Livorno traditionally Leghorn (lɛɡ'hɔrn/,ˈlɛɡ.hɔrn/, /ˈlɛɡɔrn), is a port
A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land....

 city on the Tyrrhenian Sea
Tyrrhenian Sea
The Tyrrhenian Sea is part of the Mediterranean Sea off the western coast of Italy.-Geography:The sea is bounded by Corsica and Sardinia , Tuscany, Lazio, Campania, Basilicata and Calabria and Sicily ....

 on the western edge of Tuscany
Tuscany is a region in Italy. It has an area of about 23,000 square kilometres and a population of about 3.75 million inhabitants. The regional capital is Florence ....

, Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

. It is the capital of the Province of Livorno
Province of Livorno
The Province of Livorno or Leghorn is a province in the Tuscany region of Italy. It includes several islands of the Tuscan Archipelago, including Elba and Capraia. Its capital is the city of Livorno....

, having a population of approximately 160,000 residents in 2009.


Livorno was defined as an "ideal
Ideal (ethics)
An ideal is a principle or value that one actively pursues as a goal. Ideals are particularly important in ethics, as the order in which one places them tends to determine the degree to which one reveals them as real and sincere. It is the application, in ethics, of a universal...

 town" during the Italian Renaissance
Italian Renaissance
The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 13th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe...

. Today, it reveals its history through the structure of its neighbourhood
A neighbourhood or neighborhood is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town or suburb. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members. "Researchers have not agreed on an exact definition...

s, crossed by canal
Canals are man-made channels for water. There are two types of canal:#Waterways: navigable transportation canals used for carrying ships and boats shipping goods and conveying people, further subdivided into two kinds:...

s and surrounded by fortified
Fortifications are military constructions and buildings designed for defence in warfare and military bases. Humans have constructed defensive works for many thousands of years, in a variety of increasingly complex designs...

 town walls, through the tangle of its street
A street is a paved public thoroughfare in a built environment. It is a public parcel of land adjoining buildings in an urban context, on which people may freely assemble, interact, and move about. A street can be as simple as a level patch of dirt, but is more often paved with a hard, durable...

s, which embroider the town's Venice
Venice is a city in northern Italy which is renowned for the beauty of its setting, its architecture and its artworks. It is the capital of the Veneto region...

 district, and through the Medici
The House of Medici or Famiglia de' Medici was a political dynasty, banking family and later royal house that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the late 14th century. The family originated in the Mugello region of the Tuscan countryside,...

 Port characteristically overlooked by tower
A tower is a tall structure, usually taller than it is wide, often by a significant margin. Towers are distinguished from masts by their lack of guy-wires....

s and fortresses leading to the town centre
Town centre
The town centre is the term used to refer to the commercial or geographical centre or core area of a town.Town centres are traditionally associated with shopping or retail. They are also the centre of communications with major public transport hubs such as train or bus stations...

. Designed by the architect
An architect is a person trained in the planning, design and oversight of the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to offer or render services in connection with the design and construction of a building, or group of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the...

 Bernardo Buontalenti
Bernardo Buontalenti
Bernardo Buontalenti, byname of Bernardo Delle Girandole was an Italian stage designer, architect, theatrical designer, military engineer and artist.-Biography:Buontalenti was born in Florence....

 at the end of the 16th century, Livorno underwent a period of great town planning expansion at the end of the 17th century. Near the defensive pile of the Old Fortress, a new fortress, together with the town-walls and the system of navigable canals, was then built.

In the late 1580s, Ferdinando I
Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany was Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1587 to 1609, having succeeded his older brother Francesco I.-Biography:...

 of Tuscany declared Livorno a porto Franco, which meant that the goods trade
Trade is the transfer of ownership of goods and services from one person or entity to another. Trade is sometimes loosely called commerce or financial transaction or barter. A network that allows trade is called a market. The original form of trade was barter, the direct exchange of goods and...

d here were duty free. The Leggi Livornine were law
Law is a system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institutions to govern behavior, wherever possible. It shapes politics, economics and society in numerous ways and serves as a social mediator of relations between people. Contract law regulates everything from buying a bus...

s in force between 1590 and 1603. These laws helped the trading activities of the merchant
A merchant is a businessperson who trades in commodities that were produced by others, in order to earn a profit.Merchants can be one of two types:# A wholesale merchant operates in the chain between producer and retail merchant...

, freedom of religion
Freedom of religion
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance; the concept is generally recognized also to include the freedom to change religion or not to follow any...

 and amnesty
Amnesty is a legislative or executive act by which a state restores those who may have been guilty of an offense against it to the positions of innocent people, without changing the laws defining the offense. It includes more than pardon, in as much as it obliterates all legal remembrance of the...

 for some penance
Penance is repentance of sins as well as the proper name of the Roman Catholic, Orthodox Christian, and Anglican Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation/Confession. It also plays a part in non-sacramental confession among Lutherans and other Protestants...

. Thanks to these laws, Livorno became a cosmopolitan city and one of the most important ports of the entire Mediterranean area. Many foreigner
Alien (law)
In law, an alien is a person in a country who is not a citizen of that country.-Categorization:Types of "alien" persons are:*An alien who is legally permitted to remain in a country which is foreign to him or her. On specified terms, this kind of alien may be called a legal alien of that country...

s moved to Livorno; Frenchmen, Dutch
Dutch people
The Dutch people are an ethnic group native to the Netherlands. They share a common culture and speak the Dutch language. Dutch people and their descendants are found in migrant communities worldwide, notably in Suriname, Chile, Brazil, Canada, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, and the United...

