List of human anatomical features

List of human anatomical features

Encyclopedia
The major systems of the human body
Human body
The human body is the entire structure of a human organism, and consists of a head, neck, torso, two arms and two legs.By the time the human reaches adulthood, the body consists of close to 100 trillion cells, the basic unit of life...

 are:
  • Cardiovascular system: the blood circulation with heart
    Human heart
    The human heart is a muscular organ that provides a continuous blood circulation through the cardiac cycle and is one of the most vital organs in the human body...

    , arteries
    Artery
    Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. This blood is normally oxygenated, exceptions made for the pulmonary and umbilical arteries....

     and vein
    Vein
    In the circulatory system, veins are blood vessels that carry blood towards the heart. Most veins carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart; exceptions are the pulmonary and umbilical veins, both of which carry oxygenated blood to the heart...

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  • Digestive system: processing food with mouth
    Mouth
    The mouth is the first portion of the alimentary canal that receives food andsaliva. The oral mucosa is the mucous membrane epithelium lining the inside of the mouth....

    , esophagus
    Esophagus
    The esophagus is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. During swallowing, food passes from the mouth through the pharynx into the esophagus and travels via peristalsis to the stomach...

    , stomach
    Stomach
    The stomach is a muscular, hollow, dilated part of the alimentary canal which functions as an important organ of the digestive tract in some animals, including vertebrates, echinoderms, insects , and molluscs. It is involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication .The stomach is...

     and intestine
    Intestine
    In human anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the pyloric sphincter of the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine...

    s.
  • Endocrine system
    Endocrine system
    In physiology, the endocrine system is a system of glands, each of which secretes a type of hormone directly into the bloodstream to regulate the body. The endocrine system is in contrast to the exocrine system, which secretes its chemicals using ducts. It derives from the Greek words "endo"...

    : communicating within the body using hormone
    Hormone
    A hormone is a chemical released by a cell or a gland in one part of the body that sends out messages that affect cells in other parts of the organism. Only a small amount of hormone is required to alter cell metabolism. In essence, it is a chemical messenger that transports a signal from one...

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  • Urinary system
    Urinary system
    The urinary system is the organ system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. In humans it includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder and the urethra.-Kidney:...

    : eliminating wastes from the body
  • Immune system
    Immune system
    An immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumor cells. It detects a wide variety of agents, from viruses to parasitic worms, and needs to distinguish them from the organism's own...

    : defending against disease-causing agents (includes the Lymphatic system
    Lymphatic system
    The lymphoid system is the part of the immune system comprising a network of conduits called lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph unidirectionally toward the heart. Lymphoid tissue is found in many organs, particularly the lymph nodes, and in the lymphoid follicles associated...

    )
  • Integumentary system
    Integumentary system
    The integumentary system is the organ system that protects the body from damage, comprising the skin and its appendages...

    : skin
    Human skin
    The human skin is the outer covering of the body. In humans, it is the largest organ of the integumentary system. The skin has multiple layers of ectodermal tissue and guards the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments and internal organs. Human skin is similar to that of most other mammals,...

    , hair
    Hair
    Hair is a filamentous biomaterial, that grows from follicles found in the dermis. Found exclusively in mammals, hair is one of the defining characteristics of the mammalian class....

     and nail
    Nail (anatomy)
    A nail is a horn-like envelope covering the dorsal aspect of the terminal phalanges of fingers and toes in humans, most non-human primates, and a few other mammals. Nails are similar to claws, which are found on numerous other animals....

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  • Muscular system
    Muscular system
    The muscular system is the anatomical system of a species that allows it to move. The muscular system in vertebrates is controlled through the nervous system, although some muscles can be completely autonomous.- Muscles :...

    : moving the body with muscle
    Muscle
    Muscle is a contractile tissue of animals and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. Muscle cells contain contractile filaments that move past each other and change the size of the cell. They are classified as skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscles. Their function is to...

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  • Nervous system
    Nervous system
    The nervous system is an organ system containing a network of specialized cells called neurons that coordinate the actions of an animal and transmit signals between different parts of its body. In most animals the nervous system consists of two parts, central and peripheral. The central nervous...

    : collecting, transferring and processing information with brain
    Human brain
    The human brain has the same general structure as the brains of other mammals, but is over three times larger than the brain of a typical mammal with an equivalent body size. Estimates for the number of neurons in the human brain range from 80 to 120 billion...

     and nerve
    Nerve
    A peripheral nerve, or simply nerve, is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of peripheral axons . A nerve provides a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses that are transmitted along each of the axons. Nerves are found only in the peripheral nervous system...

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  • Reproductive system
    Reproductive system
    The reproductive system or genital system is a system of organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of reproduction. Many non-living substances such as fluids, hormones, and pheromones are also important accessories to the reproductive system. Unlike most organ systems, the sexes...

    : the sex organ
    Sex organ
    A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, as narrowly defined, is any of the anatomical parts of the body which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in a complex organism; flowers are the reproductive organs of flowering plants, cones are the reproductive...

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  • Respiratory system
    Respiratory system
    The respiratory system is the anatomical system of an organism that introduces respiratory gases to the interior and performs gas exchange. In humans and other mammals, the anatomical features of the respiratory system include airways, lungs, and the respiratory muscles...

    : the lungs and the trachea


The detailed list of human anatomical
Human anatomy
Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the human body. Anatomy is subdivided into gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy. Gross anatomy is the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by the naked eye...

 features below is adapted from the table of contents of the 1918 public domain
Public domain
Works are in the public domain if the intellectual property rights have expired, if the intellectual property rights are forfeited, or if they are not covered by intellectual property rights at all...

 edition of Gray's Anatomy
Gray's Anatomy
Gray's Anatomy is an English-language human anatomy textbook originally written by Henry Gray. The book is widely regarded as an extremely influential work on the subject, and has continued to be revised and republished from its initial publication in 1858 to the present day...

