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Lower Styria

Lower Styria

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[[File:Pokrajine spodnja stajerska.png|thumb|270px|Lower Styria (in red) is one of seven historical regions of Slovenia.]] '''Lower Styria''' ({{lang-sl|Štajerska}}; {{lang-de|Untersteiermark}}) or '''Slovenian Styria''' (Slovene: {{lang|sl|''Štajerska''}}) is a traditional region in northeastern [[Slovenia]], comprising the southern third of the former [[Styria (duchy)|Duchy of Styria]]. The population of Lower Styria in its historical boundaries amounts to around 705,000 inhabitants, or 34.5% of the population of Slovenia. The [[capital city|capital]] [[city]] is [[Maribor]]. ==Use of the name== The [[Duchy of Styria]], which existed as a distinct political-administrative entity from the 12th century to 1918, used to be divided into three traditional regions: the northern two-thirds of the former duchy, known historically as Upper and Central Styria, have been German-speaking and today form the [[Austria]]n [[Styria (state)|State of Styria]] ({{lang-de|Steiermark}}). The southernmost third of the former duchy, known as Lower Styria, was predominantly Slovene speaking and is today part of [[Slovenia]]. In modern Slovene usage, the Slovenian part of Styria is simply referred to as "Styria" (''Štajerska''). Lower Styria is not to be confused with Southern Styria, the southern part of Central Styria, which is part of the [[Austria]]n [[Styria (state)|State of Styria]]. ==History== In 1918, after the disintegration of the [[Austrian-Hungarian Empire]] following [[World War I]], the Duchy of Styria was divided between the newly established states of [[German Austria]] and the [[State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs]]. [[Rudolf Maister]], a Slovene major of the former [[Austro-Hungarian Army]], occupied the town of [[Maribor]] in November 1918 and claimed it to the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. After a short fight with German Austrian provisional units, the current border was established. Already in December 1918, all of Lower Styria was ''de facto'' included in the [[Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes]] (later known as [[Yugoslavia]]). The border between Yugoslav and Austrian Styria mostly followed the ethnic-linguistic dividing line between [[Slovenes]] and [[ethnic Germans]]. Nevertheless, several Slovene-speaking villages around [[Leutschach]] (Lučane), [[Spielberg, Austria|Spielberg]] (Špilje), [[Soboth]] (Sobota) and [[Bad Radkersburg]] (Radgona) remained in Austria. On the other hand, several predominantly German-speaking towns remained in Yugoslavia, especially [[Maribor]] (Marburg and der Drau), [[Ptuj]] (Pettau) and [[Celje]] (Cilli); besides, the German-speaking area around the village of [[Apače]] (Abstall) was also annexed to Yugoslavia. According to the 1921 Yugoslav census, some 24,000 ethnic Germans lived in Yugoslav Lower Styria. They represented around 5% of the overall population of the region, and around 60% of all ethnic Germans in Slovenia. In 1931, this number dropped to around 14,000 or 2% of the regional population, and around 50% of all ethnic Germans in Slovenia. In 1922, the County of Maribor was formed, comprising most of the territory of Lower Styria, plus the [[Prekmurje]] and the [[Medjimurje]] regions. After the ''[[coup d'etat]]'' of [[King Alexander I of Yugoslavia]] in January 1929, the counties were abolished and replaced with nine [[Subdivisions of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia|Banates]] (Slovene: ''Banovina'').[[File:Wehrmacht infantry enter Maribor greeted by locals April 1941.jpg|left|thumb|230px|April 1941, German troops march into [[Maribor]]]] Following the reorganization implemeted by the Yugoslav constitution of 1931, Lower Styria was incorporated in the newly established [[Dravska Banovina|Drava Banovina]], which was more or less identical with Slovenia, with [[Ljubljana]] as its capital city. In April 1941, [[Nazi Germany]] [[Invasion of Yugoslavia|invaded Yugoslavia]] and Lower Styria was annexed to the [[Third Reich]], and a policy of violent Germanization was introduced. Public use of Slovene language was prohibited, and all Slovene associations were dissolved. members of all professional and intellectual groups, including many clergymen, were expelled. Between April 1941 and May 1942, around 80,000 Slovenes (more than 16% of the overall population) were expelled from Lower Styria, or resettled to other parts of the Reich. As a reaction, a [[Yugoslav Partisans|resistance movement]] developed. Many areas of Lower Styria witnessed fierce fighting between German troops and Slovenian partisan units. After [[World War II]], [[Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia|Yugoslav]] authority over the region was established and Lower Styria became an integral part of the [[Socialist Republic of Slovenia]]. An expulsion of the ethnic German population was carried out, regardless of their links to the Nazi regime. Between the 1950s and 1970s, many areas of the region underwent rapid industrializations. Towns like Maribor, Celje and Velenje became among the most important industrial centers of Slovenia and Yugoslavia. Since June 25 1991, Lower Styria has been part of the independent [[Republic of Slovenia]]. ==Political status== [[File:Slov-reg.PNG|thumb|right| 350px|[[Statistical regions of Slovenia]]]] Lower Styria has no official