, English
English people
The English are a nation and ethnic group native to England, who speak English. The English identity is of early mediaeval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Anglecynn. England is now a country of the United Kingdom, and the majority of English people in England are British Citizens...

, Greeks
The Greeks, also known as the Hellenes , are a nation and ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighboring regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world....

 and Jews
The Jews , also known as the Jewish people, are a nation and ethnoreligious group originating in the Israelites or Hebrews of the Ancient Near East. The Jewish ethnicity, nationality, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation...

 were among those who relocated to live and trade. Much later, during the 18th century, some Morisco
Moriscos or Mouriscos , meaning "Moorish", were the converted Christian inhabitants of Spain and Portugal of Muslim heritage. Over time the term was used in a pejorative sense applied to those nominal Catholics who were suspected of secretly practicing Islam.-Demographics:By the beginning of the...

s (Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

Spanish people
The Spanish are citizens of the Kingdom of Spain. Within Spain, there are also a number of vigorous nationalisms and regionalisms, reflecting the country's complex history....

s forcibly converted
A converso and its feminine form conversa was a Jew or Muslim—or a descendant of Jews or Muslims—who converted to Catholicism in Spain or Portugal, particularly during the 14th and 15th centuries. Mass conversions once took place under significant government pressure...

 to Catholicism
Catholicism is a broad term for the body of the Catholic faith, its theologies and doctrines, its liturgical, ethical, spiritual, and behavioral characteristics, as well as a religious people as a whole....

) also moved to Livorno from Spain. On 19 March 1606, the Granduca di Toscana Ferdinando I de' Medici
Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany was Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1587 to 1609, having succeeded his older brother Francesco I.-Biography:...

, in the Fortezza Vecchia Chapel of Saint Francis of Assisi elevated Livorno to the rank of city.

During the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars declared against Napoleon's French Empire by opposing coalitions that ran from 1803 to 1815. As a continuation of the wars sparked by the French Revolution of 1789, they revolutionised European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly due to...

, trade with Britain
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 was prohibited and the economy
An economy consists of the economic system of a country or other area; the labor, capital and land resources; and the manufacturing, trade, distribution, and consumption of goods and services of that area...

 of Livorno suffered greatly. Then, in 1868, after Livorno became part of the new Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)
The Kingdom of Italy was a state forged in 1861 by the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which was its legal predecessor state...

, it lost its status of a free port
Free port
A free port or free zone , sometimes also called a bonded area is a port, port area or other area with relaxed jurisdiction with respect to the country of location...

 and the city's importance declined.

Main sights

The Venice district retains much of its original town planning and architectural features such as the bridges, narrow lane
A lane is a part of the roadway within a road marked out for use by a single line of vehicles in such a way as to control and guide drivers for the purpose of reducing traffic conflicts. Most public roads have at least two lanes, one for traffic in each direction, separated by Lane markings...

s, the noblemen's house
A house is a building or structure that has the ability to be occupied for dwelling by human beings or other creatures. The term house includes many kinds of different dwellings ranging from rudimentary huts of nomadic tribes to free standing individual structures...

s and a dense network of canals which once linked the port to its storehouses. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Livorno, by then grown up and open to the world, had a lively appearance marked by neo-classical
Neoclassical architecture
Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing...

 buildings, public parks housing important museum
A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of scientific, artistic, cultural, or historical importance and makes them available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary. Most large museums are located in major cities...

s and cultural institutions, "Liberty" villa
A villa was originally an ancient Roman upper-class country house. Since its origins in the Roman villa, the idea and function of a villa have evolved considerably. After the fall of the Roman Republic, villas became small farming compounds, which were increasingly fortified in Late Antiquity,...

s with sea views and the market
A market is one of many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange. While parties may exchange goods and services by barter, most markets rely on sellers offering their goods or services in exchange for money from buyers...


The Museo Mascagnano houses memorabilia, documents and operas by the great composer Pietro Mascagni
Pietro Mascagni
Pietro Antonio Stefano Mascagni was an Italian composer most noted for his operas. His 1890 masterpiece Cavalleria rusticana caused one of the greatest sensations in opera history and single-handedly ushered in the Verismo movement in Italian dramatic music...

. Every year some of his operas are traditionally played during the lyric music season, which is organised by the Traditional Theatre of Livorno. Also the “Terrazza Mascagni”, a walkway divided from the sea by a handrail, is named in honor to Pietro Mascagni.

Up in the hills the Sanctuary of Montenero, which is dedicated to Our Lady of Graces
Our Lady of Graces
Our Lady of Graces or St Mary of Graces is a devotion to the Virgin Mary in the Roman Catholic Church...

, the patron saint of Tuscany, is a fixed destination for pilgrims. It is famous for the adjacent gallery, decorated with ex-voti mainly connected to stories of miraculous sea rescue.

The "Monumento dei quattro mori" ("Monument of the Four Moors
The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of the Maghreb region who are predominately of Berber and Arab descent. They came to conquer and rule the Iberian Peninsula for nearly 800 years. At that time they were Muslim, although earlier the people had followed...

