Louvre Abu Dhabi

Louvre Abu Dhabi

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The Louvre Abu Dhabi is a planned museum
Museum
A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of scientific, artistic, cultural, or historical importance and makes them available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary. Most large museums are located in major cities...

, to be located in Abu Dhabi
Abu Dhabi
Abu Dhabi , literally Father of Gazelle, is the capital and the second largest city of the United Arab Emirates in terms of population and the largest of the seven member emirates of the United Arab Emirates. Abu Dhabi lies on a T-shaped island jutting into the Persian Gulf from the central western...

, UAE
United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates, abbreviated as the UAE, or shortened to "the Emirates", is a state situated in the southeast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman, and Saudi Arabia, and sharing sea borders with Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and Iran.The UAE is a...

. On Tuesday 7 March 2007, the Louvre
Louvre
The Musée du Louvre – in English, the Louvre Museum or simply the Louvre – is one of the world's largest museums, the most visited art museum in the world and a historic monument. A central landmark of Paris, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the 1st arrondissement...

 in Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

 announced that a new Louvre museum would be completed by 2012 in Abu Dhabi, though current expectations are that completion will be delayed until at least 2014. This is part of a thirty year agreement between the city of Abu Dhabi and the French government. The museum is to be located on the Saadiyat Island
Saadiyat Island
Saadiyat Island is a large, low lying island 500 metres off the coast of Abu Dhabi island in the UAE, currently being developed.A mixed commercial, residential, and leisure project is currently under construction on the island, expected to be completed in 2020...

 complex, and will be approximately 24000 square metre in size. The final cost of the construction is expected to be between €83 million and €108 million.

Artwork from around the world will be showcased at the museum, with particular focus placed upon bridging the gap between Eastern and Western art. However, the construction of the museum has caused much controversy in the art world, as many objections have been raised as to the motives of the Louvre in this deal.

Contract


The thirty-year agreement, signed by French
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 Culture Minister Renaud Donnedieu de Vabres
Renaud Donnedieu de Vabres
Renaud Donnedieu de Vabres , often known as RDDV, is a French politician, France's Minister of Culture from 2004 to 2007...

 and Sheik Sultan bin Tahnoon Al Nahyan, will prompt the construction of a Louvre museum on Saadiyat Island
Saadiyat Island
Saadiyat Island is a large, low lying island 500 metres off the coast of Abu Dhabi island in the UAE, currently being developed.A mixed commercial, residential, and leisure project is currently under construction on the island, expected to be completed in 2020...

, near central Abu Dhabi, in exchange for US$1.3 billion. The contract prohibits the creation of any similar operation with the name of the Louvre in any of the other emirates of the UAE, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, Bahrain, Qatar, Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iran, or Iraq. French President Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
Jacques René Chirac is a French politician who served as President of France from 1995 to 2007. He previously served as Prime Minister of France from 1974 to 1976 and from 1986 to 1988 , and as Mayor of Paris from 1977 to 1995.After completing his studies of the DEA's degree at the...

 praised the museum deal with Abu Dhabi, saying it reflects "a certain idea of the world" in which each party to the accord, "proud of its roots and of its identity, is conscious of the equal dignity of all cultures."

Development


The establishment of this museum has been approved by the French Parliament on 9 October 2007. The architect for the building will be Jean Nouvel
Jean Nouvel
Jean Nouvel is a French architect. Nouvel studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris and was a founding member of Mars 1976 and Syndicat de l'Architecture...

 and the engineers are Buro Happold
Buro Happold
Buro Happold is a professional services firm providing engineering consultancy, design, planning, project management and consulting services for all aspects of buildings, infrastructure and the environment, with its head office in Bath, Somerset...

. Jean Nouvel also designed the Institut du Monde Arabe in Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

.

The museum will be part of a US$27 billion tourist and cultural development that is planned to be established on Saadiyat Island
Saadiyat Island
Saadiyat Island is a large, low lying island 500 metres off the coast of Abu Dhabi island in the UAE, currently being developed.A mixed commercial, residential, and leisure project is currently under construction on the island, expected to be completed in 2020...

, a complex which is planned to include three other museums, including a Guggenheim Museum
Guggenheim Abu Dhabi
The Guggenheim Abu Dhabi is a planned museum, to be located in Abu Dhabi, UAE. On July 8, 2006, the city of Abu Dhabi, capital of the United Arab Emirates, announced it had signed an agreement with the Guggenheim Foundation in New York to build a Guggenheim Museum. It will be the world's largest...

. According to UAE interacts: "The French Museums agency will operate in collaboration with the Tourism Development and Investment Company (TDIC), which is behind the transformation of Saadiyat Island. It will be chaired by French financier and member of the country's Académie des Beaux-Arts
Académie des beaux-arts
The Académie des Beaux-Arts is a French learned society. It is one of the five academies of the Institut de France.It was created in 1795 as the merger of the:* Académie de peinture et de sculpture...

