Louisiana (New Spain)

Louisiana (New Spain)

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Louisiana (New Spain)'
Start a new discussion about 'Louisiana (New Spain)'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
Louisiana was the name of an administrative district of the Viceroy
Viceroy
A viceroy is a royal official who runs a country, colony, or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roi, meaning king. A viceroy's province or larger territory is called a viceroyalty...

alty of New Spain
New Spain
New Spain, formally called the Viceroyalty of New Spain , was a viceroyalty of the Spanish colonial empire, comprising primarily territories in what was known then as 'América Septentrional' or North America. Its capital was Mexico City, formerly Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztec Empire...

 from 1764 to 1803 that represented territory west of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
The Mississippi River is the largest river system in North America. Flowing entirely in the United States, this river rises in western Minnesota and meanders slowly southwards for to the Mississippi River Delta at the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains...

 basin, plus New Orleans. Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 acquired the territory from France
Early Modern France
Kingdom of France is the early modern period of French history from the end of the 15th century to the end of the 18th century...

: see Louisiana (New France)
Louisiana (New France)
Louisiana or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France. Under French control from 1682–1763 and 1800–03, the area was named in honor of Louis XIV, by French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle...

.

History


The area, comprising what is now known as the Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
The Louisiana Purchase was the acquisition by the United States of America of of France's claim to the territory of Louisiana in 1803. The U.S...

, was turned over to the French for a few days in 1803 before it, in turn, was turned over to the United States.

Spain was to be largely a benign absentee landlord administering it from Havana
Havana
Havana is the capital city, province, major port, and leading commercial centre of Cuba. The city proper has a population of 2.1 million inhabitants, and it spans a total of — making it the largest city in the Caribbean region, and the most populous...

, Cuba
Cuba
The Republic of Cuba is an island nation in the Caribbean. The nation of Cuba consists of the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and several archipelagos. Havana is the largest city in Cuba and the country's capital. Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city...

 and contracting out governing to people from many nationalities as long as they swore allegiance to Spain. During the American War of Independence, the Spanish funneled their supplies to the American rebels through New Orleans and the vast Louisiana territory beyond.

Although only maintaining it for 39 years, the Spanish were largely responsible for establishing much of the character of New Orleans and Louisiana that is normally associated with the French. For instance, the buildings in the "French Quarter" of New Orleans are actually Spanish colonial era constructions. Also, Spanish control of the region continued and strengthened the Catholic
Catholic
The word catholic comes from the Greek phrase , meaning "on the whole," "according to the whole" or "in general", and is a combination of the Greek words meaning "about" and meaning "whole"...

 influence that had begun with the French.

Upper and Lower


The Spanish divided Louisiana into Upper Louisiana and Lower Louisiana at 36° 35' North, at about the latitude of New Madrid
New Madrid, Missouri
New Madrid is a city in New Madrid County, Missouri, 42 miles south by west of Cairo, Illinois, on the Mississippi River. New Madrid was founded in 1788 by American frontiersmen. In 1900, 1,489 people lived in New Madrid, Missouri; in 1910, the population was 1,882. The population was 3,334 at...

. This was a higher latitude than the French, for whom Lower Louisiana was the area south of about 31° North (the current boundary of the State of Louisiana) or the area south of where the Arkansas River joined the Mississippi at about 33° 46' North latitude.

Spanish Exploration

  • 1541 - Hernando de Soto exploring from Florida
    Florida
    Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

     claims the Mississippi and all its tributaries for the Spanish crown.
  • 1541 - Francisco Vázquez de Coronado exploring from Mexico
    Mexico
    The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

     for the Seven Cities of Gold
    Quivira and Cíbola
    Quivira is a place first mentioned by Francisco Vazquez de Coronado in 1541, who visited it during his searches for the mythical "Seven Cities of Gold". The location and identity of the "Quivirans" has been much debated over a wide area, including Kansas, Nebraska, and Missouri...

     reaches Lindsborg, Kansas
    Lindsborg, Kansas
    Lindsborg is a city in McPherson County, Kansas, USA. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 3,458. It is known for its association with Swedish heritage and the biennial Svensk Hyllningsfest...