"), dedicated to Grand Duke Ferdinando I de' Medici
Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany was Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1587 to 1609, having succeeded his older brother Francesco I.-Biography:...

 of Tuscany, is one of the most important monuments of Livorno. An important square, the Piazza della Repubblica, contains two important monuments of Italian politicians. The square is also a bridge, under which there lies a large canal.

Another important monument is an old red-brick fortress "Fortezza Nuova" which, in Medici times, defended the city from attack by pirates. Its three bastions are named “Capitana”, “Ampolletta” and “Canaviglia”. The original fortress was built before the Renaissance. A later one was constructed at the end of the 16th century.


Politically, Livorno is one of the most left-leaning
Left-wing politics
In politics, Left, left-wing and leftist generally refer to support for social change to create a more egalitarian society...

 cities of Italy. The Communist Party of Italy
Communist Party of Italy
The Communist Party of Italy was a communist political party in Italy which existed from 1921 to 1926. That year it was outlawed by Benito Mussolini's fascist regime. In 1943, the name was changed to the Italian Communist Party.-Foundation:The forerunner of the party was the Communist Faction...

 was founded in Livorno on 21 January 1921.

The leghorn
Leghorn chicken
The Leghorn is a breed of chicken with origins in Tuscany, central Italy. The first birds imported to North America in 1853 were called Italians. By 1865 the breed was named after the Italian city of Livorno, on the western edge of Tuscany, which in English is also known as Leghorn.White Leghorns...

 variety of chicken was named after the city. This in turn gave its name to the cartoon character Foghorn Leghorn. The city also lent its name to a kind of fine plaited straw produced there and, by extension, to the leghorn hats made from the material.


Tuaca is a brand of liqueur originally produced by the Tuoni and Canepa families of Livorno, Italy, and now produced by the Tuaca Liqueur Company of Louisville, Kentucky. The liqueur is sweet and golden brown in color. Its ingredients include brandy, essence of orange, and vanilla. Vanilla is the...

 liqueur is produced in Livorno as is Galliano. The city also has a substantial petrochemical
Petrochemicals are chemical products derived from petroleum. Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are also obtained from other fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, or renewable sources such as corn or sugar cane....

 industry. The port is the focus of a substantial tourism
Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".Tourism has become a...

 industry in which thousands of cruise-ship
Cruise ship
A cruise ship or cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ship's amenities are part of the experience, as well as the different destinations along the way...

 passengers are transported by fleets of buses to inland destinations, notably to Florence
Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the province of Florence. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with approximately 370,000 inhabitants, expanding to over 1.5 million in the metropolitan area....

However, since the beginning of 20th century Livorno has been more famous for the Orlando Shipyard, where most famously in 1911 the armored cruiser
Armored cruiser
The armored cruiser was a type of warship of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Like other types of cruiser, the armored cruiser was a long-range, independent warship, capable of defeating any ship apart from a battleship, and fast enough to outrun any battleships it encountered.The first...

 "Georgios Averof", the flagship of the Greek Navy during its victorious battles against Turks in the Balkan Wars
Balkan Wars
The Balkan Wars were two conflicts that took place in the Balkans in south-eastern Europe in 1912 and 1913.By the early 20th century, Montenegro, Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia, the countries of the Balkan League, had achieved their independence from the Ottoman Empire, but large parts of their ethnic...

 and World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, was built.


The nearest airport is the main airport of Tuscany, Pisa's Galileo Galilei Airport
Galileo Galilei Airport
-Accidents and incidents:On 23 November 2009, Italian Air Force Lockheed KC-130J Hercules MM62176 of the based 46 Aerobrigata crashed just after take-off. All five crew were killed.-External links:*...

, which is about twenty kilometers away.


Livorno has a football
Football (soccer)
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball...

 team in Serie B
Serie B
Serie B, currently named Serie bwin due to sponsorship reasons, is the second-highest division in the Italian football league system after the Serie A. It is contested by 22 teams and organized by the Lega Serie B since July 2010, after the split of Lega Calcio that previously took care of both the...

, A.S. Livorno Calcio
A.S. Livorno Calcio
Associazione Sportiva Livorno Calcio is an Italian football club based in Livorno, Tuscany. The club was formed in 1915 and currently plays in Italian Serie B. The team's colors are dark red or maroon...



Livorno inhabitants speak a variant of the Italian Tuscan dialect
Tuscan dialect
The Tuscan language , or the Tuscan dialect is an Italo-Dalmatian language spoken in Tuscany, Italy.Standard Italian is based on Tuscan, specifically on its Florentine variety...

, known as a vernacolo
A vernacular is the native language or native dialect of a specific population, as opposed to a language of wider communication that is not native to the population, such as a national language or lingua franca.- Etymology :The term is not a recent one...

. The satirical comic-style magazine printed mainly in the Livornese dialect, called Il Vernacoliere
Il Vernacoliere
Il Vernacoliere is an Italian monthly satirical magazine based in Livorno, Tuscany, founded in 1982 by editor-director Mario Cardinali. The periodical started to operate as a successor of the pre-existing Livornocronaca, first issued in 1961. Il Vernacoliere is characterised by its absence of...

, founded in 1982, is now nationally distributed.