, Marc Ladreit de Lacharrière, publisher of the periodical Revue des Deux Mondes
Revue des deux mondes
The Revue des deux Mondes is a French language monthly literary and cultural affairs magazine that has been published in Paris since 1829....

." Bruno Maquart, the former Executive Director of Centre Georges Pompidou
Centre Georges Pompidou
Centre Georges Pompidou is a complex in the Beaubourg area of the 4th arrondissement of Paris, near Les Halles, rue Montorgueil and the Marais...

, will take the position of Executive Director."

Location


Saadiyat Island's Cultural District plans to house the largest single cluster of world-class cultural assets. In addition to the Louvre Abu Dhabi these are intended to include: the Sheikh Zayed National Museum, to be designed by United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

-based architectural company Foster and Partners
Foster and Partners
Foster + Partners is an architectural firm based in London. The practice is led by its founder and Chairman, Norman Foster, and has constructed many high-profile glass-and-steel buildings....

 under the direction of Lord Norman Foster
Norman Foster, Baron Foster of Thames Bank
Norman Robert Foster, Baron Foster of Thames Bank, OM is a British architect whose company maintains an international design practice, Foster + Partners....

; the Guggenheim Abu Dhabi
Guggenheim Abu Dhabi
The Guggenheim Abu Dhabi is a planned museum, to be located in Abu Dhabi, UAE. On July 8, 2006, the city of Abu Dhabi, capital of the United Arab Emirates, announced it had signed an agreement with the Guggenheim Foundation in New York to build a Guggenheim Museum. It will be the world's largest...

 contemporary arts museum - the world's largest Guggenheim and the only museum to be located in the Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

; a performing arts centre designed by Zaha Hadid
Zaha Hadid
Zaha Hadid, CBE is an Iraqi-British architect.-Life and career:Hadid was born in 1950 in Baghdad, Iraq. She received a degree in mathematics from the American University of Beirut before moving to study at the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London.After graduating she worked...

; a maritime museum with concept design by Tadao Ando
Tadao Ando
is a Japanese architect whose approach to architecture was once categorized by Francesco Dal Co as critical regionalism. Ando has led a storied life, working as a truck driver and boxer prior to settling on the profession of architecture, despite never having taken formal training in the field...

 and a number of arts pavilions.

Cost


US$525 million was paid by Abu Dhabi to be associated with the Louvre name, and an additional $747 million in exchange for art loans, special exhibitions and management advice. The museum is expected to cost between €83 million and €108 million to build, though estimates vary.

Cost estimates


US$525 million was paid by the city of Abu Dhabi for the use of the Louvre brand name, with US$195 million payable within a month. US$247 million will be paid for the loan of artwork
Work of art
A work of art, artwork, art piece, or art object is an aesthetic item or artistic creation.The term "a work of art" can apply to:*an example of fine art, such as a painting or sculpture*a fine work of architecture or landscape design...

s from the Louvre over a ten year period, with a total of between two hundred and three hundred artworks expected. The Parisian Louvre will also be providing management advice to its Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

ern counterpart, at a cost of US$214.5 million. An additional US$253.5 million will be paid for various special exhibitions
Art exhibition
Art exhibitions are traditionally the space in which art objects meet an audience. The exhibit is universally understood to be for some temporary period unless, as is rarely true, it is stated to be a "permanent exhibition". In American English, they may be called "exhibit", "exposition" or...

. A total of four exhibitions will be hosted per year over a period of fifteen years. The city of Abu Dhabi will also make a direct donation of US$32.5 million to the Louvre to refurbish a wing of the Pavillon de Flore
Pavillon de Flore
The Pavillon de Flore is a section of the Palais du Louvre in Paris, France. Its construction began in 1595, during the reign of Henry IV, and has had numerous renovations since. The structure stands along the south face of the Louvre Museum, near the Pont Royal...

 for the display of international art.

Design




The museum will be designed as a "seemingly floating dome structure"; its web-patterned dome allowing the sun to filter through. The overall effect is meant to represent "rays of sunlight passing through date palm
Date Palm
The date palm is a palm in the genus Phoenix, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit. Although its place of origin is unknown because of long cultivation, it probably originated from lands around the Persian Gulf. It is a medium-sized plant, 15–25 m tall, growing singly or forming a clump with...

 fronds in an oasis
Oasis
In geography, an oasis or cienega is an isolated area of vegetation in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source...