.

Embryology
Embryology
Embryology is a science which is about the development of an embryo from the fertilization of the ovum to the fetus stage...

 

  • The cell
    Cell (biology)
    The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all known living organisms. It is the smallest unit of life that is classified as a living thing, and is often called the building block of life. The Alberts text discusses how the "cellular building blocks" move to shape developing embryos....

  • The ovum
    Ovum
    An ovum is a haploid female reproductive cell or gamete. Both animals and embryophytes have ova. The term ovule is used for the young ovum of an animal, as well as the plant structure that carries the female gametophyte and egg cell and develops into a seed after fertilization...

  • The spermatozoon
    Spermatozoon
    A spermatozoon is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete. A spermatozoon joins an ovum to form a zygote...

  • Fertilization of the ovum
  • Segmentation of the fertilized ovum
  • The neural groove
    Neural groove
    The neural groove is a shallow median groove between the neural folds of an embryo. The neural folds are two longitudinal ridges that are caused by a folding up of the ectoderm in front of the primitive streak of the developing embryo...

     and neural tube
    Neural tube
    In the developing vertebrate, the neural tube is the embryo's precursor to the central nervous system, which comprises the brain and spinal cord...

  • The notochord
    Notochord
    The notochord is a flexible, rod-shaped body found in embryos of all chordates. It is composed of cells derived from the mesoderm and defines the primitive axis of the embryo. In some chordates, it persists throughout life as the main axial support of the body, while in most vertebrates it becomes...

  • The primitive segments
  • Separation of the embryo
    Embryo
    An embryo is a multicellular diploid eukaryote in its earliest stage of development, from the time of first cell division until birth, hatching, or germination...

  • The yolk-sac
  • Development of the fetal membranes and placenta
    Placenta
    The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply. "True" placentas are a defining characteristic of eutherian or "placental" mammals, but are also found in some snakes and...

  • The branchial region
  • Development of the body cavities
  • The form of the embryo at different stages of its growth

Osteology
Osteology
Osteology is the scientific study of bones. A subdiscipline of anatomy, anthropology, and archeology, osteology is a detailed study of the structure of bones, skeletal elements, teeth, morphology, function, disease, pathology, the process of ossification , the resistance and hardness of bones , etc...

 

  • Bone
    Bone
    Bones are rigid organs that constitute part of the endoskeleton of vertebrates. They support, and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells and store minerals. Bone tissue is a type of dense connective tissue...

  • The vertebral column
    • General characteristics of a vertebra
      • The cervical vertebrae
        Cervical vertebrae
        In vertebrates, cervical vertebrae are those vertebrae immediately inferior to the skull.Thoracic vertebrae in all mammalian species are defined as those vertebrae that also carry a pair of ribs, and lie caudal to the cervical vertebrae. Further caudally follow the lumbar vertebrae, which also...

      • The thoracic vertebrae
        Thoracic vertebrae
        In human anatomy, twelve thoracic vertebrae compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. They are intermediate in size between those of the cervical and lumbar regions; they increase in size as one proceeds down the spine, the upper...

      • The lumbar vertebrae
        Lumbar vertebrae
        The lumbar vertebrae are the largest segments of the movable part of the vertebral column, and are characterized by the absence of the foramen transversarium within the transverse process, and by the absence of facets on the sides of the body...

      • The sacral vertebrae
      • The coccygeal vertebrae
    • The vertebral column as a whole
  • The thorax
    • The sternum
    • The ribs
    • The costal cartilages
      Costal cartilages
      The costal cartilages are bars of hyaline cartilage which serve to prolong the ribs forward and contribute very materially to the elasticity of the walls of the thorax.-Differences from 1-12:...

  • The skull
    Human skull
    The human skull is a bony structure, skeleton, that is in the human head and which supports the structures of the face and forms a cavity for the brain.In humans, the adult skull is normally made up of 22 bones...

    • The cranial bone
      Human skull
      The human skull is a bony structure, skeleton, that is in the human head and which supports the structures of the face and forms a cavity for the brain.In humans, the adult skull is normally made up of 22 bones...

      s
      • The occipital bone
        Occipital bone
        The occipital bone, a saucer-shaped membrane bone situated at the back and lower part of the cranium, is trapezoidal in shape and curved on itself...

      • The parietal bone
        Parietal bone
        The parietal bones are bones in the human skull which, when joined together, form the sides and roof of the cranium. Each bone is roughly quadrilateral in form, and has two surfaces, four borders, and four angles. It is named from the Latin pariet-, wall....

      • The frontal bone
        Frontal bone
        The frontal bone is a bone in the human skull that resembles a cockleshell in form, and consists of two portions:* a vertical portion, the squama frontalis, corresponding with the region of the forehead....

      • The temporal bone
        Temporal bone
        The temporal bones are situated at the sides and base of the skull, and lateral to the temporal lobes of the cerebrum.The temporal bone supports that part of the face known as the temple.-Parts:The temporal bone consists of four parts:* Squama temporalis...

      • The sphenoid bone
        Sphenoid bone
        The sphenoid bone is an unpaired bone situated at the base of the skull in front of the temporal bone and basilar part of the occipital bone.The sphenoid bone is one of the seven bones that articulate to form the orbit...

      • The ethmoid bone
        Ethmoid bone
        The ethmoid bone is a bone in the skull that separates the nasal cavity from the brain. As such, it is located at the roof of the nose, between the two orbits. The cubical bone is lightweight due to a spongy construction. The ethmoid bone is one of the bones that makes up the orbit of the eye...