The Greek community and the port of Livorno in the 19th century

The first Greeks who settled in Livorno early in the 16th century were former mercenaries in the fleet of Cosimo de' Medici
Cosimo de' Medici
Còsimo di Giovanni degli Mèdici was the first of the Medici political dynasty, de facto rulers of Florence during much of the Italian Renaissance; also known as "Cosimo 'the Elder'" and "Cosimo Pater Patriae" .-Biography:Born in Florence, Cosimo inherited both his wealth and his expertise in...

 and their descendants. This community increased and became significant in the 18th and 19th centuries when Livorno became one of the principal hubs of the mediterranean trade. Most of the new Greek immigrants came from Western Greece, Chios
Chios is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea, seven kilometres off the Asia Minor coast. The island is separated from Turkey by the Chios Strait. The island is noted for its strong merchant shipping community, its unique mastic gum and its medieval villages...

, Epirus
The name Epirus, from the Greek "Ήπειρος" meaning continent may refer to:-Geographical:* Epirus - a historical and geographical region of the southwestern Balkans, straddling modern Greece and Albania...

 and Asia Minor. Thanks to the duty-free policy (port franc) and the facilities for long-term storage of levantine goods and grains, until the late 19th century Livorno enjoyed a strong strategic position with respect to Greek entrepreneurial interests in the Black Sea, the Mediterranean, and the North Atlantic. The hostile trade environment created by the Anglo-French confrontation in the Mediterranean (port embargoes, piracy, confiscation of cargoes etc.) turned to an advantage of the Greek merchants who were willing to take the risk. By 1820’s the Greek community of entrepreneurs gradually replaced the British, Dutch, French and other merchants who left the city. The grain market, banking and ship-broking were their main activities. Cargoes of wheat from Black Sea were first received to Livorno, re-shipped to England and ships came back to Livorno full of textiles and other industrial goods, to be shipped again to Alexandria and other destinations in Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

. A large part of this trade was in the hands of Chiots. A 1839 report says that in Livorno were no more than ten major commercial houses, all of them foreign, Greek and Jewish
The Jews , also known as the Jewish people, are a nation and ethnoreligious group originating in the Israelites or Hebrews of the Ancient Near East. The Jewish ethnicity, nationality, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation...


The Greek community (nazione) had also a distinctive cultural and social identity based on their common religion, language and history. In 1775 they established the Confraternity of Holy Trinity (Confraternita della SS.Trinita) and the Chiesa della Santissima Trinita, the first non-catholic church in Tuscany. A Greek school was also established and scholarships for higher studies were awarded to young Greeks from Peloponnesus, Epirus, Chio or Smyrna. The community helped financially the Greek Revolution of 1821 and various Greek communities in the Ottoman Empire and in Italy. Benefactions were directed to non-Greeks, too. The Rodocanachi family financed the “School of Mutual Education” established in Livorno by the pedagogist Enrico Mayer and the community participated in the establishment of a school for poor catholic children. Distinguished members of the Greek community (e.g. members of the Papoudoff, Maurogordatos, Rodocanachi, Tossizza and other families) were granted titles of nobility by the local governing authorities.

The Greek community declined in late 19th century as from 1/1/1868 the privileges of the Livorno port ceased.

Twin towns — Sister cities

Livorno is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

Bat Yam, Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

Cerignola is a town and comune of Apulia, Italy, in the province of Foggia, 40 km southeast from the town of Foggia. It has the third-largest land area of any comune in Italy, at 593.71 km², after Rome and Ravenna.-History:...

, Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

Guadalajara, Spain
Guadalajara is a city and municipality in the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha, Spain, and in the natural region of La Alcarria. It is the capital of the province of Guadalajara. It is located roughly 60 km northeast of Madrid on the Henares River, and has a population of 83,789...

, Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

Haiphong, Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

Novorossiysk is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. It is the country's main port on the Black Sea and the leading Russian port for importing grain. It is one of the few cities honored with the title of the Hero City. Population: -History:...

, Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

Adana is a city in southern Turkey and a major agricultural and commercial center. The city is situated on the Seyhan River, 30 kilometres inland from the Mediterranean, in south-central Anatolia...

, Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

Notable people

  • Luca Agamennoni
    Luca Agamennoni
    Luca Agamennoni is an Italian silver medal and bronze medal winner for rowing in the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing and 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens.-References:*...

  • Andrea Aghini
    Andrea Aghini
    Andrea Aghini Lombardi is an Italian rally driver. He won the 1992 Rallye Sanremo and took four other podium finishes in the World Rally Championship from 1992 to 1995...

  • Romano Albani
    Romano Albani
    Romano Albani is an Italian cinematographer and camera operator.His film credits include Marco Ferreri's La Dernière femme Romano Albani (born 25 September 1945 in Livorno, Tuscany, Italy) is an Italian cinematographer and camera operator.His film credits include Marco Ferreri's La Dernière...

  • Massimiliano Allegri
  • Mario Ancona
    Mario Ancona
    Mario Ancona , was a leading Italian baritone and master of bel canto singing. He appeared at some of the most important opera houses in Europe and America during what is commonly referred to as the "Golden Age of Opera".-Career:Ancona was born into a middle-class Jewish family at Livorno, Tuscany,...

