List of conflicts in the Middle East

List of conflicts in the Middle East


The area known as the "Near East" is usually referred to as Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

 in modern contexts.
For periods predating Classical Antiquity, the common term is Ancient Near East
Ancient Near East
The ancient Near East was the home of early civilizations within a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia , ancient Egypt, ancient Iran The ancient Near East was the home of early civilizations within a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia...

The Near East is generally associated with Anatolia
Anatolia is a geographic and historical term denoting the westernmost protrusion of Asia, comprising the majority of the Republic of Turkey...

, the Levant
The Levant or ) is the geographic region and culture zone of the "eastern Mediterranean littoral between Anatolia and Egypt" . The Levant includes most of modern Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Israel, the Palestinian territories, and sometimes parts of Turkey and Iraq, and corresponds roughly to the...

, Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia is a toponym for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq, northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey and southwestern Iran.Widely considered to be the cradle of civilization, Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer and the...

 and to greater degree Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

, Arabia and Greater Persia.

Bronze Age

  • Akkadian expansion
    • Conquest of Elam
    • Battle of Uruk
      Battle of Uruk
      The Battle of Uruk was one of the decisive battles in which king Sargon the Great of Akkad subdued Sumer and brought it under his control. The only known information about this battle is from a copied inscription at Nippur, and the date for the battle is uncertain. During his military campaign,...

    • Syria and Canaan campaigns
    • Akkadian conquest of Ebla
    • Magan revolt
    • Lullubi
      The Lullubi or Lulubi were a group of tribes during the 3rd millennium BC, from a region known as Lulubum, now the Sharazor plain of in the Zagros Mountains of modern Iran...

       campaign of Naram-sin
  • Gutuan invasion 2150BCE
  • Establishing Third Dynasty of Ur
    Third Dynasty of Ur
    The Third Dynasty of Ur, also known as the Neo-Sumerian Empire or the Ur III Empire refers simultaneously to a 21st to 20th century BC Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state that some historians regard as a nascent empire...

  • Sack of Ur 2004BCE
  • Hyksos - Egyptian Interregnum 16th century BCE
  • Battle of Megiddo (15th century BC)
    Battle of Megiddo (15th century BC)
    The Battle of Megiddo was fought between Egyptian forces under the command of Pharaoh Thutmose III and a large Canaanite coalition under the king of Kadesh. It is the first battle to have been recorded in what is accepted as relatively reliable detail. Megiddo is also the first recorded use of the...

     - a battle between Ancient Egyptian forces under the pharaoh Thutmose III and a large Canaanite coalition.
  • Ramesses II
    Ramesses II
    Ramesses II , referred to as Ramesses the Great, was the third Egyptian pharaoh of the Nineteenth dynasty. He is often regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh of the Egyptian Empire...

     campaigns in the Near East
    • First Syrian campaign
    • Second Syrian campaign
      • Battle of Kadesh
        Battle of Kadesh
        The Battle of Kadesh took place between the forces of the Egyptian Empire under Ramesses II and the Hittite Empire under Muwatalli II at the city of Kadesh on the Orontes River, in what is now the Syrian Arab Republic....

         1274 BCE
    • Third Syrian campaign
  • Trojan War
    Trojan War
    In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, the king of Sparta. The war is among the most important events in Greek mythology and was narrated in many works of Greek literature, including the Iliad...

Early Iron Age

Note: This section is covering Iron Age I and II, Iron Age III is related as Classic Period

  • Assyrian campaigns
    Military history of the Neo-Assyrian Empire
    Assyria originated in the 23rd century BC, its earliest king Tudiya being a contemporary of Ibrium of Ebla. It evolved from the Akkadian Empire of the late 3rd millennium BC. Assyria was a strong nation under the rule of Ilushuma , who founded colonies in Asia Minor and raided Isin and other...

    • Battle of Qarqar
      Battle of Qarqar
      The Battle of Qarqar was fought in 853 BC when the army of Assyria led by king Shalmaneser III encountered an allied army of 12 kings at Qarqar led by Hadadezer of Damascus and King Ahab of Israel...

       853 BCE
    • Assyrian conquest of Israel 721 BCE
    • Second Assyrian invasion to Southern Levant
      • Siege of Lachish 701 BCE
        Siege of Lachish
        The siege of Lachish is the name given to the Assyrian siege and conquest of the Judean town of Lachish in 701 B.C. The siege is documented in several sources including the Hebrew Bible as well as in Assyrian documents and in a well-preserved series of reliefs which once decorated the Assyrian king...

      • Assyrian Siege of Jerusalem
        Assyrian Siege of Jerusalem
        In approximately 701 BCE, Sennacherib, king of Assyria, attacked the fortified cities of Judah, laying siege on Jerusalem. The historical outcome of the siege is unclear.-Background:...

         (701 BC) by Sennacherib
        Sennacherib |Sîn]] has replaced brothers for me"; Aramaic: ) was the son of Sargon II, whom he succeeded on the throne of Assyria .-Rise to power:...

  • Kushite Invasion to Egypt 727 BCE

  • Neo-Babylonian campaigns
    Neo-Babylonian Empire
    The Neo-Babylonian Empire or Second Babylonian Empire was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC. During the preceding three centuries, Babylonia had been ruled by their fellow Akkadian speakers and northern neighbours, Assyria. Throughout that time Babylonia...

    • Battle of Nineveh 612 BCE
      Battle of Nineveh (612 BC)
      The Battle of Nineveh was fought in 612 BC. It witnessed the Assyrian capital of Nineveh being besieged, conquered, and sacked by allied forces of Medes, Scythians, Babylonians and Susianians. King Sin-shar-ishkun of Assyria was killed in the sack.From then on, the Neo-Babylonian Empire ruled the...