    • The facial bones
      • The nasal bone
        Nasal bone
        The nasal bones are two small oblong bones, varying in size and form in different individuals; they are placed side by side at the middle and upper part of the face, and form, by their junction, "the bridge" of the nose.Each has two surfaces and four borders....

        s
      • The maxillae (upper jaw)
      • The lacrimal bone
        Lacrimal bone
        The lacrimal bone, the smallest and most fragile bone of the face, is situated at the front part of the medial wall of the orbit. It has two surfaces and four borders.-Lateral or orbital surface:...

      • The zygomatic bone
        Zygomatic bone
        The zygomatic bone is a paired bone of the human skull. It articulates with the maxilla, the temporal bone, the sphenoid bone and the frontal bone. The zygomatic is homologous to the jugal bone of other tetrapods...

      • The palatine bone
        Palatine bone
        The palatine bone is a bone in many species of the animal kingdom, commonly termed the palatum .-Human anatomy:...

      • The inferior nasal concha
      • The vomer
        Vomer
        The vomer is one of the unpaired facial bones of the skull. It is located in the midsagittal line, and articulates with the sphenoid, the ethmoid, the left and right palatine bones, and the left and right maxillary bones.-Biology:...

      • The mandible (lower jaw)
      • The hyoid bone
        Hyoid bone
        The hyoid bone is a horseshoe-shaped bone situated in the anterior midline of the neck between the chin and the thyroid cartilage. At rest, it lies at the level of the base of the mandible in the front and the third cervical vertebra behind.Unlike other bones, the hyoid is only distantly...

    • The exterior of the skull
    • The interior of the skull
  • The extremities
    • The bones of the upper extremity
      • The clavicle
        Clavicle
        In human anatomy, the clavicle or collar bone is a long bone of short length that serves as a strut between the scapula and the sternum. It is the only long bone in body that lies horizontally...

      • The scapula
        Scapula
        In anatomy, the scapula , omo, or shoulder blade, is the bone that connects the humerus with the clavicle ....

      • The humerus
        Humerus
        The humerus is a long bone in the arm or forelimb that runs from the shoulder to the elbow....

      • The ulna
        Ulna
        The ulna is one of the two long bones in the forearm, the other being the radius. It is prismatic in form and runs parallel to the radius, which is shorter and smaller. In anatomical position The ulna is one of the two long bones in the forearm, the other being the radius. It is prismatic in form...

      • The radius
        Radius (bone)
        The radius is one of the two large bones of the forearm, the other being the ulna. It extends from the lateral side of the elbow to the thumb side of the wrist and runs parallel to the ulna, which exceeds it in length and size. It is a long bone, prism-shaped and slightly curved longitudinally...

    • The hand
      Hand
      A hand is a prehensile, multi-fingered extremity located at the end of an arm or forelimb of primates such as humans, chimpanzees, monkeys, and lemurs...

      • The carpus
        Carpus
        In tetrapods, the carpus is the sole cluster of bones in the wrist between the radius and ulna and the metacarpus. The bones of the carpus do not belong to individual fingers , whereas those of the metacarpus do. The corresponding part of the foot is the tarsus...

      • The metacarpus
      • The phalanges of the hand
        Phalanges of the hand
        The phalanges of the hand are commonly known as the finger bones. They are fourteen in number, three for each finger, and two for the thumb.Each consists of a body and two extremities....

    • The bones of the lower extremity
      • The hip bone
        Hip bone
        The hip bone, innominate bone or coxal bone is a large, flattened, irregularly shaped bone, constricted in the center and expanded above and below...

      • The pelvis
      • The femur
        Femur
        The femur , or thigh bone, is the most proximal bone of the leg in tetrapod vertebrates capable of walking or jumping, such as most land mammals, birds, many reptiles such as lizards, and amphibians such as frogs. In vertebrates with four legs such as dogs and horses, the femur is found only in...

      • The patella
      • The tibia
        Tibia
        The tibia , shinbone, or shankbone is the larger and stronger of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertebrates , and connects the knee with the ankle bones....

      • The fibula
    • The foot
      Foot
      The foot is an anatomical structure found in many vertebrates. It is the terminal portion of a limb which bears weight and allows locomotion. In many animals with feet, the foot is a separate organ at the terminal part of the leg made up of one or more segments or bones, generally including claws...

      • The tarsus
        Tarsus (skeleton)
        In tetrapods, the tarsus is a cluster of articulating bones in each foot situated between the lower end of tibia and fibula of the lower leg and the metatarsus. In the foot the tarsus articulates with the bones of the metatarsus, which in turn articulate with the bones of the individual toes...

      • The metatarsus
        Metatarsus
        The metatarsus or metatarsal bones are a group of five long bones in the foot located between the tarsal bones of the hind- and mid-foot and the phalanges of the toes. Lacking individual names, the metatarsal bones are numbered from the medial side : the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth...

      • The phalanges of the foot
        Phalanges of the foot
        The Olphalanges of the foot are the bones in the toes. They correspond, in number and general arrangement, with those of the hand; there are two in the big toe, and three in each of the other toes...

      • The sesamoid bone
        Sesamoid bone
        In anatomy, a sesamoid bone is a bone embedded within a tendon.Sesamoids are found in locations where a tendon passes over a joint, such as the hand, knee, and foot. Functionally, they act to protect the tendon and to increase its mechanical effect. The presence of the sesamoid bone holds the...