     (1860–1931), Jewish opera baritone
  • Rabbi Chaim Joseph David Azulai
    Chaim Joseph David Azulai
    Chaim Joseph David Azulai ben Isaac Zerachia , commonly known as the Chida , was a Jerusalem born rabbinical scholar, a noted bibliophile, and a pioneer in the publication of Jewish religious writings.- Biography :Azulai was born in Jerusalem, where he received his education...

     (1724–1807), prolific Rabbinic scholar

  • Baldo Baldi
  • Andrea Baldini
    Andrea Baldini
    Andrea Baldini is an Italian foil fencer.Baldini won the silver medal at the foil 2006 World Fencing Championships after he lost the final 15-14 versus Peter Joppich....

     (born 1985), fencer, World Champion
  • David Balleri
    David Balleri
    David Balleri is a former Italian footballer .On 22 October 2006, he played his 300th Serie A match, in a 0–0 tie against Siena. He played first Serie A match on 8 September 1993....

  • Enzo Bartolini
    Enzo Bartolini
    Enzo Bartolini was an Italian rower who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics.He was born in Livorno.In 1936 he won the silver medal as crew member of the Italian boat in the eights event.-External links:*...

  • Piero Barontini (1919–2003), painter
  • Rabbi Elijah Benamozegh
    Elijah Benamozegh
    Elijah Benamozegh, sometimes Elia or Eliyahu, was an Italian Orthodox rabbi and a noted Kabbalist, highly respected in his day as one of Italy's most eminent Jewish scholars. He served for half a century as rabbi of the important Jewish community of Livorno, where the Piazza Benamozegh now...

     (1822–1900), rabbi and scholar of Kabbalah
    Kabbalah/Kabala is a discipline and school of thought concerned with the esoteric aspect of Rabbinic Judaism. It was systematized in 11th-13th century Hachmei Provence and Spain, and again after the Expulsion from Spain, in 16th century Ottoman Palestine...

  • Malachi ben Jacob
    Malachi ben Jacob
    Malachi ben Jacob ha-Kohen was a renowned Talmudist, methodologist, and one of the greatest Kaballists of the 18th century. He was a student of the famous kaballist Rabbi Joseph Ergas, author of the original kaballistic text known as 'Shomer Emunim'. Born in Livorno sometime between 1695–1700, he...

  • Bino Bini
    Bino Bini
    Bino Bini was an Italian fencer. He won a gold medal at the 1924 Summer Olympics and a silver and bronze at the 1928 Summer Olympics.-References:...

  • Giotto Bizzarrini
    Giotto Bizzarrini
    Giotto Bizzarrini is an Italian automobile engineer active from the 1950s through 1970s....

  • Ranieri de' Calzabigi
    Ranieri de' Calzabigi
    Ranieri de' Calzabigi was an Italian poet and librettist, most famous for his collaboration with the composer Christoph Willibald Gluck on his "reform" operas....

  • Giuseppe Cambini
    Giuseppe Cambini
    Giuseppe Maria Gioacchino Cambini was an Italian composer and violinist.Born in Livorno, it is likely that Cambini studied violin with Filippo Manfredi; the only evidence for this is however Cambini's own unreliable account, which also claims inaccurately that he worked with Luigi Boccherini and...

  • Leonetto Cappiello
    Leonetto Cappiello
    Leonetto Cappiello was an Italian poster art designer who lived in Paris. He is now often called 'the father of modern advertising' because of his innovation in poster design...

     (1875–1942), painter
  • Giorgio Caproni
    Giorgio Caproni
    Giorgio Caproni was an Italian poet, literary critic and translator, especially from the French.Caproni left Livorno at the age of ten to complete his primary studies in Genoa, where he studied first music, then literature, and where he wrote his first poems...

     (1912–1990), poet
  • David Castelli
    David Castelli
    David Castelli was an Italian scholar and educator in the field of secular Jewish studies. He was educated at the rabbinical college of Leghorn, and from 1857 to 1863 was teacher of Hebrew and Italian in the Jewish schools of that city...

     (1836–1901), Jewish Biblical scholar
  • Mario Checcacci
    Mario Checcacci
    Mario Checcacci was an Italian rower who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics.He was born in Livorno.In 1936 he won the silver medal as crew member of the Italian boat in the eights event.-External links:...

  • Pierluigi Chicca
    Pierluigi Chicca
    Pierluigi Chicca is an Italian Olympic fencer. He won a bronze medal in the team sabre at the 1960 Summer Olympics and a silver in the same event at the 1964 and 1968 Summer Olympics.-References:...

  • Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
    Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
    dr. Carlo Azeglio Ciampi is an Italian politician and banker. He was the 73rd Prime Minister of Italy from 1993 to 1994 and was the tenth President of the Italian Republic from 1999 to 2006...

     (born 1920), former President of the Republic of Italy
  • Piero Ciampi (1934–1980), musician
  • Costanzo Ciano
    Costanzo Ciano
    Costanzo Ciano, 1st Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari was an Italian naval commander and politician. He was the father of Galeazzo Ciano....

  • Gian Galeazzo Ciano
    Galeazzo Ciano
    Gian Galeazzo Ciano, 2nd Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari was an Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs and Benito Mussolini's son-in-law. In early 1944 Count Ciano was shot by firing squad at the behest of his father-in-law, Mussolini under pressure from Nazi Germany.-Early life:Ciano was born in...