French Control

  • 1673 - Jacques Marquette
    Jacques Marquette
    Father Jacques Marquette S.J. , sometimes known as Père Marquette, was a French Jesuit missionary who founded Michigan's first European settlement, Sault Ste. Marie, and later founded St. Ignace, Michigan...

     and Louis Joliet began the exploration of the Mississippi descending from modern day Canada
    Canada
    Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

     and the French begin to exert influence and claims over the territory.
  • 1699 - Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville
    Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville
    Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienvillepronounce] was a colonizer, born in Montreal, Quebec and an early, repeated governor of French Louisiana, appointed 4 separate times during 1701-1743. He was a younger brother of explorer Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville...

     starts first French settlement, at Fort Maurepas (now Ocean Springs, Mississippi
    Ocean Springs, Mississippi
    Ocean Springs is a city in Jackson County, Mississippi, United States, about east of Biloxi. It is part of the Pascagoula, Mississippi Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 17,225 at the 2000 census...

    ).
  • 1702 - Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville
    Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville
    Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienvillepronounce] was a colonizer, born in Montreal, Quebec and an early, repeated governor of French Louisiana, appointed 4 separate times during 1701-1743. He was a younger brother of explorer Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville...

     moves French settlements to Dauphin Island and also in January, establishes Mobile
    Mobile, Alabama
    Mobile is the third most populous city in the Southern US state of Alabama and is the county seat of Mobile County. It is located on the Mobile River and the central Gulf Coast of the United States. The population within the city limits was 195,111 during the 2010 census. It is the largest...

     colony, with Fort Louis
    Old Mobile Site
    The Old Mobile Site was the location of the French settlement La Mobile and the associated Fort Louis de La Louisiane, in the French colony of New France in North America, from 1702 until 1712. The site is located in Le Moyne, Alabama, on the Mobile River in the Mobile-Tensaw River Delta...

     at Twenty-Seven Mile Bluff (up Mobile River
    Mobile River
    The Mobile River is located in southern Alabama in the United States. Formed out of the confluence of the Tombigbee and Alabama rivers, the approximately river drains an area of of Alabama, with a watershed extending into Mississippi, Georgia, and Tennessee. Its drainage basin is the...

    ).
  • 1714 - Natchitoches
    Natchitoches, Louisiana
    Natchitoches is a city in and the parish seat of Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana, United States. Established in 1714 by Louis Juchereau de St. Denis as part of French Louisiana, the community was named after the Natchitoches Indian tribe. The City of Natchitoches was first incorporated on February...

     Established by Louis Juchereau de St. Denis as part of French Louisiana, the community was named after the Natchitoches Indian tribe. The City of Natchitoches was first incorporated on February 5, 1819. It is the oldest permanent settlement in the Louisiana Purchase.
  • 1718 - Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville
    Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville
    Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienvillepronounce] was a colonizer, born in Montreal, Quebec and an early, repeated governor of French Louisiana, appointed 4 separate times during 1701-1743. He was a younger brother of explorer Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville...

     starts construction of New Orleans, to move the capital of French Louisiana from Dauphin Island
    Dauphin Island, Alabama
    Dauphin Island is a town in Mobile County, Alabama , on a barrier island also named Dauphin Island , at the Gulf of Mexico. The population was 1,371 at the 2000 census. The town is included in the Mobile metropolitan statistical area...

     and Biloxi to the Mississippi River
    Mississippi River
    The Mississippi River is the largest river system in North America. Flowing entirely in the United States, this river rises in western Minnesota and meanders slowly southwards for to the Mississippi River Delta at the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains...

     crescent, considered safer during hurricane tides.

  • 1720 - Spanish Villasur expedition
    Villasur expedition
    The Villasur expedition of 1720 was a Spanish military expedition intended to check the growing French presence on the Great Plains of central North America...

     coming from Mexico is slaughtered near Columbus, Nebraska
    Columbus, Nebraska
    Columbus is a city in east central Nebraska, United States. Its population was 22,111 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Platte County.-Pre-settlement history:...

     by Pawnees friendly to the French.
  • 1723 - New Orleans becomes the 3rd capital of French Louisiana
    French Louisiana
    The term French Louisiana refers to two distinct regions:* first, to colonial French Louisiana, comprising the massive, middle section of North America claimed by France; and,...