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Syndesmology 

  • Development of the joints
  • Classification of joints
  • The kind of movement admitted in joints
  • Articulations of the trunk
    • Articulations of the vertebral column
    • Articulation of the atlas with the epistropheus or axis
    • Articulations of the vertebral column with the cranium
    • Articulation of the mandible
    • Costovertebral articulations
    • Sternocostal articulations
    • Articulation of the manubrium and body of the sternum
    • Articulation of the vertebral column with the pelvis
    • Articulations of the pelvis
  • Articulations of the upper extremity
    • Sternoclavicular articulation
    • Acromioclavicular articulation
    • Humeral articulation or shoulder-joint
    • Elbow-joint
    • Radioulnar articulation
    • Radiocarpal articulation or wrist-joint
    • Intercarpal articulations
    • Carpometacarpal articulations
    • Intermetacarpal articulations
    • Metacarpophalangeal articulations
    • Articulations of the digits
  • Articulations of the lower extremity
    • Coxal articulation or hip-joint
    • The knee-joint
    • Articulations between the tibia and fibula
    • Talocrural articulation or ankle-joint
    • Intertarsal articulations
    • Tarsometatarsal articulations
    • Intermetatarsal articulations
    • Metatarsophalangeal articulations
    • Articulations of the digits
    • Arches of the foot

Myology
Myology
The muscular system consists of skeletal muscle that act to move or position parts of the body , or smooth and cardiac muscle that propels, expels, or controls the flow of fluids and contained substance.The British Myology Society is an example of a professional group promoting myology ...

 

  • Mechanics of muscle
    Muscle
    Muscle is a contractile tissue of animals and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. Muscle cells contain contractile filaments that move past each other and change the size of the cell. They are classified as skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscles. Their function is to...

  • Development of the muscles
  • Tendons, aponeuroses, and fasciae
  • The fasciae and muscles of the head.
    • The muscles of the scalp
      Scalp
      The scalp is the anatomical area bordered by the face anteriorly and the neck to the sides and posteriorly.-Layers:It is usually described as having five layers, which can conveniently be remembered as a mnemonic:...

    • The muscles of the eyelid
      Eyelid
      An eyelid is a thin fold of skin that covers and protects an eye. With the exception of the prepuce and the labia minora, it has the thinnest skin of the whole body. The levator palpebrae superioris muscle retracts the eyelid to "open" the eye. This can be either voluntarily or involuntarily...

    • The muscles of the nose
      Human nose
      The visible part of the human nose is the protruding part of the face that bears the nostrils. The shape of the nose is determined by the ethmoid bone and the nasal septum, which consists mostly of cartilage and which separates the nostrils...

    • The muscles of the mouth
      Mouth
      The mouth is the first portion of the alimentary canal that receives food andsaliva. The oral mucosa is the mucous membrane epithelium lining the inside of the mouth....

    • The muscles of mastication
      Mastication
      Mastication or chewing is the process by which food is crushed and ground by teeth. It is the first step of digestion and it increases the surface area of foods to allow more efficient break down by enzymes. During the mastication process, the food is positioned between the teeth for grinding by...

  • The fasciae and muscles of the anterolateral region of the neck
    • The superficial cervical muscle
    • The lateral cervical muscles
    • The supra- and infrahyoid muscles
    • The anterior vertebral muscles
    • The lateral vertebral muscles
  • The fasciae and muscles of the trunk
    • The deep muscles of the back
    • The suboccipital muscle
      Suboccipital muscle
      Suboccipital muscles refers to the muscles located below the occipital bone. The muscles are named: Rectus capitis posterior major, Rectus capitis posterior minor, Obliquus capitis inferior, and Obliquus capitis superior...

      s
    • The muscles of the thorax
    • The muscles and fasciae of the abdomen
      Abdomen
      In vertebrates such as mammals the abdomen constitutes the part of the body between the thorax and pelvis. The region enclosed by the abdomen is termed the abdominal cavity...

    • The muscles and fasciae of the pelvis
    • The muscles and fasciae of the perineum
      Perineum
      In human anatomy, the perineum is a region of the body including the perineal body and surrounding structures...

  • The fascia and muscles of the upper extremity
    • The muscles connecting the upper extremity to the vertebral column
    • The muscles connecting the upper extremity to the anterior and lateral thoracic walls
    • The muscles and fasciae of the shoulder
      Shoulder
      The human shoulder is made up of three bones: the clavicle , the scapula , and the humerus as well as associated muscles, ligaments and tendons. The articulations between the bones of the shoulder make up the shoulder joints. The major joint of the shoulder is the glenohumeral joint, which...

    • The muscles and fasciae of the arm
      Arm
      In human anatomy, the arm is the part of the upper limb between the shoulder and the elbow joints. In other animals, the term arm can also be used for analogous structures, such as one of the paired forelimbs of a four-legged animal or the arms of cephalopods...

    • The muscles and fasciae of the forearm
      Forearm
      -See also:*Forearm flexors*Forearm muscles...

    • The muscles and fasciae of the hand
      Hand
      A hand is a prehensile, multi-fingered extremity located at the end of an arm or forelimb of primates such as humans, chimpanzees, monkeys, and lemurs...

  • The muscles and fasciae of the lower extremity.
    • The muscles and fasciae of the iliac region
    • The muscles and fasciae of the thigh
      Thigh
      In humans the thigh is the area between the pelvis and the knee. Anatomically, it is part of the lower limb.The single bone in the thigh is called the femur...

    • The muscles and fasciae of the leg
      Human leg
      The human leg is the entire lower extremity or limb of the human body, including the foot, thigh and even the hip or gluteal region; however, the precise definition in human anatomy refers only to the section of the lower limb extending from the knee to the ankle.Legs are used for standing,...

    • The fasciae around the ankle
      Ankle
      The ankle joint is formed where the foot and the leg meet. The ankle, or talocrural joint, is a synovial hinge joint that connects the distal ends of the tibia and fibula in the lower limb with the proximal end of the talus bone in the foot...

