs licensed for use as medications. Pharmaceutical companies are allowed to deal in generic and/or brand medications and medical devices...

 engaged in the research and development
Research and development
The phrase research and development , according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, refers to "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of...

, production, marketing
Marketing
Marketing is the process used to determine what products or services may be of interest to customers, and the strategy to use in sales, communications and business development. It generates the strategy that underlies sales techniques, business communication, and business developments...

, and sale of drugs
Medication
A pharmaceutical drug, also referred to as medicine, medication or medicament, can be loosely defined as any chemical substance intended for use in the medical diagnosis, cure, treatment, or prevention of disease.- Classification :...

 for the treatment
Psychotherapy
Psychotherapy is a general term referring to any form of therapeutic interaction or treatment contracted between a trained professional and a client or patient; family, couple or group...

 of disorders in the central nervous system (CNS), including depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington's disease, epilepsy and insomnia.

Headquartered in Copenhagen, Denmark Lundbeck has international production facilities in Denmark, Mexico, Italy and France and affiliates or sales offices in 57 countries. Lundbeck employs around 5.900 people globally (as of 2010), and the company’s products are registered in more than 100 countries world wide.

In 2010, the company's revenue
Revenue
In business, revenue is income that a company receives from its normal business activities, usually from the sale of goods and services to customers. In many countries, such as the United Kingdom, revenue is referred to as turnover....

 was DKK 14.765 billion (€1.97 billion).

Lundbeck is listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange
Copenhagen Stock Exchange
The Copenhagen Stock Exchange or CSE is an international marketplace for Danish securities, including shares, bonds, treasury bills and notes, and financial futures and options...

 (CSE).

Lundbeck is a full member of the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations
European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations
European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations is a Brussels-based trade union founded in 1978 representing the research-based pharmaceutical industry operating in Europe....

 (EFPIA) and of the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations (IFPMA)

History


The company was founded by Hans Lundbeck in 1915, and was initially a trading company
Trading company
Trading companies are businesses working with different kinds of products which are sold for consumer, business or government purposes. Trading companies buy a specialized range of products, maintain a stock or a shop, and deliver products to customers....

 supplying a variety of goods to the Danish market, including machinery for manufacturing
Manufacturing
Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale...

, aluminium foil
Aluminium foil
Aluminium foil is aluminium prepared in thin metal leaves, with a thickness less than , thinner gauges down to are also commonly used. In the USA, foils are commonly gauged in mils. Standard household foil is typically thick and heavy duty household foil is typically .The foil is pliable, and...

, artificial sweeteners, and photographic equipment
Photography
Photography is the art, science and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film...

.

Lundbeck entered the pharmaceutical market in 1924, importing medicine
Medicine
Medicine is the science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness....

s and cosmetics
Cosmetics
Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body. Cosmetics include skin-care creams, lotions, powders, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail and toe nail polish, eye and facial makeup, towelettes, permanent waves, colored contact lenses, hair colors, hair sprays and...

 from companies based in other Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

an and American
Americas
The Americas, or America , are lands in the Western hemisphere, also known as the New World. In English, the plural form the Americas is often used to refer to the landmasses of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions, while the singular form America is primarily...

 countries. By the late 1930s, Lundbeck had begun to produce its own medicinal products and had established its own research
Research
Research can be defined as the scientific search for knowledge, or as any systematic investigation, to establish novel facts, solve new or existing problems, prove new ideas, or develop new theories, usually using a scientific method...

 department. Production continued during the Second World War, although it was limited due to a lack of raw materials.

After the war, Lundbeck continued to grow and in 1957 the company introduced Truxal for the treatment of schizophrenia, entering the market for brain disorders.
From the late 1970s and up through the 1980s, Lundbeck diverted its old agency business and thus became a dedicated pharmaceutical company focusing on the production of drugs used to treat disorders and diseases of the central nervous system
Central nervous system
The central nervous system is the part of the nervous system that integrates the information that it receives from, and coordinates the activity of, all parts of the bodies of bilaterian animals—that is, all multicellular animals except sponges and radially symmetric animals such as jellyfish...

.
In 1989, Lundbeck launched the anti-depressant Cipramil, which became the cornerstone for the company’s international expansion and in 2009 Lundbeck, bought Ovation and established a commercial platform in the USA.

Key products


Key products are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors or serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor are a class of compounds typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of depression, anxiety disorders, and some personality disorders. The efficacy of SSRIs is disputed...