     (1903–1944), Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs and Benito Mussolini's son-in-law
  • Arduíno Colassanti
    Arduíno Colassanti
    Arduíno Colassanti is an Italian-born Brazilian actor. He has appeared in 30 films since 1967. He starred in the 1968 film Hunger for Love, which was entered into the 18th Berlin International Film Festival...

  • Antonio Corazzi
    Antonio Corazzi
    Antonio Corazzi was an Italian architect who designed a number of buildings in Warsaw, the capital of Poland.He was born in Livorno.Amongst the buildings he designed are:* Staszic Palace...

  • Vittorio Matteo Corcos (1859–1933), painter
  • Rabbi Moses Cordovero
    Moses Cordovero
    Moses Cordovero was a physician who lived at Leghorn , Tuscany in the seventeenth century. David Conforte praises him as a good physician, and also on account of his scholarship and philanthropy. He was always eager to secure the release of prisoners through his personal influence as well as by...

  • Giovanni de Gamerra
    Giovanni de Gamerra
    Giovanni de Gamerra was a cleric, a playwright, and a poet. He is best known as a prolific librettist....

  • Serafino De Tivoli
    Serafino De Tivoli
    Serafino De Tivoli was an Italian artist of the Macchiaioli group.He was born in Livorno. After initial study of Literature at a religious private school in Florence, he began his artistic training under local painter, Carlo Markò the elder. He met Vito D'Ancona during the mid-1840s, and joined...

  • Manlio Di Rosa
    Manlio Di Rosa
    Manlio Di Rosa was an Italian Olympic fencer. He won two golds, two silvers and bronze at four different Olympic Games.-References:...

  • Dino Diluca
    Dino Diluca
    Dino Diluca - was a leading Italian actor of both stage, screen and television. He was active in both Italy and the United States of America from the 1930s through the 1960s.-Biography:...

  • Federigo Enriques
    Federigo Enriques
    Federigo Enriques was an Italian mathematician, now known principally as the first to give a classification of algebraic surfaces in birational geometry, and other contributions in algebraic geometry....

  • Paolo Enriques
    Paolo Enriques
    Paolo Enriques was an Italian zoologist.Paolo Enriques taught Zoology and Comparative Anatomy at the University of Sassari , then in 1922 he became Professor of Zoology in the University of Padua University, and Director of the Institute of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy...

     (1878–1932), zoologist (genetics)

  • Giovanni Fattori
    Giovanni Fattori
    Giovanni Fattori was an Italian artist, one of the leaders of the group known as the Macchiaioli. He was initially a painter of historical themes and military subjects. In his middle years, inspired by the Barbizon school, he became one of the leading Italian plein-airists, painting landscapes,...

     (1825–1908), painter
  • Bruno Filippi
    Bruno Filippi
    Bruno Filippi , was an Italian individualist anarchist writer and activist who collaborated in the Italian individualist anarchist magazine Iconoclasta! alongside Renzo Novatore....

  • Voltolino Fontani
    Voltolino Fontani
    Voltolino Fontani was an Italian painter. He was an artist who contributed to introduce the espression Atomic age in the European culture...

     (1920–1976), painter
  • Alberto Fremura (born 1936), artist
  • Angelo Froglia
    Angelo Froglia
    Angelo Froglia was an Italian painter.-Biography:Froglia was the creator of the scandal of the heads of Modigliani....

     (1955–1997), painter and creator of the scandal of the heads of Modigliani

  • Vivi Gioi
    Vivi Gioi
    Vivi Gioi was an Italian actress.Her professional last name Diesca was the anagram of De Sica, the famous actor and director with whom she was in love...

  • Filippo Gragnani
    Filippo Gragnani
    Filippo Gragnani was an Italian guitarist and composer.Gragnani was born in Livorno, the son of Antonio Gragnani...

     (1768–1820), virtuoso guitarist and composer
  • Oreste Grossi
    Oreste Grossi
    Oreste Grossi was an Italian rower who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics.He was born and died in Livorno.In 1936 he won the silver medal as crew member of the Italian boat in the eights event....

  • Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi
    Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi
    Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi was an Italian writer and politician involved in the Italian risorgimento.-Biography:...

     (1804–1873), writer and politician

  • Devrim Hakan (17th century), cantidal
  • Marzio Innocenti
    Marzio Innocenti
    Marzio Innocenti is a former Italian rugby union player and a current coach. He played as a flanker and a number 8.-Playing career:...

  • Aurelio Lampredi
    Aurelio Lampredi
    Aurelio Lampredi was an Italian automobile and aircraft engine designer.Born in Livorno, he began his career at Piaggio, makers of the Vespa scooter, but quickly moved up to larger engines...

  • Dario Lari
    Dario Lari
    Dario Lari is a rower from Italy. He competed for his native counry at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens.-References:*...

  • Francis Levett
    Francis Levett
    Francis Levett was an English trader, who worked as factor at Livorno, Italy, for the Levant Company until he lit out for East Florida in 1769 where his brother-in-law Patrick Tonyn of the British Army had been appointed Governor of the English colony...

    , English merchant, the Levant Company
    Levant Company
    The Levant Company, or Turkey Company, was an English chartered company formed in 1581, to regulate English trade with Turkey and the Levant...

  • Alessandro Lucarelli
    Alessandro Lucarelli
    Alessandro Lucarelli is an Italian football defender. He currently plays for Parma. He is a left-footed centre back who can also play left back....