status as an administrative unit within Slovenia, although it is still widely considered a separate informal province ({{lang-sl|pokrajina}}). The bulk of Lower Styria is sub-divided between the [[Podravska statistical region]] with the seat in [[Maribor]], and the [[Savinjska statistical region]] with the seat in [[Celje]]. Smaller areas of traditional Lower Styria are included in: *the Mura or [[Pomurska statistical region]]: the sub-region called [[Prlekija]], with the municipalities of [[Apače]], [[Gornja Radgona]], [[Križevci pri Ljutomeru]], [[Ljutomer]], [[Radenci]], [[Razkrižje]], [[Sveti Jurij ob Ščavnici]], and [[Veržej]]; *the Carinthian or [[Koroška statistical region]]: the municipalities of [[Mislinja, Slovenia|Mislinja]], [[Muta, Slovenia|Muta]], [[Podvelka]], [[Radlje ob Dravi]], [[Ribnica na Pohorju]], [[Slovenj Gradec]], and [[Vuzenica]]; *the Lower Sava [[Spodnjeposavska statistical region]]: the municipality of [[Bistrica ob Sotli]], and the territory on the left bank of the [[Sava River]] in the municipalities of [[Brežice]], [[Krško]], [[Sevnica]], and [[Radeče]]. *the Central Sava or [[Zasavska statistical region]]: the territory on the left bank of the Sava River in the municipalities of [[Hrastnik]] and [[Trbovlje]]. Nowadays, many of these peripherical areas are no longer considered as part of Lower Styria. An exception is the [[Prlekija]] sub-region, which is still widely considered as part of Lower Styria. ==Division into various Statistical Regions== In 2005 Slovenia was divided into 12 statistical regions. Most of the Štajerska area is now divided into the regions of Podravje (''Podravska regija''), and Savinjsko (''Savinjska regija''). An area along the Mura region with [[Ljutomer]] as center, known historically as [[Prlekija]], has been incorporated in the Mura region (''Pomurje'' or ''Pomurska regija''), and a number of Lower Styrian municipalities including the town of [[Slovenj Gradec]] have been attached to [[Carinthia (province)|Slovene Carinthia (Slovene: ''Koroška'')]] thereby doubling the latter's area. The name of ''Štajerska'', however, has thus disappeared from official use. Nevertheless, it is still very alive in both colloquial and media language, and it is part of the established cultural and geographical terminology. It also continues to be employed in the promotion of tourism. ==Cities== The cultural and economic centre of Lower Styria has always been the city of [[Maribor]]. Other major towns are [[Celje]], [[Velenje]], [[Ptuj]], [[Brežice]], and [[Slovenj Gradec]]. The latter two are no longer considered to be a part of Styria proper: Slovenj Gradec has been attached to [[Slovenian Carinthia]], forming that enlarged region's new cultural and economic centre, while Brežice is one of the major centers of the [[Posavje]] region which developed after World War II on both banks of the [[Sava river]]. ==Tourism== Lower Styria is famous for its [[white wine]], esp. well-known [[Ljutomer]] Riesling, the ski resort [[Pohorje]], cultural festivals and [[pumpkin seed oil]]. Štajerska is also famous as a hop growing area producing Styrian Goldings, a variety of the English aroma hop Fuggles. Image:Sv Duh-Podolševa.jpg|[[Savinja Alps]] Image:LogarskaDolina.JPG|[[Logar Valley, Slovenia|Logar Valley]] Image:RogaskaSlatina1.JPG|[[Rogaška Slatina]] spa resort Image:Ribnisko jezero.jpg|Ribnica Lake in the [[Pohorje]] hills Image:KurentiPtujFront.JPG|[[Kurentovanje]] festival in [[Ptuj]] Image:Celje Celjski grad 006.jpg|[[Celje Castle]] Image:Maribor Lent.jpg|Lent embankment in [[Maribor]] ==Famous people from the region== * [[Anton Aškerc]], poet * [[Aleš Čeh]], football (soccer) player * [[Jolanda Čeplak]], athlete * [[Peter Dajnko]], philologist and poet * [[Karel Destovnik Kajuh]], poet * [[Mladen Dolar]], philosopher * [[Vekoslav Grmič]], theologian * [[Drago Jančar]], writer * [[Edvard Kocbek]], writer, poet, thinker and politician * [[Anton Korošec]], politician, Prime Minister of the [[Kingdom of Yugoslavia]] * [[Janez Menart]], poet * [[Fran Miklošič]], linguist * [[Matija Murko]], linguist and ethnographer * [[Johann Puch]], inventor * [[Žarko Petan]], film and theatre director * [[Zoran Predin]], singer-songwriter * [[Jože Pučnik]], dissident, politician and sociologist * [[Benka Pulko]], author and Guinness World Record setting motorcycle traveler * [[Miha Remec]], author * [[Anton Martin Slomšek]], [[Roman Catholic]] bishop * [[Wilhelm von Tegetthoff]], victorious Austrian admiral * [[Jože Snoj]], poet * [[Wilhelm von Tegetthoff]], Austrian admiral * [[Danilo Türk]], [[President of Slovenia]] * [[Beno Udrih]], basketball player * [[Josip Vošnjak]], political activist * [[Stanko Vraz]], poet * [[Windisch-Graetz]], princely family * [[Hugo Wolf]], composer * [[Zlatko Zahovič]], football player * [[Milan Zver]], politician and political scientist ==See also== * [[History of Slovenia]] * [[Lavant]] * [[Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Maribor]] * [[Roman Catholic Diocese of Celje]] * [[University of Maribor]] * [[I. High School in Celje]] * [[Savinja]] * [[Rinka|Rinka Falls]] * [[Counts of Celje]] ==External links== * [http://www.terra.es/personal7/jqvaraderey/193818BK.GIF Lower Styria in 1918] * [http://www.luventicus.org/mapas/eslovenia.html Slovenia's new regions. A map from the Argentine] * [http://www.traveltips24.com/Lower_Styria.htm Travel tips] * [http://www.travel-images.com/slovenia-styria.htm Photos] {{coord missing|Slovenia}}