    • The muscles and fasciae of the foot
      Foot
      The foot is an anatomical structure found in many vertebrates. It is the terminal portion of a limb which bears weight and allows locomotion. In many animals with feet, the foot is a separate organ at the terminal part of the leg made up of one or more segments or bones, generally including claws...


Angiology
Angiology
Angiology is the medical specialty which studies the diseases of circulatory system and of the lymphatic system, i.e., arteries, veins and lymphatic vases, and its diseases...

 

  • The blood
    Blood
    Blood is a specialized bodily fluid in animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells....

  • Development of the vascular system
  • The thoracic cavity
    Thoracic cavity
    The thoracic cavity is the chamber of the human body that is protected by the thoracic wall ....

    • The pericardium
      Pericardium
      The pericardium is a double-walled sac that contains the heart and the roots of the great vessels.-Layers:...

    • The heart
      Human heart
      The human heart is a muscular organ that provides a continuous blood circulation through the cardiac cycle and is one of the most vital organs in the human body...

    • Peculiarities in the vascular system in the fetus
      Fetus
      A fetus is a developing mammal or other viviparous vertebrate after the embryonic stage and before birth.In humans, the fetal stage of prenatal development starts at the beginning of the 11th week in gestational age, which is the 9th week after fertilization.-Etymology and spelling variations:The...


The Arteries
Artery
Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. This blood is normally oxygenated, exceptions made for the pulmonary and umbilical arteries....

 

  • The aorta
    Aorta
    The aorta is the largest artery in the body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it branches off into two smaller arteries...

  • The arteries of the head
    Human head
    In human anatomy, the head is the upper portion of the human body. It supports the face and is maintained by the skull, which itself encloses the brain.-Cultural importance:...

     and neck
    Neck
    The neck is the part of the body, on many terrestrial or secondarily aquatic vertebrates, that distinguishes the head from the torso or trunk. The adjective signifying "of the neck" is cervical .-Boner anatomy: The cervical spine:The cervical portion of the human spine comprises seven boney...

    • The common carotid artery
      Common carotid artery
      In human anatomy, the common carotid artery is an artery that supplies the head and neck with oxygenated blood; it divides in the neck to form the external and internal carotid arteries. - Structure :...

      • Relations
      • The external carotid artery
        External carotid artery
        In human anatomy, the external carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck. It arises from the common carotid artery when it bifurcates into the external and internal carotid artery.-Course:...

      • The triangles of the neck
        Triangles of the neck
        Anatomists use the term triangles of the neck to describe the divisions created by the major muscles in the region.The side of the neck presents a somewhat quadrilateral outline, limited, above, by the lower border of the body of the mandible, and an imaginary line extending from the angle of the...

      • The internal carotid artery
        Internal carotid artery
        In human anatomy, the internal carotid arteries are two major arteries, one on each side of the head and neck. They arise from the common carotid arteries where these bifurcate into the internal and external carotid artery, and they supply the brain....

    • The arteries of the brain
  • The arteries of the upper extremity
    • The subclavian artery
      Subclavian artery
      In human anatomy, the subclavian arteries are two major arteries of the upper thorax , below the clavicle . They receive blood from the top of the aorta...

    • The axilla
      • The axillary artery
        Axillary artery
        In human anatomy, the axillary artery is a large blood vessel that conveys oxygenated blood to the lateral aspect of the thorax, the axilla and the upper limb...

      • The brachial artery
        Brachial artery
        The brachial artery is the major blood vessel of the arm.It is the continuation of the axillary artery beyond the lower margin of teres major muscle. It continues down the ventral surface of the arm until it reaches the cubital fossa at the elbow. It then divides into the radial and ulnar arteries...

      • The radial artery
        Radial artery
        In human anatomy, the radial artery is the main blood vessel, with oxygenated blood, of the lateral aspect of the forearm.-Course:The radial artery arises from the bifurcation of the brachial artery in the cubital fossa. It runs distally on the anterior part of the forearm...

      • The ulnar artery
        Ulnar artery
        The ulnar artery is the main blood vessel, with oxygenated blood, of the medial aspect of the forearm. It arises from the brachial artery and terminates in the superficial palmar arch, which joins with the superficial branch of the radial artery...

  • The arteries of the trunk
    • The descending aorta
      Descending aorta
      The descending aorta is part of the aorta, the largest artery in the body. The descending aorta is the part of the aorta beginning at the aortic arch that runs down through the chest and abdomen. The descending aorta is divided into two portions, the thoracic and abdominal, in correspondence with...

      • The thoracic aorta
        Thoracic aorta
        The thoracic aorta is contained in the posterior mediastinal cavity.It begins at the lower border of the fourth thoracic vertebra where it is continuous with the aortic arch, and ends in front of the lower border of the twelfth thoracic vertebra, at the aortic hiatus in the diaphragm where it...

      • The abdominal aorta
        Abdominal aorta
        The abdominal aorta is the largest artery in the abdominal cavity. As part of the aorta, it is a direct continuation of the descending aorta .-Path:...

    • The common iliac arteries
      • The hypogastric artery
      • The external iliac artery
        External iliac artery
        The external iliac arteries are two major arteries which bifurcate off the common iliac arteries anterior to the sacroiliac joint of the pelvis. They proceed anterior and inferior along the medial border of the psoas major muscles...

  • The arteries of the lower extremity
    • The femoral artery
      Femoral artery
      The femoral artery is a general term comprising a few large arteries in the thigh. They begin at the inguinal ligament and end just above the knee at adductor canal or Hunter's canal traversing the extent of the femur bone....

    • The popliteal fossa
      Popliteal fossa
      The popliteal fossa is a shallow depression located at the back of the knee joint. The bones of the popliteal fossa are the femur and the tibia.-Boundaries:The boundaries of the fossa are:-Roof:...