     (born 1977), football player
  • Cristiano Lucarelli
    Cristiano Lucarelli
    He is a staunch admirer of Che Guevara, whose face is frequently displayed on Livorno fans' banners and T-shirts during matches. This first came to the fore in 1997, when, after scoring for Italy's Under-21 side, he celebrated by pulling his jersey over his face to reveal a shirt bearing the...

     (born 1975), football player, topscorer of Serie A
    Serie A
    Serie A , now called Serie A TIM due to sponsorship by Telecom Italia, is a professional league competition for football clubs located at the top of the Italian football league system and has been operating for over eighty years since 1929. It had been organized by Lega Calcio until 2010, but a new...

     in 2004-05

  • Mario Magnozzi
    Mario Magnozzi
    Mario Magnozzi was an Italian football player who competed in the 1928 Summer Olympics.Magnozzi was born in Livorno, for whose team he played until 1930. In 1920 Livorno won the Torneo del Sud, after which it was defeated by FC Internazionale in the final for the Italian overall title...

  • Giovanni Marradi
    Giovanni Marradi
    Giovanni Marradi was an Italian poet born at Livorno and educated at Pisa and Florence. At the latter place he started with others a short-lived review, the Nuovi Goliardi, which made some literary sensation. He became a teacher at various colleges, and eventually an educational inspector in Massa...

  • Pietro Mascagni
    Pietro Mascagni
    Pietro Antonio Stefano Mascagni was an Italian composer most noted for his operas. His 1890 masterpiece Cavalleria rusticana caused one of the greatest sensations in opera history and single-handedly ushered in the Verismo movement in Italian dramatic music...

     (1863–1945), opera composer
  • Davide Matteini
    Davide Matteini
    Davide Matteini is an Italian footballer who plays for Cosenza Calcio.-Career:Matteini started his career at Empoli. After loaned to Serie C1 and Serie C2 clubs, he was signed by Palermo in January 2003, in join-ownership bid. He just played once for Palermo in Serie B.Matteini then left on loan...

  • Matteo Mazzantini
    Matteo Mazzantini
    Matteo Mazzantini is an Italian rugby union footballer. His position in the field is as a scrum-half.He played for Benetton Rugby Treviso , Rugby Rovigo , Arix Viadana and SKG Gran Parma .Mazzantini had his first cap for Italy at 5 February 2000, in a 34-20 win over Scotland...

     (born 1976), rugby player
  • Luca Mazzoni
    Luca Mazzoni
    Luca Mazzoni is an Italian football player. He currently plays for Arezzo.-External links:*...

  • Umberto Melnati
    Umberto Melnati
    Umberto Melnati was an Italian film actorHe appeared in over 35 films between 1932 and 1962.He starred in films such as the Mario Mattoli 1936 film L'uomo che sorride and Il signor Max...

  • Guido Menasci
    Guido Menasci
    Guido Menasci was an Italian opera librettist.His best known work is Cavalleria rusticana written with Giovanni Targioni-Tozzetti. He also provided the libretti for Mascagni's I Rantzau, Zanetto, for Umberto Giordano's Regina Diaz and Viktor Parma's Stara pesem .Menasci was born in...

  • Amedeo Modigliani
    Amedeo Modigliani
    Amedeo Clemente Modigliani was an Italian painter and sculptor who worked mainly in France. Primarily a figurative artist, he became known for paintings and sculptures in a modern style characterized by mask-like faces and elongation of form...

     (1884–1920), Jewish painter and sculptor
  • Aldo Montano (born 1978), fencer, Olympic gold medalist
  • Moses Haim Montefiore (1784–1885), Jewish financier and philanthropist in Britain
  • Rabbi Sabato Morais
    Sabato Morais
    Sabato Morais was an Italian-American rabbi, leader of Mikveh Israel Synagogue, pioneer of Italian Jewish Studies in America, and founder of the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York City.- Early years :...

     (1823–1897), rabbi in Philadelphia, USA, and founder of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America
    Jewish Theological Seminary of America
    The Jewish Theological Seminary of America is one of the academic and spiritual centers of Conservative Judaism, and a major center for academic scholarship in Jewish studies.JTS operates five schools: Albert A...

     in New York City
    New York City
    New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

  • Fabrizio Mori
    Fabrizio Mori
    Fabrizio Mori is an Italian hurdler, best known for his gold medal at the 1999 World Championships. His personal best over 400 metres hurdles, which is also an Italian record, is 47.54 seconds, achieved at the 2001 World Championships in Edmonton.-Achievements:-External links:...

  • Alfredo Muller
    Alfredo Müller
    Alfredo Müller was a Franco-Italian painter and engraver.As a painter from Livorno, he belonged to the group of the Postmacchiaioli, together with Mario Puccini, Oscar Ghiglia, Plinio Nomellini, Ulvi Liegi, Giovanni Bartolena, and others, and as a French engraver, he was close to Francis Jourdain,...

     (1869–1940), artist

  • Aldo Nadi
    Aldo Nadi
    Aldo Nadi is considered among the greatest fencers of all time.Aldo was born into a fencing family in Livorno, Italy, and both Aldo and his brother Nedo Nadi were fencers from a very young age...