    • Battle of Megiddo (609 BC)
      Battle of Megiddo (609 BC)
      This Battle of Megiddo is recorded as having taken place in 609 BC with Necho II of Egypt leading his army to Carchemish to fight with his allies the Assyrians against the Babylonians at Carchemish in northern Syria. This required passing through territory controlled by the Kingdom of Judah and...

       - a battle between the Kingdom of Egypt and the Kingdom of Judah.
    • Battle of Carchemish
      Battle of Carchemish
      The Battle of Carchemish was fought about 605 BC between the allied armies of Egypt and Assyria against Babylonia.- Background :When the Assyrian capital Nineveh was overrun by the Babylonians in 612 BC, the Assyrians moved their capital to Harran...

       - a battle in 605 BCE between the Kingdom of Egypt and Assyrian allies against the Neo-Babylonian Empire.
    • Siege of Jerusalem (597 BC)
      Siege of Jerusalem (597 BC)
      In 601 BC, in the fourth year of his reign, Nebuchadnezzar II, king of Babylon, unsuccessfully attempted to invade Egypt and was repulsed with heavy losses...

       by Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon
      Babylon was an Akkadian city-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq, about 85 kilometers south of Baghdad...

    • Siege of Jerusalem (587 BC)
      Siege of Jerusalem (587 BC)
      In 589 BC, Nebuchadnezzar II laid siege to Jerusalem, culminating in the destruction of the city and its temple in 587 BC.-Siege:Following the siege of 597 BC, Nebuchadnezzar installed Zedekiah as tributary king of Judah at the age of twenty-one. However, Zedekiah revolted against Babylon, and...

       by Nebuchadrezzar II
    • Battle of Opis 539 BCE
      Battle of Opis
      The Battle of Opis, fought in September 539 BC, was a major engagement between the armies of Persia under Cyrus the Great and the Neo-Babylonian Empire under Nabonidus during the Persian invasion of Mesopotamia. At the time, Babylonia was the last major power in western Asia that was not yet under...

Greco-Persian domination

  • Ionian Revolt 499-493 BCE
    Ionian Revolt
    The Ionian Revolt, and associated revolts in Aeolis, Doris, Cyprus and Caria, were military rebellions by several regions of Asia Minor against Persian rule, lasting from 499 BC to 493 BC...

  • First Persian invasion of Greece 492-490 BCE
    First Persian invasion of Greece
    The first Persian invasion of Greece, during the Persian Wars, began in 492 BCE, and ended with the decisive Athenian victory at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BCE. The invasion, consisting of two distinct campaigns, was ordered by the Persian king Darius I primarily in order to punish the...

  • Egyptian Revolt 486 BCE
  • Second Persian invasion of Greece 480-478 BCE
    Second Persian invasion of Greece
    The second Persian invasion of Greece occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece. The invasion was a direct, if delayed, response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece at the Battle of Marathon which ended Darius I's attempts...

  • Wars of Delian League 477-449 BCE
  • Wars of the Diadochi
    Wars of the Diadochi
    The Wars of the Diadochi were a series of conflicts fought between Alexander the Great's generals over the rule of his empire between 322 and 275 BC.-Background:...

     322-275 BCE
  • Syrian Wars
    Syrian Wars
    The Syrian Wars were a series of six wars between the Successor states of the Seleucid Empire and the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt during the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC over the region then called Coele-Syria, one of the few avenues into Egypt...

     274-168 BCE
    • First Syrian War (274-271 BCE)
    • Second Syrian War (260-253 BCE)
    • Third Syrian War (246-241 BCE)
    • Fourth Syrian War (219-217 BCE)
    • Fifth Syrian War (202-195 BCE)
    • Sixth Syrian War (170-168 BCE)
  • Seleucid–Parthian wars
    Seleucid–Parthian wars
    The Seleucid–Parthian wars were a series of conflicts between the Seleucid Empire and Parthia which resulted in the ultimate expulsion of the Seleucids from Persia and the establishment of the Parthian Empire...

     238-129 BCE
  • Maccabean Revolt 167-160 BCE
    The Maccabees were a Jewish rebel army who took control of Judea, which had been a client state of the Seleucid Empire. They founded the Hasmonean dynasty, which ruled from 164 BCE to 63 BCE, reasserting the Jewish religion, expanding the boundaries of the Land of Israel and reducing the influence...

Roman, Parthian and Sassanid domination

  • Roman-Parthian Wars
    • Crassus invasion to Mesopotamia 53BCE
      • Battle of Carrhae
        Battle of Carrhae
        The Battle of Carrhae, fought in 53 BC near the town of Carrhae, was a major battle between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Republic. The Parthian Spahbod Surena decisively defeated a Roman invasion force led by Marcus Licinius Crassus...

    • Roman-Parthian War of 58-63 CE
    • Battle of Nisibis (217)
      Battle of Nisibis (217)
      The Battle of Nisibis was fought in the summer of 217 between the armies of the Roman Empire under the newly ascended emperor Macrinus and the Parthian army of King Artabanus IV. It lasted for three days, and resulted in a bloody draw, with both sides suffering large casualties...

  • Siege of Jerusalem (63 BC)
    Siege of Jerusalem (63 BC)
    -Bibliography:** Josephus, Flavius. William Whiston, A.M., translator . . Auburn and Buffalo, New York: John E. Beardsley. Retrieved 15 July 2010.*****...