(SSRI) escitalopram
Escitalopram
Escitalopram is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class. It is approved by the U.S...

, and memantine.

Lundbeck manufactures drugs as escitalopram
Escitalopram
Escitalopram is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class. It is approved by the U.S...

 (Cipralex/Lexapro) against (depression), memantine (Ebixa) against Alzheimer’s disease, rasagiline
Rasagiline
Rasagiline is an irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase used as a monotherapy in early Parkinson's disease or as an adjunct therapy in more advanced cases. It is selective for MAO type B over type A by a factor of fourteen....

 (Azilect) against Parkinson’s disease, tetrabenazine
Tetrabenazine
Tetrabenazine is a drug for the symptomatic treatment of hyperkinetic movement disorder and is marketed under the trade names Nitoman in Canada and Xenazine in New Zealand and some parts of Europe, and is also available in the USA as an orphan drug. On August 15, 2008 the U.S...

 (Xenazine) against chorea associated with Huntington's disease, sertindole
Sertindole
Sertindole is an antipsychotic medication. Sertindole was developed by the Danish pharmaceutical company H. Lundbeck and marketed under license by Abbott Labs. Like other atypical antipsychotics, it has activity at dopamine and serotonin receptors in the brain. It is used in the treatment of...

 (Serdolect) against schizophrenia and vigabatrin
Vigabatrin
Vigabatrin is an antiepileptic drug that inhibits the catabolism of gamma-aminobutyric acid by irreversibly inhibiting GABA transaminase. It is an analog of GABA, but it is not a receptor agonist...

 (Sabril) against epilepsy.

Controversies


Lundbeck also produces Nembutal Sodium Solution (pentobarbital
Pentobarbital
Pentobarbital is a short-acting barbiturate that was first synthesized in 1928. Pentobarbital is available as both a free acid and a sodium salt, the former of which is only slightly soluble in water and ethanol....

 sodium injection, USP), and holds the only license to manufacture pentobarbital in the United States. The drug has been chosen as a substitute for Sodium thiopental
Sodium thiopental
Sodium thiopental, better known as Sodium Pentothal , thiopental, thiopentone sodium, or Trapanal , is a rapid-onset short-acting barbiturate general anaesthetic...

 in the three drug cocktail used for execution by lethal injection
Lethal injection
Lethal injection is the practice of injecting a person with a fatal dose of drugs for the express purpose of causing the immediate death of the subject. The main application for this procedure is capital punishment, but the term may also be applied in a broad sense to euthanasia and suicide...

 in that nation. In 2011, several human rights organizations such as Reprieve, Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Amnesty International is an international non-governmental organisation whose stated mission is "to conduct research and generate action to prevent and end grave abuses of human rights, and to demand justice for those whose rights have been violated."Following a publication of Peter Benenson's...

, Council of Europe Goodwill Ambassador Bianca Jagger
Bianca Jagger
Bianca Jagger is a Nicaraguan-born social and human rights advocate and a former actress and model...

 as well as abolitionists from around the world have criticized Lundbeck for not adding an ‘end user’ agreement to prevent importers from selling Nembutal® to American prisons for use in executions. The company refused to investigate the drug's safety as an ingredient in lethal injections. Lundbeck has written to U.S. state prison authorities requesting that pentobarbital not be used in lethal injections.
On May 13, 2011, Danish pension fund Unipension sold its 300,000-share stake (ca. DKK 40 million) in Lundbeck arguing that the company has not given an acceptable explanation on its rejection to meet demands made by human rights groups and activist to add an end-user agreement to restrict the distribution of its Nembutal drug in the United States.

On July 1, 2011, Lundbeck announced that it would not sell Nembutal to prisons in U.S. states that carry out executions. By introducing a new distribution system, Nembutal will be supplied exclusively through a specialty pharmacy drop ship program that will deny distribution of the product to prisons in U.S. states currently active in carrying out the death penalty by lethal injection.

See also

  • Tarenflurbil, which the company had arranged for EU distribution rights on prior to termination of its development by Myriad
  • Desmoteplase
    Desmoteplase
    Desmoteplase is a novel, highly fibrin-specific thrombolytic agent in phase III of clinical development. In 2009, 2 large trials were started, and the results of these studies will determine whether desmoteplase will gain marketing authorization as a safe and effective treatment for patients with...

    , a novel, highly fibrin-specific thrombolytic agent in phase III of clinical development.

External links