    • The popliteal artery
      Popliteal artery
      In human anatomy, the popliteal artery is defined as the extension of the "superficial" femoral artery after passing through the adductor canal and adductor hiatus above the knee...

    • The anterior tibial artery
      Anterior tibial artery
      The anterior tibial artery of the lower limb carries blood to the anterior compartment of the leg and dorsal surface of the foot, from the popliteal artery.It is accompanied by a deep vein, the anterior tibial vein, along its course....

    • The arteria dorsalis pedis
    • The posterior tibial artery
      Posterior tibial artery
      The posterior tibial artery of the lower limb carries blood to the posterior compartment of the leg and plantar surface of the foot, from the popliteal artery...


The Vein
Vein
In the circulatory system, veins are blood vessels that carry blood towards the heart. Most veins carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart; exceptions are the pulmonary and umbilical veins, both of which carry oxygenated blood to the heart...

s

  • The pulmonary vein
    Pulmonary vein
    The pulmonary veins are large blood vessels that carry blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. In humans there are four pulmonary veins, two from each lung...

    s
  • The systemic veins
    • The veins of the heart
    • The veins of the head and neck
      • The veins of the exterior of the head and face
      • The veins of the neck
      • The diploic veins
        Diploic veins
        The diploic veins are found in the skull, and drain the diploic space. This is found in the bones of the vault of the skull, and is the marrow-containing area of cancellous bone between the inner and outer layers of compact bone....

      • The veins of the brain
      • The sinuses of the dura mater. ophthalmic veins and emissary veins
    • The veins of the upper extremity and thorax
    • The veins of the lower extremity, abdomen, and pelvis
  • The portal system of veins

The Lymphatic system
Lymphatic system
The lymphoid system is the part of the immune system comprising a network of conduits called lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph unidirectionally toward the heart. Lymphoid tissue is found in many organs, particularly the lymph nodes, and in the lymphoid follicles associated...

 

  • The thoractic duct
  • The lymphatics of the head, face, and neck
  • The lymphatics of the upper extremity
  • The lymphatics of the lower extremity
  • The lymphatics of the abdomen
    Abdomen
    In vertebrates such as mammals the abdomen constitutes the part of the body between the thorax and pelvis. The region enclosed by the abdomen is termed the abdominal cavity...

     and pelvis
  • The lymphatic vessels of the thorax

Neurology
Neurology
Neurology is a medical specialty dealing with disorders of the nervous system. Specifically, it deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of disease involving the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissue,...

 

  • Structure of the nervous system
    Nervous system
    The nervous system is an organ system containing a network of specialized cells called neurons that coordinate the actions of an animal and transmit signals between different parts of its body. In most animals the nervous system consists of two parts, central and peripheral. The central nervous...

  • Development of the nervous system
  • The spinal cord
    Spinal cord
    The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the brain . The brain and spinal cord together make up the central nervous system...

     or medulla spinalis
  • The brain
    Human brain
    The human brain has the same general structure as the brains of other mammals, but is over three times larger than the brain of a typical mammal with an equivalent body size. Estimates for the number of neurons in the human brain range from 80 to 120 billion...

     or encephalon
    • The hindbrain or rhombencephalon
      Rhombencephalon
      The rhombencephalon is a developmental categorization of portions of the central nervous system in vertebrates.The rhombencephalon can be subdivided in a variable number of transversal swellings called rhombomeres...

    • The midbrain or mesencephalon
      Mesencephalon
      The midbrain or mesencephalon is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal , and temperature regulation....

    • The forebrain or prosencephalon
      Prosencephalon
      In the anatomy of the brain of vertebrates, the prosencephalon is the rostral-most portion of the brain. The prosencephalon, the mesencephalon , and rhombencephalon are the three primary portions of the brain during early development of the central nervous system...

    • Composition and central connections of the spinal nerves
    • Pathways from the brain to the spinal cord
    • The meninges
      Meninges
      The meninges is the system of membranes which envelopes the central nervous system. The meninges consist of three layers: the dura mater, the arachnoid mater, and the pia mater. The primary function of the meninges and of the cerebrospinal fluid is to protect the central nervous system.-Dura...

       of the brain and medulla spinalis
    • The cerebrospinal fluid
      Cerebrospinal fluid
      Cerebrospinal fluid , Liquor cerebrospinalis, is a clear, colorless, bodily fluid, that occupies the subarachnoid space and the ventricular system around and inside the brain and spinal cord...

  • The cranial nerves
    • The olfactory nerve
      Olfactory nerve
      The olfactory nerve, or cranial nerve I, is the first of twelve cranial nerves. It is instrumental in the sense of smell. Derived from the embryonic nasal placode, the olfactory nerve is capable of regeneration.-Anatomy:...

      s
    • The optic nerve
      Optic nerve
      The optic nerve, also called cranial nerve 2, transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. Derived from the embryonic retinal ganglion cell, a diverticulum located in the diencephalon, the optic nerve doesn't regenerate after transection.-Anatomy:The optic nerve is the second of...

    • The oculomotor nerve
      Oculomotor nerve
      The oculomotor nerve is the 3rd of 12 paired cranial nerves. It enters the orbit via the superior orbital fissure and controls most of the eye's movements, including constriction of the pupil and maintaining an open eyelid by innervating the Levator palpebrae superiors muscle. The optic nerve is...

    • The trochlear nerve
      Trochlear nerve
      The trochlear nerve is a motor nerve that innervates a single muscle: the superior oblique muscle of the eye....

    • The trigeminal nerve
      Trigeminal nerve
      The trigeminal nerve contains both sensory and motor fibres. It is responsible for sensation in the face and certain motor functions such as biting, chewing, and swallowing. Sensory information from the face and body is processed by parallel pathways in the central nervous system...