  • Aelius Gallus
    Aelius Gallus
    Gaius Aelius Gallus was a Roman prefect of Egypt from 26 - 24 BC. He is primarily known for a disastrous expedition he undertook to Arabia Felix under orders of Augustus.-Life:...

     campaign in Arabia 24BCE
  • Alexandria pogroms
    Alexandria pogroms
    By Alexandria pogroms modern scholars refer to the persecution of Jews in 38 AD in Roman Alexandria, Egypt. The sole source is Philo of Alexandria, himself a Jew, who witnessed the riots and afterwards led the Jewish delegation to the Roman emperor Caligula, that requested the reestablishment of...

     38 CE

  • Jewish-Roman wars
    Jewish-Roman wars
    The Jewish–Roman wars were a series of large-scale revolts by the Jews of Iudaea Province and Eastern Mediterranean against the Roman Empire. Some sources use the term to refer only to the First Jewish–Roman War and Bar Kokhba revolt...

     66-136 CE
    • Great Revolt of Judea 67-70 CE
    • Kitos War 117-119 CE
      Kitos War
      The Kitos War , translation: Rebellion of the exile) is the name given to the second of the Jewish–Roman wars. Major revolts by diasporic Jews in Cyrene , Cyprus, Mesopotamia and Aegyptus spiraled out of control resulting in a widespread slaughter of Roman citizens and others by the Jewish rebels...

    • Bar Kokhba Revolt 132-136 CE

  • Roman-Sassanid Wars
    Roman-Persian Wars
    The Roman–Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between states of the Greco-Roman world and two successive Iranic empires: the Parthian and the Sassanid. Contact between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Republic began in 92 BC; wars began under the late Republic, and continued...

    • Battle of Antioch (218)
      Battle of Antioch (218)
      The Battle of Antioch took place between two Roman armies of the Roman Emperor Macrinus and his contender Elagabalus, whose troops were commanded by general Gannys. Elagabalus won and was crowned emperor.- History :...

    • Ardashir's raid of Mesopotamia 230-232 CE
    • Ardashir's second raid of Mesopotamia 237-240 CE
    • Battle of Resaena
      Battle of Resaena
      The Battle of Resaena or Resaina, near Ceylanpinar, Turkey, was fought in 243 between the forces of the Roman Empire, led by Praetorian Prefect Timesitheus, and a Sassanid Empire army, led by King Shapur I. The Romans were victorious....

       243 CE
    • Battle of Misiche 244 CE
      Battle of Misiche
      The Battle of Misiche, Mesiche, or Massice was fought between the Sassanid Persians and the Romans somewhere in ancient Mesopotamia. The result was a Roman defeat.-Background and the Battle:...

    • Battle of Barbalissos
      Battle of Barbalissos
      The Battle of Barbalissos was fought between the Sassanid Persians and Romans at Barbalissos. Shapur I used Roman incursions into Armenia as pretext and resumed hostilities with the Romans. The Romans and Sassanids clashed at Barbalissos...

    • Battle of Edessa 259
      Battle of Edessa
      The Battle of Edessa took place between the armies of the Roman Empire under the command of Emperor Valerian and Sassanid forces under Shahanshah Shapur I in 259...

    • Siege of Singara
      Siege of Singara
      The Battle of Singara was fought in 344 between Roman and Sassanid Persian forces. The Romans were led by Emperor Constantius II, while the Persian army was led by King Shapur II of Persia...

    • Siege of Amida
      Siege of Amida
      The Siege of Amida took place when the Sassanids under King Shapur II besieged the Roman city of Amida in 359.In this battle Ammianus Marcellinus, a historian of Greek origin from Antioch, was a Roman army officer; he described the siege in his work .- Background :When Shapur II took control of the...

    • Battle of Ctesiphon (363)
      Battle of Ctesiphon (363)
      The Battle of Ctesiphon took place on May 29, 363 between the armies of Roman Emperor Julian and the Sassanid King Shapur II outside the walls of the Persian capital Ctesiphon...

    • Battle of Samarra
      Battle of Samarra
      The Battle of Samarra took place 26 June 363, after the invasion of Sassanid Persia by the Roman Emperor Julian. A major skirmish, the fighting was indecisive but Julian was killed in the battle...

       363 CE

  • Uprising of Syrian Legion 232 CE
  • Palmyrene revolt 272
    • Battle of Immae
      Battle of Immae
      The Battle of Immae was fought in 272 between the Roman army of Emperor Aurelian and the armies of the Palmyrene Empire, whose leader, Queen Zenobia had usurped Roman control over the eastern provinces.- Prelude to War :...

    • Battle of Emesa
      Battle of Emesa
      The Battle of Emesa was fought in 272 between Roman and Palmyran forces. The Romans were led by Emperor Aurelian, while the Palmyrans were led by Queen Zenobia and her general Zabdas....

  • Battle of Callinicum 296
  • Jewish revolt against Gallus 351-352
  • Byzantine-Sassanid Wars
    • Roman–Sassanid War (421–422)
      Roman–Sassanid War (421–422)
      The Roman–Sassanid war of 421–422 was a conflict between the Eastern Roman Empire and the Sassanids. The casus belli was the persecution of Christians by the Sassanid king Bahram V; the Christian Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II declared war and obtained some victories, but in the end the two...

    • Anastasian War
      Anastasian War
      The Anastasian War was fought from 502 to 506 between the Eastern Roman Empire and the Sassanid Empire. It was the first major conflict between the two powers since 440, and would be the prelude to a long series of destructive conflicts between the two empires over the next century.-Prelude:Several...

    • Iberian War
      Iberian War
      The Iberian War was fought from 526 to 532 between the Eastern Roman Empire and Sassanid Empire over the eastern Georgian kingdom of Iberia.-Origin:After the Anastasian War, a seven-year truce was agreed on, yet it lasted for nearly twenty years...

