Lorraine (province)

Lorraine (province)

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{{Use dmy dates|date=May 2011}} {{for|the modern-day administrative région of Lorraine|Lorraine (region)}} The '''Duchy of Upper Lorraine''' ({{lang-fr|Lorraine}}, {{IPA-fr|lɔʁɛn|IPA}}; {{lang-de|Lothringen}}) was an historical duchy roughly corresponding with the present-day northeastern [[Lorraine (region)|Lorraine]] region of France, including parts of modern [[Luxembourg]] and Germany. The main cities were [[Metz, France|Metz]], [[Verdun]], and the historic capital [[Nancy, France|Nancy]]. ===Lotharingia=== {{main|Lotharingia}} Lorraine's predecessor [[Lotharingia]] was an independent [[Carolingian Empire|Carolingian]] kingdom under the rule of King [[Lothair II of Lotharingia|Lothair II]] (855–869). Its territory had originally been a part of [[Middle Francia]], created in 843 by the [[Treaty of Verdun]], when the [[Carolingians|Carolingian]] empire was divided between the three sons of [[Louis the Pious]]. Middle Francia was allotted to Emperor [[Lothair I]], therefore called ''Lotharii Regnum''. Upon his death in 855, it was further divided into three parts, of which his son Lothair II took the northern one. His realm then comprised a larger territory stretching from the [[County of Burgundy]] in the south to the [[North Sea]]. In French, this area became known as ''Lorraine'', while in German, it was eventually known as ''Lothringen''. In the [[Alemannic German|Alemannic]] language once spoken in Lorraine, the -ingen suffix signified a property; thus, in a figurative sense, "Lotharingen" can be translated as "Land belonging to Lothair". As Lothair II had died without heirs, his territory was divided by the 870 [[Treaty of Meerssen]] between [[East Francia|East]] and [[West Francia]] and finally came under East Frankish rule as a whole by the 880 [[Treaty of Ribemont]]. After the East Frankish Carolingians became extinct with the death of [[Louis the Child]] in 911, Lotharingia once again attached itself to West Francia, but was conquered by the [[Kingdom of Germany|German]] king [[Henry the Fowler]] in 925. Stuck in the conflict with his rival [[Hugh the Great]], King [[Louis IV of France]] in 942 renounced all claims to Lotharingia. ===Duchy of Upper Lorraine=== [[Image:Croix de Lorraine.png|thumb|[[Cross of Lorraine]], symbol of Lorraine since the 15th century]] In 953 the German king [[Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor|Otto I]] had appointed his brother [[Bruno the Great]] Duke of Lotharingia. In 959, Bruno divided the [[duchy]] into Upper and [[Lower Lorraine]] which became permanent following his death in 965. The Upper Duchy was further "up" the river system, that is, it was inland and to the south. Upper Lorraine was first denominated as the '''Duchy of the [[Moselle]]''', both in charters and narrative sources, and its duke was the ''dux Mosellanorum''. The usage of ''Lotharingia Superioris'' and ''Lorraine'' in official documents begins later, around the fifteenth century. The first duke and deputy of Bruno was [[Frederick I, Duke of Upper Lorraine|Frederick I of Bar]], son-in-law of Bruno's sister [[Hedwig of Saxony]]. [[File:Herzogtum Lothringen 1400.PNG|thumb|left|Lorraine (blue) about 1400]] Lower Lorraine disintegrated into several smaller territories and only the title of a "[[Duke of Lothier]]" remained, held by [[Duchy of Brabant|Brabant]]. After the duchy of the Moselle came into the possession of [[René of Anjou]] the name "Duchy of Lorraine" was adopted again, only retrospectively called "Upper Lorraine". At that time several territories had already split off, like the [[County, Duchy and Grand Duchy of Luxembourg|County of Luxembourg]] and the [[Electorate of Trier]], or the [[Counts and dukes of Bar|County of Bar]] and the "[[Three Bishoprics]]" of [[Bishopric of Verdun|Verdun]], [[Bishopric of Metz|Metz]] and [[Bishopric of Toul|Toul]]. The border between the [[Holy Roman Empire|Empire]] and the [[Kingdom of France]] remained relatively stable throughout the [[Middle Ages]]. In 1301 Count [[Henry III, Count of Bar|Henry III of Bar]] had to receive the western part of his lands (''Barrois mouvant'') as a fief by King [[Philip IV of France]]. The [[Duchy of Burgundy|Burgundian]] duke [[Charles the Bold]] in 1475 campaigned for the Duchy of Lorraine, but finally was defeated and killed at the 1477 [[Battle of Nancy]]. In 1552 a number of insurgent [[Protestant Reformation|Protestant]] Imperial princes around Elector [[Maurice, Elector of Saxony|Maurice of Saxony]] by the [[Treaty of Chambord]] ceded the Three Bishoprics to King [[Henry II of France]] in turn for his support. In the 17th century, the [[Early modern France|French]] kings began to covet Lorraine. While the central Imperial authority decayed in the coures of the [[Thirty Years' War]], Chief Minister [[Cardinal Richelieu]] urged the occupation of the duchy in 1641. France again had to vacate it after the 1648 [[Peace of Westphalia]], which however won France several positions in [[Alsace]], east of Lorraine. In 1670, the French invaded again, forcing Duke [[Charles V, Duke of Lorraine|Charles V]] to flee to a Viennese exile, where he formed strong ties to the Imperial [[House of Habsburg]]. France occupied the Duchy for almost thirty years, only giving it up in the [[Treaty of Ryswick]] which ended the [[Nine Years' War]] in 1697. During the [[War of the Spanish Succession]], parts of Lorraine, including the capital Nancy, were again occupied by France, but Duke [[Leopold, Duke of Lorraine|Leopold Joseph]] continued to reign at the [[Château de Lunéville]]. [[Image:Wappen Lothringen 1703.gif|thumb|Full coat of arms of the Duchy, [[Siebmachers Wappenbuch]], 1703]] [[Image:Herzogtum Lothringen wappen 1697.png|thumb|Coat of arms of the Duchy (1697)]] In 1737, after the [[War of the Polish Succession]], Lorraine was part of an agreement between France, the House of Habsburg and the Lorraine House of Vaudémont: The Duchy was given to [[Stanisław Leszczyński]], the former king of [[Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth|Poland]] and father-in-law to King [[Louis XV of France]], who despite French support had lost out to a candidate backed by Russia and Austria in the War of the Polish Succession. The Lorraine duke [[Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor|Francis Stephen]], betrothed to the Emperor's daughter [[Maria Theresa of Austria|Archduchess Maria Theresa]], was compensated with the [[Grand Duchy of Tuscany]], where the last [[Medici]] ruler had recently died without issue. France also promised to support Maria Theresa as heir to the Habsburg possessions under the [[Pragmatic Sanction of 1713]]. Leszczyński received Lorraine with the understanding that it would fall to the French crown upon his death. When Stanisław died on 23 February 1766, Lorraine was annexed by France and reorganized as a [[Provinces of France|province]] by the French government. ===Between France and Germany=== The [[Lorraine (region)|Lorraine]] region remained a contested territory between France and Germany. Lorraine remained a part of the [[Holy Roman Empire]] until over repeated wars more and more was ceded to France. It was part of France until the [[Franco-Prussian War]] of 1870/1871, when northern parts of Lorraine around Metz, along with Alsace, were annexed by the newly-founded [[German Empire]], causing a large number of French people to emigrate into France (including [[Algeria]]). The territories were not annexed by any [[Federated state|state]] of the Empire or organised into a separate state, but were governed as the [[Alsace-Lorraine|Reichsland Elsass-Lothringen]] under a governor directly appointed by the German Emperor, without any parliamentary representation. Only in 1911 was some degree of autonomy granted. Alsace-Lorraine remained a part of Germany until after the end of World War I, when the Kaiser abdicated and the [[November 1918 in Alsace|Republic of Alsace-Lorraine]] declared itself independent, with support of the United States. France occupied the area after a few days and annexed it. Policies forbidding the use of German and requiring that of French were then begun. In 1940, [[Nazi Germany]] re-annexed Alsace-Lorraine during World War II combining Lorraine with the [[Saarland]] and Alsace with [[Baden Germany|Baden]]. The French language was again proscribed and education at German schools made compulsory. The war-torn area returned to France in November 1944. Because of the fighting in the area, Lorraine is home to the [[Lorraine American Cemetery and Memorial]], the largest American war cemetery in France. ==Culture== The local Germanic dialect still survives in the northern part of the region. It is known as [[Lorraine Franconian]] in English, ''francique'' or ''platt (lorrain)'' in French (not to be confused with ''[[Lorrain language|Lorrain]]'', the Romance dialect spoken in the region). This is distinct from the neighbouring [[Alsatian language]], although the two are often confused. Neither has any form of official recognition. Like most of [[Languages of France|France's regional languages]] (such as [[Breton language|Breton]], [[Franco-Provençal language|Provençal]] and [[Alsatian language|Alsatian]]) Lorraine Franconian was largely replaced by French with the advent of mandatory public schooling in the 19th and 20th centuries. Foodstuffs and dishes associated with Lorraine include [[Quiche|quiche lorraine]], [[Mirabelle plum]], [[baba au rhum]], [[Bergamot orange|bergamote]]s, [[macaron]]s, and [[Madeleine (cake)|madeleines]]. ===Publications in English=== *Herrick, Linda & Wendy Uncapher. ''Alsace-Lorraine: The Atlantic Bridge to Germany''. Janesville, WI: 2003. *Hughes, S. P. (2005) "Bilingualism in North-East France with specific reference to Rhenish Franconian spoken by Moselle Cross-border (or frontier) workers."[http://www.ruc.dk/isok/skriftserier/mobility/mobility2/Hughes/] *Putnam, Ruth. ''Alsace and Lorraine: From Cæsar to Kaiser, 58 B.C.-1871 A.D.'' New York: 1915. ==External links== *[http://www.alsace-lorraine.info/ Alsace-Lorraine.info] *[http://www.lotharingia.de/ Lotharingia] {{Upper Rhenish Circle}} {{Historic Provinces of France}} {{coord missing|France}}