    .
  • 1724 - Étienne de Veniard, Sieur de Bourgmont
    Étienne de Veniard, Sieur de Bourgmont
    Étienne de Veniard, Sieur de Bourgmont was a French explorer who documented his travels on the Missouri and Platte rivers in North America and made the first European maps of these areas. He wrote two accounts of his travels, which included descriptions of the Native American tribes he encountered...

     council with the Commanche to resist Spanish expeditions coming from Mexico.
  • 1754 - France and Great Britain
    Great Britain
    Great Britain or Britain is an island situated to the northwest of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, and the largest European island, as well as the largest of the British Isles...

     begin the French and Indian War
    French and Indian War
    The French and Indian War is the common American name for the war between Great Britain and France in North America from 1754 to 1763. In 1756, the war erupted into the world-wide conflict known as the Seven Years' War and thus came to be regarded as the North American theater of that war...

    .
  • 1760 - Britain effectively controls all of French colonies in Quebec
    Quebec
    Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

    .
  • 1761 - Spain sides with France in the now expanded Seven Years War.

Spanish Control




  • 1762 - As negotiations begin to settle the Seven Years War Louis XV of France secretly proposes to his cousin Charles III of Spain
    Charles III of Spain
    Charles III was the King of Spain and the Spanish Indies from 1759 to 1788. He was the eldest son of Philip V of Spain and his second wife, the Princess Elisabeth Farnese...

     that France give Louisiana to Spain in the Treaty of Fontainebleau
    Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762)
    The Treaty of Fontainebleau was a secret agreement in which France ceded Louisiana to Spain. The treaty followed the last battle in the French and Indian War, the Battle of Signal Hill in September 1762, which confirmed British control of Canada. However, the associated Seven Years War continued...

  • 1763 - Treaty of Paris
    Treaty of Paris (1763)
    The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. It ended the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War...

     ends the war with a provision in which France cedes all territory east of the Mississippi (including French Canada) to Britain. Spain cedes Florida
    Florida
    Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

     and land east of the Mississippi (including Baton Rouge, Louisiana
    Baton Rouge, Louisiana
    Baton Rouge is the capital of the U.S. state of Louisiana. It is located in East Baton Rouge Parish and is the second-largest city in the state.Baton Rouge is a major industrial, petrochemical, medical, and research center of the American South...

    ) to Britain.
  • 1763 - George III of the United Kingdom
    George III of the United Kingdom
    George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of these two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death...

     in the Royal Proclamation of 1763
    Royal Proclamation of 1763
    The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763, by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War...

     proclaims that all land east of the Mississippi acquired in the war with the exception of East Florida
    East Florida
    East Florida was a colony of Great Britain from 1763–1783 and of Spain from 1783–1822. East Florida was established by the British colonial government in 1763; as its name implies it consisted of the eastern part of the region of Florida, with West Florida comprising the western parts. Its capital...

    , West Florida
    West Florida
    West Florida was a region on the north shore of the Gulf of Mexico, which underwent several boundary and sovereignty changes during its history. West Florida was first established in 1763 by the British government; as its name suggests it largely consisted of the western portion of the region...

     and Quebec
    Quebec
    Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

     will become Indian Reserve (Great Britain).
  • 1763 - The Acadian (Cajun
    Cajun
    Cajuns are an ethnic group mainly living in the U.S. state of Louisiana, consisting of the descendants of Acadian exiles...

    ) migration begins with French settlers from Quebec
    Quebec
    Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

     and settlers on the east side of the Mississippi who had been ordered to leave from the new Native American migrating to Louisiana which they believe is still French controlled land west of the Mississippi as well as New Orleans
  • 1764 - Pierre Laclede
    Pierre Laclède
    Pierre Laclède or Pierre Laclède Liguest was a French fur trader who, with his young assistant and "stepson" Auguste Chouteau, founded St...

     establishes the Maxent and Laclede Company trading post at St. Louis, Missouri
    St. Louis, Missouri
    St. Louis is an independent city on the eastern border of Missouri, United States. With a population of 319,294, it was the 58th-largest U.S. city at the 2010 U.S. Census. The Greater St...