    • The abducent nerve
      Abducent nerve
      The abducens nerve or abducent nerve is a somatic efferent nerve that controls the movement of a single muscle, the lateral rectus muscle of the eye, in humans. In most other mammals it also innervates the musculus retractor bulbi, which can retract the eye for protection...

    • The facial nerve
      Facial nerve
      The facial nerve is the seventh of twelve paired cranial nerves. It emerges from the brainstem between the pons and the medulla, and controls the muscles of facial expression, and functions in the conveyance of taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and oral cavity...

    • The vestibulocochlear nerve
      Vestibulocochlear nerve
      The vestibulocochlear nerve is the eighth of twelve cranial nerves, and is responsible for transmitting sound and equilibrium information from the inner ear to the brain...

    • The glossopharyngeal nerve
      Glossopharyngeal nerve
      The glossopharyngeal nerve is the ninth of twelve pairs of cranial nerves . It exits the brainstem out from the sides of the upper medulla, just rostral to the vagus nerve...

    • The vagus nerve
      Vagus nerve
      The vagus nerve , also called pneumogastric nerve or cranial nerve X, is the tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves...

    • The accessory nerve
      Accessory nerve
      In anatomy, the accessory nerve is a nerve that controls specific muscles of the shoulder and neck. As part of it was formerly believed to originate in the brain, it is considered a cranial nerve...

    • The hypoglossal nerve
      Hypoglossal nerve
      The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve , leading to the tongue. The nerve arises from the hypoglossal nucleus and emerges from the medulla oblongata in the preolivary sulcus separating the olive and the pyramid. It then passes through the hypoglossal canal...

  • The spinal nerve
    Spinal nerve
    The term spinal nerve generally refers to a mixed spinal nerve, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body...

    s
    • The posterior divisions
    • The anterior divisions
    • The thoracic nerves
    • The lumbosacral plexus
      Lumbosacral plexus
      The anterior divisions of the lumbar nerves, sacral nerves, and coccygeal nerve form the lumbosacral plexus, the first lumbar nerve being frequently joined by a branch from the twelfth thoracic. For descriptive purposes this plexus is usually divided into three parts:* lumbar plexus* sacral plexus*...

    • The sacral and coccygeal nerves
  • The sympathetic nerves
    • The cephalic portion of the sympathetic system
    • The cervical portion of the sympathetic system
    • The thoracic portion of the sympathetic system
    • The abdominal portion of the sympathetic system
    • The pelvic portion of the sympathetic system
    • The great plexuses of the sympathetic system

The Organs of the Senses and the Common Integument

  • The peripheral organs of the special senses
    • The organs of taste
      Taste
      Taste is one of the traditional five senses. It refers to the ability to detect the flavor of substances such as food, certain minerals, and poisons, etc....

    • The organ of smell
      Olfaction
      Olfaction is the sense of smell. This sense is mediated by specialized sensory cells of the nasal cavity of vertebrates, and, by analogy, sensory cells of the antennae of invertebrates...

    • The organ of sight
      Visual perception
      Visual perception is the ability to interpret information and surroundings from the effects of visible light reaching the eye. The resulting perception is also known as eyesight, sight, or vision...

      • The tunics of the eye
        Human eye
        The human eye is an organ which reacts to light for several purposes. As a conscious sense organ, the eye allows vision. Rod and cone cells in the retina allow conscious light perception and vision including color differentiation and the perception of depth...

      • The refracting media
      • The accessory organs of the eye
    • The organ of hearing
      Hearing (sense)
      Hearing is the ability to perceive sound by detecting vibrations through an organ such as the ear. It is one of the traditional five senses...

      • The external ear
        Ear
        The ear is the organ that detects sound. It not only receives sound, but also aids in balance and body position. The ear is part of the auditory system....

      • The middle ear
        Middle ear
        The middle ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the cochlea. The mammalian middle ear contains three ossicles, which couple vibration of the eardrum into waves in the fluid and membranes of the inner ear. The hollow space of the middle ear has...

         or tympanic cavity
        Tympanic cavity
        The tympanic cavity is a small cavity surrounding the bones of the middle ear.It is formed from the tubotympanic recess, an expansion of the first pharyngeal pouch....

      • The auditory ossicles
      • The internal ear or labyrinth
    • Peripheral terminations of nerves of general sensations
  • The common integument

Splanchnology 

  • The respiratory apparatus
    • The larynx
      Larynx
      The larynx , commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the neck of amphibians, reptiles and mammals involved in breathing, sound production, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration. It manipulates pitch and volume...

    • The trachea
      Vertebrate trachea
      In tetrapod anatomy the trachea, or windpipe, is a tube that connects the pharynx or larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air. It is lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium cells with goblet cells that produce mucus...

       and bronchi
    • The pleurae
    • The mediastinum
      Mediastinum
      The mediastinum is a non-delineated group of structures in the thorax, surrounded by loose connective tissue. It is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity...

    • The lung
      Human lung
      The human lungs are the organs of respiration in humans. Humans have two lungs, with the left being divided into two lobes and the right into three lobes. Together, the lungs contain approximately of airways and 300 to 500 million alveoli, having a total surface area of about in...

      s
  • The digestive apparatus
    • The mouth
      Mouth
      The mouth is the first portion of the alimentary canal that receives food andsaliva. The oral mucosa is the mucous membrane epithelium lining the inside of the mouth....

    • The fauces
    • The pharynx
      Pharynx
      The human pharynx is the part of the throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and anterior to the esophagus and larynx. The human pharynx is conventionally divided into three sections: the nasopharynx , the oropharynx , and the laryngopharynx...