      • Battle of Callinicum
        Battle of Callinicum
        The Battle of Callinicum took place Easter day, 19 April 531, between the armies of the Eastern Roman Empire under Belisarius and the Sassanid Persians under Azarethes. After a defeat at the Battle of Dara, the Sassanids moved to invade Syria in an attempt to turn the tide of the war...

    • Roman–Persian War of 572–591
    • Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602-628
      • Antioch riots 610
      • Battle of Antioch (613)
        Battle of Antioch (613)
        The Battle of Antioch took place in 613 outside of Antioch, Syria between a Byzantine army led by Heraclius and a Persian army. The victorious Persians were able to maintain a hold on their recently taken Byzantine territory.- History :...

      • Jewish revolt against Heraclius 610-628
        • Siege of Jerusalem (614)
          Siege of Jerusalem (614)
          The Siege of Jerusalem in 614 was part of the final phase of the Byzantine-Sassanid Wars. The Persian Shah Khosrau II appointed his generals to conquer the Byzantine controlled areas of the Near East, establishing a strategic alliance with the Jewish population of the Sassanid Persia...

      • Shahin's invasion of Asia Minor (615)
        Shahin's invasion of Asia Minor (615)
        In 615, during the ongoing war with the East Roman Empire, the Sassanid Persian army under spahbod Shahin invaded Asia Minor and reached Chalcedon, across the Bosporus from Constantinople. The Sassanids had already captured Roman Syria and Palestine in the previous year...

      • Sassanid conquest of Egypt 618-621
      • Battle of Issus
        Battle of Issus
        The Battle of Issus occurred in southern Anatolia, in November 333 BC. The invading troops, led by the young Alexander of Macedonia, defeated the army personally led by Darius III of Achaemenid Persia in the second great battle for primacy in Asia...

      • Byzantine assault on Persia 624-625
      • Siege of Constantinople (626)
        Siege of Constantinople (626)
        The Siege of Constantinople in 626 by the Avars, aided by large numbers of allied Slavs and the Sassanid Persians, ended in a strategic victory for the Byzantines...

      • Third Perso-Turkic War
        Third Perso-Turkic War
        The Third Perso-Turkic War was the third and final conflict between the Sassanian Empire and the Western Turkic Khaganate. Unlike the previous two wars, it was fought, not in Central Asia, but in Transcaucasia. Hostilities were initiated in 627 AD by Khagan Tong Yabghu of the Western Göktürks and...

      • Battle of Nineveh (627)
        Battle of Nineveh (627)
        The Battle of Nineveh was the climactic battle of the Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602–628. The Byzantine victory broke the power of the Sassanid dynasty and for a period of time restored the empire to its ancient boundaries in the Middle East...

  • Samaritan Revolts
    Samaritan Revolts
    The Samaritan Revolts were a series of insurrections during the 5th and 6th centuries in Palaestina Prima province, launched by the Samaritans against the Christian East Roman/Byzantine Empire...

    • Samaritan revolt against Zeno 484
    • Revolt against Anastasius I
    • Third Samaritan revolt
      Julianus ben Sabar
      Julianus ben Sabar was a messianic leader of the Samaritans, who led a failed revolt against Byzantium during the early 6th century....

    • Fourth Samaritan Revolt 555-572

  • Mazdak revolt in Persia 524 (or 528)

  • Nika riots
    Nika riots
    The Nika riots , or Nika revolt, took place over the course of a week in Constantinople in AD 532. It was the most violent riot that Constantinople had ever seen to that point, with nearly half the city being burned or destroyed and tens of thousands of people killed.-Background:The ancient Roman...

     in Constantinople 532

Medieval conflicts

  • Muslim conquests
    Muslim conquests
    Muslim conquests also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests, began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He established a new unified polity in the Arabian Peninsula which under the subsequent Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates saw a century of rapid expansion of Muslim power.They...

    • Ridda Wars
      Ridda wars
      The Ridda wars , also known as the Wars of Apostasy, were a series of military campaigns against the rebellion of several Arabian tribes launched by the Caliph Abu Bakr during 632 and 633 AD, after prophet Muhammad died....

    • Muslim conquest of Syria
      Muslim conquest of Syria
      The Muslim conquest of Syria occurred in the first half of the 7th century, and refers to the region known as the Bilad al-Sham, the Levant, or Greater Syria...

      • Battle of Yarmouk
        Battle of Yarmouk
        The Battle of Yarmouk was a major battle between the Muslim Arab forces of the Rashidun Caliphate and the armies of the East Roman-Byzantine Empire. The battle consisted of a series of engagements that lasted for six days in August 636, near the Yarmouk River, along what is today the border...

    • Arab conquest of Armenia
      Arab conquest of Armenia
      The Arab conquest of Armenia was a part of the Muslim conquests after the death of Muhammad in AD 632.Persian Armenia had fallen to the Byzantine Empire shortly before, in AD 629, and was conquered in the Rashidun Caliphate by AD 645.-Islamic expansion:...

    • Muslim conquest of Egypt
      Muslim conquest of Egypt
      At the commencement of the Muslims conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople. However, it had been occupied just a decade before by the Persian Empire under Khosrau II...

    • Umayyad conquest of North Africa
      Umayyad conquest of North Africa
      The Umayyad conquest of North Africa continued the century of rapid Arab Muslim expansion following the death of Muhammad in 632 CE. By 640 the Arabs controlled Mesopotamia, had invaded Armenia, and were concluding their conquest of Byzantine Syria. Damascus was the seat of the Umayyad caliphate....

    • Islamic conquest of Persia
      Islamic conquest of Persia
      The Muslim conquest of Persia led to the end of the Sassanid Empire in 644, the fall of Sassanid dynasty in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia...