." The total area of the museum will be approximately 24000 square metre. The permanent collection will occupy 6000 square metre, and the temporary exhibitions will take place over 2000 square metre,

Artwork


Questions have been raised as to the nature of the artworks to be displayed at the museum. However, according to the National: "the type and nature of the exhibits planned for the Louvre Abu Dhabi have been affected to no extent by the fact the new museum would be in a Muslim country, said Mr. Loyrette."
It has been noted that the museum will showcase work from multiple French museums, including the Louvre, the Centre Georges Pompidou
Centre Georges Pompidou
Centre Georges Pompidou is a complex in the Beaubourg area of the 4th arrondissement of Paris, near Les Halles, rue Montorgueil and the Marais...

, the Musée d'Orsay
Musée d'Orsay
The Musée d'Orsay is a museum in Paris, France, on the left bank of the Seine. It is housed in the former Gare d'Orsay, an impressive Beaux-Arts railway station built between 1898 and 1900. The museum holds mainly French art dating from 1848 to 1915, including paintings, sculptures, furniture,...

 and Palace of Versailles
Palace of Versailles
The Palace of Versailles , or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles in the Île-de-France region of France. In French it is the Château de Versailles....

. However, Donnedieu de Vabres, the French Culture Minister, stated at the announcement that the Paris Louvre "would not sell any of its 35,000-piece collection currently on display".

Construction


Construction works at Louvre Abu Dhabi officially started on May 26, 2009. Mohammad bin Zayed Al Nahyan, the Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi and the President of France, Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy is the 23rd and current President of the French Republic and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra. He assumed the office on 16 May 2007 after defeating the Socialist Party candidate Ségolène Royal 10 days earlier....

 inaugurated an exhibition titled, Talking Art: Louvre Abu Dhabi at the Gallery One of the Emirates Palace Hotel which includes 19 works of art bought over the last 18 months for the Louvre Abu Dhabi, as well as loans from the French national museums to mark the beginning of the construction work.
Piling works In Louvre to be completed by August 2010 Piling package and enabling works package was awarded to German specialized company (Bauer International FZE). total no of piles are 4536 piles which is a huge amount of piles was done with two types of piles RC Piles and H-Piles completed on 3 August 2010.

Human Rights Abuse Controversies


In April 2011, over 120 international artists urged a boycott of both the Louvre and Guggenheim museums over concerns regarding the abuse and exploitation of construction workers employed to develop the complex. Additional controversy has arisen from the international human rights community and artistic community of Abu Dhabi's and the UAE's longstanding policy of jailing and deporting UAE residents with HIV, most of whom contracted the virus in the UAE, with a lifetime ban from ever being able to return to the country.

Additional Controversies


The deal has sparked much controversy
Controversy
Controversy is a state of prolonged public dispute or debate, usually concerning a matter of opinion. The word was coined from the Latin controversia, as a composite of controversus – "turned in an opposite direction," from contra – "against" – and vertere – to turn, or versus , hence, "to turn...

 in both artistic and academic circles. According to Maymanah Farhat, "the controversy that has surfaced in France is led by art historian Didier Rykner, one of the most outspoken critics of the French–Emirati deal." A petition against the deal, signed by 4,650 museum experts, archaeologists and art historians, has insisted that "museums are not for sale." The Louvre has been accused of behaving "like a corporation with a clearly-defined strategy: profit maximization." In the words of Didier Rykner:

Response


According to the New York Times, "Henri Loyrette
Henri Loyrette
Henri Loyrette was born in Neuilly-sur-Seine, a suburb of Paris. He became first curator and then director of the Musée d'Orsay in 1978 and 1994 respectively. He became director of the Louvre Museum in 2001.-Career:...

, the president and director of the Louvre, has responded to growing criticism of the museum’s new policy of establishing footholds abroad, arguing that the Louvre cannot ignore the 'internationalization' of museums." He had the following to say in the museum's defence:

Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, UAE President and Ruler of Abu Dhabi said:

See also


  • Guggenheim Abu Dhabi
    Guggenheim Abu Dhabi
    The Guggenheim Abu Dhabi is a planned museum, to be located in Abu Dhabi, UAE. On July 8, 2006, the city of Abu Dhabi, capital of the United Arab Emirates, announced it had signed an agreement with the Guggenheim Foundation in New York to build a Guggenheim Museum. It will be the world's largest...

  • Saadiyat Island
    Saadiyat Island
    Saadiyat Island is a large, low lying island 500 metres off the coast of Abu Dhabi island in the UAE, currently being developed.A mixed commercial, residential, and leisure project is currently under construction on the island, expected to be completed in 2020...

  • Paris-Sorbonne University Abu Dhabi
    Paris-Sorbonne University Abu Dhabi
    Paris-Sorbonne University Abu Dhabi or Université Paris-Sorbonne Abu Dhabi is a French speaking university in Abu Dhabi, the capital city of the United Arab Emirates....



External links