    • The esophagus
      Esophagus
      The esophagus is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. During swallowing, food passes from the mouth through the pharynx into the esophagus and travels via peristalsis to the stomach...

    • The abdomen
      Abdomen
      In vertebrates such as mammals the abdomen constitutes the part of the body between the thorax and pelvis. The region enclosed by the abdomen is termed the abdominal cavity...

    • The stomach
      Stomach
      The stomach is a muscular, hollow, dilated part of the alimentary canal which functions as an important organ of the digestive tract in some animals, including vertebrates, echinoderms, insects , and molluscs. It is involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication .The stomach is...

    • The small intestine
      Small intestine
      The small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract following the stomach and followed by the large intestine, and is where much of the digestion and absorption of food takes place. In invertebrates such as worms, the terms "gastrointestinal tract" and "large intestine" are often used to...

    • The large intestine
      Large intestine
      The large intestine is the third-to-last part of the digestive system — — in vertebrate animals. Its function is to absorb water from the remaining indigestible food matter, and then to pass useless waste material from the body...

    • The liver
      Liver
      The liver is a vital organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. It has a wide range of functions, including detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion...

    • The pancreas
      Pancreas
      The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine system of vertebrates. It is both an endocrine gland producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin, as well as a digestive organ, secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that assist...

  • The urogenital apparatus
    • Development of the urinary and generative organs
    • The urinary organs
      • The kidney
        Kidney
        The kidneys, organs with several functions, serve essential regulatory roles in most animals, including vertebrates and some invertebrates. They are essential in the urinary system and also serve homeostatic functions such as the regulation of electrolytes, maintenance of acid–base balance, and...

        s
      • The ureter
        Ureter
        In human anatomy, the ureters are muscular tubes that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. In the adult, the ureters are usually long and ~3-4 mm in diameter....

        s
      • The urinary bladder
        Urinary bladder
        The urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys before disposal by urination. A hollow muscular, and distensible organ, the bladder sits on the pelvic floor...

      • The male urethra
        Urethra
        In anatomy, the urethra is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the genitals for the removal of fluids out of the body. In males, the urethra travels through the penis, and carries semen as well as urine...

      • The female urethra
    • The male genital organs
      • The testes and their coverings
      • The ductus deferens
      • The vesiculae seminales
      • The ejaculatory duct
        Ejaculatory duct
        -Anatomy:The ejaculatory ducts are paired structures in male anatomy. Each ejaculatory duct is formed by the union of the vas deferens with the duct of the seminal vesicle. They pass through the prostate, and open into the urethra at the Colliculus seminalis...

        s
      • The penis
        Penis
        The penis is a biological feature of male animals including both vertebrates and invertebrates...

      • The prostate
        Prostate
        The prostate is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals....

      • The bulbourethral gland
        Bulbourethral gland
        A bulbourethral gland, also called a Cowper's gland for anatomist William Cowper, is one of two small exocrine glands present in the reproductive system of human males...

        s
    • The female genital organs
      • The ovaries
        Ovary
        The ovary is an ovum-producing reproductive organ, often found in pairs as part of the vertebrate female reproductive system. Ovaries in anatomically female individuals are analogous to testes in anatomically male individuals, in that they are both gonads and endocrine glands.-Human anatomy:Ovaries...

      • The uterine tube
      • The uterus
        Uterus
        The uterus or womb is a major female hormone-responsive reproductive sex organ of most mammals including humans. One end, the cervix, opens into the vagina, while the other is connected to one or both fallopian tubes, depending on the species...

      • The vagina
        Vagina
        The vagina is a fibromuscular tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. Female insects and other invertebrates also have a vagina, which is the terminal part of the...

      • The clitoris
        Clitoris
        The clitoris is a sexual organ that is present only in female mammals. In humans, the visible button-like portion is located near the anterior junction of the labia minora, above the opening of the urethra and vagina. Unlike the penis, which is homologous to the clitoris, the clitoris does not...

      • Bartholin's gland
        Bartholin's gland
        The Bartholin's glands are two glands located slightly posterior and to the left and right of the opening of the vagina. They secrete mucus to lubricate the vagina and are homologous to bulbourethral glands in males...

        s
      • The external organs
      • The mammae
  • The ductless gland
    Ductless gland
    Ductless glands are glands that secrete their product directly onto a surface rather than through a duct. Examples are the goblet cells in the epithelial surface of the digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive systems...

    s
    • The thyroid gland
    • The parathyroid gland
      Parathyroid gland
      The parathyroid glands are small endocrine glands in the neck that produce parathyroid hormone. Humans usually have four parathyroid glands, which are usually located on the rear surface of the thyroid gland, or, in rare cases, within the thyroid gland itself or in the chest...

      s
    • The thymus
      Thymus
      The thymus is a specialized organ of the immune system. The thymus produces and "educates" T-lymphocytes , which are critical cells of the adaptive immune system....

    • The hypophysis cerebri
    • The pineal body
    • The chromaphil and cortical systems
    • The spleen
      Spleen
      The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrate animals with important roles in regard to red blood cells and the immune system. In humans, it is located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. It removes old red blood cells and holds a reserve of blood in case of hemorrhagic shock...


Surface Anatomy and Surface Markings

  • Surface anatomy of the head and neck
  • Surface markings of special regions of the head and neck
  • Surface anatomy of the back
    • The lozenges of Aphrodite
  • Surface markings of the back
  • Surface anatomy of the thorax
  • Surface markings of the thorax
  • Surface anatomy of the abdomen
  • Surface markings of the abdomen
  • Surface anatomy of the perineum
  • Surface markings of the perineum
  • Surface anatomy of the upper extremity
  • Surface markings of the upper extremity
  • Surface anatomy of the lower extremity
  • Surface markings of the lower extremity

See also