      • First invasion of Mesopotamia
      • Second invasion of Mesopotamia
        • Battle of al-Qādisiyyah
          Battle of al-Qadisiyyah
          The Battle of al-Qādisiyyah was fought in 636; it was the decisive engagement between the Arab muslim army and the Sassanid Persian army during the first period of Muslim expansion. It resulted in the Islamic conquest of Persia, and was key to the conquest of Iraq...

      • Battle of Nahāvand
      • Persian Rebellion 649-651
    • Khazar-Arab Wars
      Khazar-Arab Wars
      The Khazar Arab Wars were a series of campaigns, usually grouped into the First and Second Khazar–Arab Wars, fought between the armies of the Khazar Khaganate and the Umayyad Caliphate and their respective vassals.During the 7th and 8th centuries the Khazar fought a series of wars against the...

    • Battle of Talas
      Battle of Talas
      The Battle of Talas in 751 AD was an especially notable conflict between the Arab Abbasid Caliphate and the Chinese Tang Dynasty for control not only of the Syr Darya region, but even more...

  • Abbasid Chaliphate conflicts
    • Abbasid
      The Abbasid Caliphate or, more simply, the Abbasids , was the third of the Islamic caliphates. It was ruled by the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs, who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphate from all but the al-Andalus region....

      • Battle of the Zab
        Battle of the Zab
        The Battle of the Zab took place on the banks of the Great Zab river in what is now Iraq on January 25, 750. It spelled the end of the Umayyad Caliphate and the rise of the Abbasids, a dynasty that would last until the 13th century.-Background:A serious rebellion had broken out in 747 against...

    • Byzantine–Arab Wars 780-1180
      • Battle of Krasos
        Battle of Krasos
        The Battle of Krasos was a battle in the Byzantine-Arab Wars which took place in 804/805.Nikephoros I, the Finance Minister of Byzantine Empress Irene of Athens, contrived to dethrone and exile her, and to be chosen emperor in her stead on October 31, 802. He crowned his son Staurakios co-emperor...

      • Battle of Anzen
        Battle of Anzen
        The Battle of Anzen or Dazimon was fought on July 22, 838 at Anzen or Dazimon between the Byzantine Empire and the forces of the Abbasid Caliphate...

      • Sack of Amorium
        Sack of Amorium
        The Sack of Amorium by the Abbasid Caliphate in mid-August 838 was one of the major events in the long history of the Byzantine–Arab Wars. The Abbasid campaign was led personally by the Caliph al-Mu'tasim , in retaliation to a virtually unopposed expedition launched by the Byzantine emperor...

      • Sack of Damietta (853)
        Sack of Damietta (853)
        The Sack of Damietta in 853 was a major success for the Byzantine Empire. On 22 May 853, the Byzantine navy attacked the port city of Damietta on the Nile Delta, whose garrison was absent at the time...

      • Battle of Lalakaon 863
      • John Kourkouas
        John Kourkouas
        John Kourkouas , also transliterated as Kurkuas or Curcuas, was one of the most important generals of the Byzantine Empire. His successes in battle against the Muslim states in the East definitively reversed the course of the centuries-long Byzantine–Arab Wars and began Byzantium's 10th-century...

        ' campaigns
        • First Melitene campaign and conquest of Kalikala 926-930
        • Second Malitene campaign 931-934
      • Sayf al-Dawla campaigns
        • Conquest of Aleppo 946
        • Battle of Germanikiea 953
        • Battle of Raban 958
        • Siege of Aleppo 962
        • Siege of Aleppo 964

    • Mudhar-Yamani conflict
      Civil War in Palestine (793-796)
      The Civil War in Palestine occurred between two Arab tribal federations in Palestine, Mudhar and Yamani, between 793-796, under the rule of the Abbasid Caliphate.-Background:The Abbasid Caliphate rose to power after the defeat of the Umayyads in 750...


  • Byzantine-Paulician Wars
    • Battle of Bathys Ryax
      Battle of Bathys Ryax
      The Battle of Bathys Ryax was fought in 872 or 878 between the Byzantine Empire and the Paulicians. The Paulicians were a Christian sect which—persecuted by the Byzantine state—had established a separate principality at Tephrike on Byzantium's eastern border and collaborated with the Muslim...

       872 (878?)

  • Persian Zoroastrian Revolts 8th-9th centuries
    • Behavarid revolt in Persia 8th century
    • Babak's revolt 816-837
      Babak Khorramdin
      Bābak Khorram-Din was one of the main Persian revolutionary leaders of the Iranian Khorram-Dinān , which was a local freedom movement fighting the Abbasid Caliphate. Khorramdin appears to be a compound analogous to dorustdin and Behdin "Good Religion" , and are considered an offshoot of...

      • Ahmad ibn al Junayd's campaign 823-824
      • Muhammad ibn Humayd Tusi's campaign 827-829
      • Afshin's campaign 835-837/838
        Afshin (Caliphate General)
        Khaydār b. Kāvūs Afshīn known by his hereditary title as Afshin was a senior general at the court of Abbasid caliphs and a son of the vassal prince of Oshrūsana.-Name and family background:...

    • Maziar revolt 839
      Maziar was an Iranian aristocrat of the House of Karen and feudal ruler of the mountainous region of Tabaristan...

  • Byzantine-Seljuk wars
    Byzantine-Seljuk wars
    The Byzantine–Seljuq Wars were a series of decisive battles that shifted the balance of power in Asia Minor and Syria from the Byzantine Empire to the Seljuq Turks...

    • Battle of Manzikert
      Battle of Manzikert
      The Battle of Manzikert , was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuq Turks led by Alp Arslan on August 26, 1071 near Manzikert...


  • Crusades
    The Crusades were a series of religious wars, blessed by the Pope and the Catholic Church with the main goal of restoring Christian access to the holy places in and near Jerusalem...