  • Nedo Nadi
    Nedo Nadi
    Nedo Nadi was an Italian fencer, widely regarded as one of, if not, the best ever. He is the only fencer to win a gold medal in each of the three weapons at a single Olympic Games and won the most gold medals ever at a single Games - five...

     (1894–1940), won 5 gold medals in fencing at the 1920 Olympics

  • Giorgio Pellini
  • Armando Picchi
    Armando Picchi
    Armando Picchi was an Italian football player and coach. Regularly positioned as a sweeper, he captained the Internazionale side known as La Grande Inter.-Club career:...

     (1935–1971), football player and manager
  • Enrico Pollastrini
    Enrico Pollastrini
    Enrico Pollastrini was an Italian painter. He was born at Livorno. He was a pupil of Giuseppe Bezzuoli. He was first professor and afterwards president of the Academy of Fine Arts in the city of Florence, where he died.-References:...

  • Oreste Puliti

  • Ottorino Quaglierini
    Ottorino Quaglierini
    Ottorino Quaglierini was an Italian rower who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics.He was born in Livorno.In 1936 he won the silver medal as crew member of the Italian boat in the eights event.-External links:*...

  • Giulia Quintavalle
    Giulia Quintavalle
    Giulia Quintavalle is an Italian judoka. She won the gold medal in the -57 kg weight class at the 2008 Summer Olympics.-External links:* official website

  • Dario Resta
    Dario Resta
    Dario Resta , nicknamed "Dolly", was an Italian Briton race car driver. Raised in England from the age of two, he began racing there starting in 1907. He took part in the Montagu Cup the very first race of the now historic Brooklands track. He set a record of in a half-mile run a few years later...

     (1884–1924), racecar driver, Indy 500 winner
  • Rolando Rigoli
    Rolando Rigoli
    Rolando Rigoli is an Italian fencer. He won a silver medal in the team sabre event at the 1968 Summer Olympics and a gold in the same event at the 1972 Summer Olympics.-References:...

  • Giovanni Schmidt
    Giovanni Schmidt
    -Life:He moved to Naples whilst still young and stayed there his whole life. Between 1800 and 1840 he wrote libretti for 45 operas, especially for the Teatro San Carlo, for which he was official poet. He and Andrea Leone Tottola were the two librettists who dominated theatrical life in Naples in...

  • Dante Secchi
    Dante Secchi
    Dante Secchi was an Italian rower who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics.He was born and died in Livorno.In 1936 he won the silver medal as crew member of the Italian boat in the eights event....

  • Hezekiah da Silva
    Hezekiah da Silva
    Hezekiah da Silva was a Jewish author born at Livorno, Italy, son-in-law of the dayan Mordecai Befael Malachi. About 1679 he left his native city for Jerusalem, Palestine, where he attended the yeshibah of Moses Galante, and ten years later he was sent to Europe to collect funds for Jerusalem...

  • Mauro Simonetti
    Mauro Simonetti
    Mauro Simonetti was an Italian professional road bicycle racer. In the 1968 Summer Olympics, Simonetti won the bronze medeal in the team road race.- Palmarès :196819701971- External links :*...

  • Athos Tanzini
    Athos Tanzini
    Athos Tanzini was an Italian Olympic fencer. He won a silver medal in the team sabre event at the 1936 Summer Olympics.-References:...

  • Giovanni Targioni-Tozzetti
    Giovanni Targioni-Tozzetti
    Giovanni Targioni-Tozzetti was an Italian librettist, best known for his friendship and collaboration with the composer Pietro Mascagni...

  • Ilaria Tocchini
    Ilaria Tocchini
    Ilaria Tocchini is a retired butterfly swimmer from Italy, who represented her native country in three consecutive Summer Olympics, starting in 1988. She won her first international senior medal, a silver with the women's 4×100 m medley relay team, at the 1987 European Championships in...

  • Angiolo Tommasi (1858–1923), artist

  • Dino Urbani
    Dino Urbani
    Dino Urbani was an Italian fencer who took part in the 1920 Olympics in Antwerp.Urbani was Olympic champion in fencing twice. He was part of the Italian team that won the team competitions both in epee and foil.-References:...

  • Rabbi Samuel Uziel
    Samuel Uziel
    Samuel Uziel was a Talmudist and scholar of the 17th century, rabbi of Livorno. He is mentioned in a responsum in the collection Mayim Rabbim of Raphael Meldola.- References :...

     (17th century), rabbi and Talmudist
  • Paolo Virzì
    Paolo Virzì
    Paolo Virzì is a film director, writer and producer. He is one of the most acclaimed storytellers for the screen and is considered to be one of the major heirs of the Italian-style comedy film tradition.-Biography:...

     (born 1964), film screenwriter and director

Points of interest

  • Museo di Storia Naturale del Mediterraneo
  • Orto Botanico del Mediterraneo
    Orto Botanico del Mediterraneo
    The Orto Botanico del Mediterraneo is a botanical garden located on the grounds of the Museo di Storia Naturale del Mediterraneo at Livorno, Tuscany, Italy...

  • Cisternone of Livorno
  • Old English Cemetery, Livorno
    Old English Cemetery, Livorno
    The Old English Cemetery is a cemetery in Livorno, central Italy, located in a plot of land near the Via Verdi, close to the Waldensian Church and to the formerly Anglican church of St. George...

External links

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