  • 1764 - Formal announcement that Spain has acquired Louisiana
  • 1765 - Joseph Broussard
    Joseph Broussard
    Joseph Gaurhept Broussard , also known as Beausoleil, was a leader of the Acadian people in Acadia; later Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Broussard organized a resistance movement against the forced Expulsion of the Acadians...

     leads the first group of nearly 200 Acadians to St. Martinville, Louisiana
    St. Martinville, Louisiana
    St. Martinville is a city in and the parish seat of St. Martin Parish, Louisiana, United States. It lies on Bayou Teche, sixteen miles south of Breaux Bridge, eighteen miles southeast of Lafayette, and nine miles north of New Iberia. The population was 6,989 at the 2000 census. It is part of the...

    .
  • 1768 - Antonio de Ulloa
    Antonio de Ulloa
    Antonio de Ulloa y de la Torre-Girault was a Spanish general, explorer, author, astronomer, colonial administrator and the first Spanish governor of Louisiana.Rebellion of 1768]]....

     becomes the first Spanish governor of Louisiana. He does not fly the Spanish flag and is run off by a pro-French mob in the Rebellion of 1768
    Rebellion of 1768
    The Rebellion of 1768 was an unsuccessful attempt by Creole and German settlers around New Orleans, Louisiana to stop the handover of the French Louisiana Territory, as had been stipulated in the Treaty of Fontainebleau, to Spain in 1768....

  • 1769 - Alejandro O'Reilly
    Alejandro O'Reilly
    Alejandro O'Reilly , was a military reformer and Inspector-General of Infantry for the Spanish Empire in the second half of the 18th century...

     suppresses the rebellion, executes its leaders and sends other plotters to prison in Morro Castle (fortress)
    Morro Castle (fortress)
    Morro Castle is a picturesque fortress guarding the entrance to Havana bay in Havana, Euta. Juan Bautista Antonelli, an Italian engineer, was commissioned to design the structure. When it was built in 1589, Euta was under the control of Germany...

     in Havana. He establishes Spanish law and the cabildo
    Cabildo (council)
    For a discussion of the contemporary Spanish and Latin American cabildo, see Ayuntamiento.A cabildo or ayuntamiento was a former Spanish, colonial administrative council that governed a municipality. Cabildos were sometimes appointed, sometimes elected, but were considered to be representative of...

    of New Orleans. However he is otherwise benign and forgives other plotters as long as they swear allegiance to Spain.
  • 1770 - Luis de Unzaga
    Luis de Unzaga
    Luis de Unzaga y Amezaga , also known as Luis Unzaga Y Amezaga, was a Spanish Governor of Louisiana from 1769 to 1777 as well as a captain general of Venezuela and Cuba....

     starts the era of benign Spanish rule and frees the imprisoned plotters
  • 1770 - Spain begins an administrative of process of governing Upper Louisiana with lieutenant governors
  • 1779 - Spain declares war on Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War
    American Revolutionary War
    The American Revolutionary War , the American War of Independence, or simply the Revolutionary War, began as a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and thirteen British colonies in North America, and ended in a global war between several European great powers.The war was the result of the...

     and begins the West Indies and Gulf Coast campaigns
  • 1780 - Battle of Saint Louis
    Battle of Saint Louis
    The Battle of St. Louis was an unsuccessful British-led attack on St. Louis on May 26, 1780, during the American Revolutionary War...

     is the only battle west of the Mississippi in the war
  • 1781 - Spanish completes reconquest of Florida in Battle of Pensacola (1781)
    Battle of Pensacola (1781)
    The Siege of Pensacola was fought in 1781, the culmination of Spain's conquest of the British province West Florida during the American War of Independence.-Background:...