    • People's Crusade
      People's Crusade
      The People's Crusade is part of the First Crusade and lasted roughly six months from April 1096 to October. It is also known as the Peasants' Crusade or the Paupers' Crusade...

    • First Crusade
      First Crusade
      The First Crusade was a military expedition by Western Christianity to regain the Holy Lands taken in the Muslim conquest of the Levant, ultimately resulting in the recapture of Jerusalem...

      • Battle of Ascalon
        Battle of Ascalon
        The Battle of Ascalon took place on August 12, 1099, and is often considered the last action of the First Crusade.-Background:The crusaders had negotiated with the Fatimids of Egypt during their march to Jerusalem, but no satisfactory compromise could be reached — the Fatimids were willing to give...

      • Crusade of 1101
        Crusade of 1101
        The Crusade of 1101 was a minor crusade of three separate movements, organized in 1100 and 1101 in the successful aftermath of the First Crusade. It is also called the Crusade of the Faint-Hearted due to the number of participants who joined this crusade after having turned back from the First...

      • Battle of Ager Sanguinis
        Battle of Ager Sanguinis
        In the Battle of Ager Sanguinis, also known as the Battle of the Field of Blood, the Battle of Sarmada, or the Battle of Balat, Roger of Salerno's Crusader army of the Principality of Antioch was annihilated by the army of Ilghazi of Mardin, the Artuqid ruler of Aleppo on June 28,...

      • Battle of Azaz
        Battle of Azaz
        In the Battle of Azaz forces of the Crusader States commanded by King Baldwin II of Jerusalem defeated Aq-Sunqur il-Bursuqi's army of Seljuk Turks on June 11, 1125 and raised the siege of the town....

    • Second Crusade
      Second Crusade
      The Second Crusade was the second major crusade launched from Europe. The Second Crusade was started in response to the fall of the County of Edessa the previous year to the forces of Zengi. The county had been founded during the First Crusade by Baldwin of Boulogne in 1098...

      • Battle of Inab
        Battle of Inab
        The Battle of Inab, also called Battle of Ard al-Hâtim or Fons Muratus, was fought on June 29, 1149, during the Second Crusade. The Syrian army of Nur ad-Din Zangi destroyed the Crusader army of Raymond of Antioch and the allied followers of Ali ibn-Wafa.-Background:Nur ad-Din had gained control...

    • Baldwin's campaigns
      Kingdom of Jerusalem
      The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Catholic kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 after the First Crusade. The kingdom lasted nearly two hundred years, from 1099 until 1291 when the last remaining possession, Acre, was destroyed by the Mamluks, but its history is divided into two distinct periods....

      • Battle of Ascalon (1153)
      • Crusader invasions of Egypt
        Crusader invasions of Egypt
        The Crusader invasion of Egypt was a series of campaigns undertaken by the Kingdom of Jerusalem to strengthen its position in the Levant by taking advantage of the weakness of Fatimid Egypt....

        • Battle of al-Babein
          Battle of al-Babein
          The Battle of al-Babein took place on March 18, 1167, between Amalric I of Jerusalem and a Zengid army under Shirkuh for control of Egypt. Saladin served as Shirkuh’s highest ranking officer in the battle. The battle was a tactical draw between the Zengid forces and King Amalric's invasion...

    • Third Crusade
      Third Crusade
      The Third Crusade , also known as the Kings' Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin...

      • Siege of Acre (1189-1191)
    • Livonian Crusade
      Livonian Crusade
      The Livonian Crusade refers to the German and Danish conquest and colonization of medieval Livonia, the territory constituting modern Latvia and Estonia, during the Northern Crusades...

    • German Crusade
      Crusade of 1197
      The Crusade of 1197 was a crusade launched by the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI in response to the failure of Frederick I Barbarossa's crusade in 1190, and thus is also known as the "Emperor's Crusade." The Crusade ended in utter failure...

    • Fourth Crusade
      Fourth Crusade
      The Fourth Crusade was originally intended to conquer Muslim-controlled Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. Instead, in April 1204, the Crusaders of Western Europe invaded and conquered the Christian city of Constantinople, capital of the Eastern Roman Empire...

    • Children's Crusade
      Children's Crusade
      The Children's Crusade is the name given to a variety of fictional and factual events which happened in 1212 that combine some or all of these elements: visions by a French or German boy; an intention to peacefully convert Muslims in the Holy Land to Christianity; bands of children marching to...

    • Fifth Crusade
      Fifth Crusade
      The Fifth Crusade was an attempt to reacquire Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Ayyubid state in Egypt....

    • Sixth Crusade
      Sixth Crusade
      The Sixth Crusade started in 1228 as an attempt to regain Jerusalem. It began seven years after the failure of the Fifth Crusade. It involved very little actual fighting...

    • Seventh Crusade
      Seventh Crusade
      The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254. Approximately 800,000 bezants were paid in ransom for King Louis who, along with thousands of his troops, was captured and defeated by the Egyptian army led by the Ayyubid Sultan Turanshah supported by the Bahariyya...

    • Shepherds' Crusade
      Shepherds' Crusade
      The Shepherds' Crusade refers to separate events from the 13th and 14th century. The first took place in 1251 during the Seventh Crusade; the second occurred in 1320.-Shepherds' Crusade, 1251:...

    • Eighth Crusade
      Eighth Crusade
      The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX, King of France, in 1270. The Eighth Crusade is sometimes counted as the Seventh, if the Fifth and Sixth Crusades of Frederick II are counted as a single crusade...

    • Ninth Crusade
      Ninth Crusade
      The Ninth Crusade, which is sometimes grouped with the Eighth Crusade, is commonly considered to be the last major medieval Crusade to the Holy Land. It took place in 1271–1272....

  • Saladin's campaigns
    Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb , better known in the Western world as Saladin, was an Arabized Kurdish Muslim, who became the first Sultan of Egypt and Syria, and founded the Ayyubid dynasty. He led Muslim and Arab opposition to the Franks and other European Crusaders in the Levant...

    • Egyptian revolt 1169
    • Darum Siege 1170
    • Yemen conquest 1174
    • Battle of Hama 1175
    • Capture of Damascus 1174
    • Battle of Jacob's Ford
      Battle of Jacob's Ford
      Jerusalem has been and is considered by many to be one of the holiest cities in the world. For this reason, Christians and Muslims fought for control of the Holy City over several centuries. Around 1095, Christians from Europe marched to the Holy Land to retake control of Jerusalem. By 1099, the...

    • Fight for Mosul 1182
    • Battle of Al-Fule (1183)
      Battle of Al-Fule (1183)
      In the campaign and Battle of Al-Fule, a Crusader force led by Guy of Lusignan skirmished with Saladin's Ayyubid army for more than a week in September 1183. Tactically the battle was a draw, but the Crusaders prevented Saladin from capturing any strongholds and caused him to retreat...

    • Siege of Kerak
      Siege of Kerak
      The Siege of Kerak took place in 1183, with Saladin's forces attacking and being repelled from the Crusader stronghold.- Prelude :Kerak was the stronghold of Raynald of Châtillon, Lord of Oultrejordain, 124 km South of Amman. The fortress was built in 1142 by Pagan the Butler, Lord of Montreal...

    • Battle of Cresson
      Battle of Cresson
      The Battle of Cresson was a small battle fought on May 1, 1187, at the springs of Cresson, or 'Ain Gozeh, near Nazareth. It was a prelude to the decisive defeat of the Kingdom of Jerusalem at the Battle of Hattin two months later.-Background:...

    • Battle of Hattin
      Battle of Hattin
      The Battle of Hattin took place on Saturday, July 4, 1187, between the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and the forces of the Ayyubid dynasty....

    • Siege of Jerusalem (1187)
      Siege of Jerusalem (1187)
      On July 4, 1187 the Kingdom's army was defeated at the Battle of Hattin by Saladin and only Balian of Ibelin commanding a small number of soldiers remained in Jerusalem. The Siege of Jerusalem lasted from September 20 to October 2, 1187. On October 2, 1187 Balian of Ibelin surrendered Jerusalem to...

  • Mongol invasions to Middle East 13th century.
    • Battle of Köse Dağ
      Battle of Köse Dag
      The Battle of Köse Dağ was fought between the Seljuk Turks of Anatolia and the Mongols on June 26, 1243 at the defile of Köse Dağ, a location between Erzincan and Gümüşhane in northeast Anatolia, modern Turkey, and ended in a decisive Mongol victory....

    • Battle of Baghdad (1258)
      Battle of Baghdad (1258)
      The Siege of Baghdad, which occurred in 1258, was an invasion, siege and sacking of the city of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate at the time and the modern-day capital of Iraq, by the Ilkhanate Mongol forces along with other allied troops under Hulagu Khan.The invasion left Baghdad in...

    • Hulagu Khan's conquest of Syria 1260
      • Sack of Sidon 1260
      • Siege of Aleppo (1260)
        Siege of Aleppo (1260)
        The Siege of Aleppo lasted from 18 January 1260 to 24 January 1260.After receiving the submission of Haran and Edessa, Hulagu Khan crossed the Euphrates, sacked Menbij and placed Aleppo under siege. For six days the city was under siege...

      • Battle of Ain Jalut
        Battle of Ain Jalut
        The Battle of Ain Jalut took place on 3 September 1260 between Mamluks and the Mongols in eastern Galilee, in the Jezreel Valley, not far from Ein Harod....

      • First Battle of Homs
        First Battle of Homs
        The first Battle of Homs was fought on December 10, 1260, between the armies of the Mongol Ilkhanate of Persia and the forces of Egypt, in Syria....

    • Battle of Albistan 1277
    • Second Battle of Homs
      Second Battle of Homs
      The Second Battle of Homs was fought in western Syria on October 29, 1281, between the armies of the Mamluk dynasty of Egypt and Ilkhanate, division of the Mongol Empire centered on Iran...

    • Mongol raids into Bilad al-Sham 1299-1300
      • Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar
        Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar
        The Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar, also known as the Third Battle of Homs, was a Mongol victory over the Mamluks in 1299.-Background:In 1260, Hulagu Khan had invaded the Middle East all the way to Palestine. Before he could follow up with an invasion of Egypt, he was called back to Mongolia. He left...

  • Timur Conquests
    Timur , historically known as Tamerlane in English , was a 14th-century conqueror of West, South and Central Asia, and the founder of the Timurid dynasty in Central Asia, and great-great-grandfather of Babur, the founder of the Mughal Dynasty, which survived as the Mughal Empire in India until...

    • Battle of Ankara
      Battle of Ankara
      The Battle of Ankara or Battle of Angora, fought on July 20, 1402, took place at the field of Çubuk between the forces of the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I and the Turko-Mongol forces of Timur, ruler of the Timurid Empire. The battle was a major victory for Timur, and it led to a period of crisis for...

       (Battle of Angora) 1402
  • Ottoman Interregnum
    Ottoman Interregnum
    The Ottoman Interregnum began in 20 July 1402, when chaos reigned in the Ottoman Empire following the defeat of Sultan Bayezid I by the Turco-Mongol warlord Timur...