  • 1783 - Treaty of Paris
    Treaty of Paris (1783)
    The Treaty of Paris, signed on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain on the one hand and the United States of America and its allies on the other. The other combatant nations, France, Spain and the Dutch Republic had separate agreements; for details of...

     gives back Spanish control of Florida
  • 1788 - Great New Orleans Fire
    Great New Orleans Fire (1788)
    The Great New Orleans Fire was a fire that destroyed 856 of the 1,100 structures in New Orleans, Louisiana on March 21, 1788, spanning the south central French Quarter from Burgundy to Chartres Street, almost to the riverfront buildings....

     destroys virtually all of New Orleans. Governor Esteban Rodríguez Miró
    Esteban Rodríguez Miró
    Esteban Rodriguez Miró y Sabater , also known as Esteban Miro and Estevan Miro, was a Spanish army officer and governor of the Spanish American provinces of Louisiana and Florida....

     is a hero for his relief efforts.
  • 1789 - Work on rebuilding New Orleans including what is now the French Quarter
    French Quarter
    The French Quarter, also known as Vieux Carré, is the oldest neighborhood in the city of New Orleans. When New Orleans was founded in 1718 by Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, the city was originally centered on the French Quarter, or the Vieux Carré as it was known then...

     begins. The new structures have courtyards and stone walls. The cornerstone for the new St. Louis Cathedral
    St. Louis Cathedral, New Orleans
    Saint Louis Cathedral , also known as the Basilica of St. Louis, King of France, is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New Orleans; it has the distinction of being the oldest continuously operating cathedral in the United States...

     laid.
  • 1795 - Pinckney's Treaty
    Pinckney's Treaty
    Pinckney's Treaty, also known as the Treaty of San Lorenzo or the Treaty of Madrid, was signed in San Lorenzo de El Escorial on October 27, 1795 and established intentions of friendship between the United States and Spain. It also defined the boundaries of the United States with the Spanish...

     settles boundary disputes with the United States and recognizes rights to navigate through New Orleans
  • 1795 - Spain begins a series of "scientific" explorations of the Missouri River
    Missouri River
    The Missouri River flows through the central United States, and is a tributary of the Mississippi River. It is the longest river in North America and drains the third largest area, though only the thirteenth largest by discharge. The Missouri's watershed encompasses most of the American Great...

     including the MacKay and Evans Expedition
  • 1798 - Spain revokes United States rights to travel through New Orleans
  • 1799 - The newly rebuilt Cabildo
    The Cabildo
    The Cabildo was the seat of colonial government in New Orleans, Louisiana, and is now a museum. The Cabildo is located along Jackson Square, adjacent to St. Louis Cathedral.- History :The original Cabildo was destroyed in the Great New Orleans Fire...

     opens.

French Control

  • 1800 - In Third Treaty of San Ildefonso
    Third Treaty of San Ildefonso
    The Third Treaty of San Ildefonso was a secretly negotiated treaty between France and Spain in which Spain returned the colonial territory of...

     Napoleon secretly acquires the territory but Spain continues to administer it
  • 1801 - United States permitted to use New Orleans
  • 1803 - Announcement of Louisiana Purchase by United States
  • 1803 - Spain refuses Lewis and Clark permission to travel up the Missouri River since the transfer from France (to USA) has never been made official. They spend winter in Illinois at Camp Dubois
    Camp Dubois
    Camp Dubois, near present day Hartford, Illinois, served as the winter camp for the Lewis and Clark Expedition from December 12, 1803, to May 14, 1804.It was located on the east side of the Mississippi River so that it was still in United States territory...

  • 1804 - France officially takes control in November 1803 but word is not conveyed to St. Louis
    St. Louis, Missouri
    St. Louis is an independent city on the eastern border of Missouri, United States. With a population of 319,294, it was the 58th-largest U.S. city at the 2010 U.S. Census. The Greater St...

     until 1804 at Three Flags Day
    Three Flags Day
    Three Flags Day commemorates March 9 and 10, 1804, when Spain officially turned over the Louisiana Territory to France, which in turn ceded the territory to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase.The ceremony in St...