  • Sheikh Bedrettin revolt 1416

  • Byzantine-Ottoman wars
    Byzantine-Ottoman wars
    The Byzantine–Ottoman Wars were a series of decisive conflicts between the Ottoman Turks and the Byzantine that led to the final destruction of the Byzantine Empire and the rise of the Ottoman Empire....

    • Rise of the Ottomans 1265-1328
    • Byzantium counter: 1328–1341
      • Siege of Nicaea (1331)
        Siege of Nicaea (1331)
        The Siege of Nicaea by the forces of Osman I from 1328 to 1331, resulted to the conquest of a key Byzantine Greek city by the Ottoman Turks. It played an important role to the expansion of the Ottoman Empire.-Background:...

      • Siege of Nicomedia
        Siege of Nicomedia
        -Introduction:From 1299, the newly founded Turkic state of the Ottomans had been slowly but surely capturing territory from the Byzantine Greeks. The loss of Nicaea was the beginning of a series of Ottoman expansion that lead to final dissolution of the Byzantine empire and its scattered Greek...

    • Balkan invasion and civil war: 1341–1371
    • Byzantine civil war and vassalage: 1371–1394
    • Resumption of hostilities: 1394–1424
    • Ottoman campaign on Constantinopolis 1424–1453

Ottoman expansion

Ottoman era period conflicts 1453-1516
  • Yazidi uprising against Safavids 1506-1510
  • Şahkulu Rebellion
    Şahkulu Rebellion
    The Şahkulu rebellion was a widespread pro-Shia and pro-Safavid uprising in Anatolia, directed against the Ottoman Empire, in 1511. It is named after the leader of the rebels, Şahkulu. His death in battle also meant the end of the uprising.- Background :Persia was consolidated by Ismail I of the...


Ottoman Empire conflicts

  • Ottoman–Persian Wars
    Ottoman–Persian Wars
    Below is the list of wars between the Ottoman Empire and Persia in the 16th–19th centuries. The Ottomans consolidated their control of what is today Turkey in the 15th century, and gradually came into conflict with the emerging Persian state, led by Ismail I of the Safavid dynasty...

     16th-19th centuries
    • Battle of Chaldiran
      Battle of Chaldiran
      The Battle of Chaldiran or Chaldoran occurred on 23 August 1514 and ended with a victory for the Ottoman Empire over the Safavid Empire of Persia . As a result, the Ottomans gained immediate control over eastern Anatolia and northern Iraq...

    • Ottoman-Safavid War (1532-1555)
    • Ottoman-Safavid War (1578-1590)
    • Ottoman-Safavid War (1603-1618)
      • Battle of DimDim
        Battle of DimDim
        The Battle of DimDim is the name for the battle between the Safavid Empire and the Sunni Kurds of Ottoman Empire between 1609 and 1610.-Location:...

    • Ottoman-Safavid War (1623-1639)
      • Abaza rebellion
        Abaza rebellion
        Abaza rebellion was a rebellion in Ottoman Empire during the reigns of Mustafa I and Murat IV. The name of the rebellion refers to Abaza Mehmet , an Ottoman pasha of Abkhazian origin. Sometimes this rebellion is considered as a part of the Jelali revolts...

  • Jelali revolts
    Jelali Revolts
    Jelali revolts , were a series of rebellions in Anatolia of irregular troops led by provincial administrations known as celalî, against the authority of the Ottoman Empire in the 16th and 17th centuries. They arose partly as an effort to attain tax privileges...


  • Cretan War (1645-1669)
    • Atmeydanı Incident
      Atmeydanı Incident
      Atmeydanı incident was a rebellion in the Ottoman Empire during the stagnation period. The name Atmeydanı refers to modern Sultan Ahmet Square in İstanbul .- Background :...

    • Çınar Incident
      Çınar Incident
      Çınar Incident is the name of a 17th century rebellion in the Ottoman Empire.- Background :During the Cretan War , military expenditures of the Ottoman Empire increased, and the empire began experiencing economic difficulties...


  • Edirne revolt 1703
    Edirne event
    The Edirne event was a chain of events in 1703 in the Ottoman Empire, which resulted in dethroning of Sultan Mustafa II.-Background:By the Treaty of Karlowitz , Ottoman Empire had to cede vast territories to Holy League countries. It was clear that both the army and the civil institutions had to be...

  • Battle of Ain Darra
    Battle of Ain Darra
    The Battle of Ain Dara took place in the town of Ain Dara in 1711 between the Qaysi and Yemeni Druze, with the Qaysis victorious.-Background:Traditionally there had been two Druze socio-political branches living in the Jabal ash-Shuf region: the Yemeni were headed by the Harmouche and Alam ed-Din...

  • 1717 Omani invasion of Bahrain
    1717 Omani invasion of Bahrain
    In 1717 the Sultanate of Oman invaded Bahrain bringing an end to a 115 year rulership by the eroding Safavid dynasty. Following the Afghan invasion of Iran at the beginning of the eighteenth century which weakened the stronghold of the Safavids, the Omani forces were able to undermine Bahrain and...

  • Patrona Halil
    Patrona Halil
    Patrona Halil , was the instigator of a mob uprising in 1730 which replaced Sultan Ahmed III with Mahmud I and ended the Tulip period....

     uprising 1730
  • Daher el-Omar
    Daher el-Omar
    Daher el-Omar was the Arab-Bedouin ruler of the Galilee district of the southern Levant during the mid-18th century...

     Revolt (Galilee) 1742-1743
  • Ali Bey Al-Kabir Revolt (Egypt) 1769-1772
  • Bajalan
    The Bajalan people also called Bazhalan, Bajarwan and Bajlan are a Kurdish tribe in Iraqi Kurdistan. However, they also have sub-groups in Turkey, Iran and Armenia.- History :...

     uprising 1775
  • French Campaign in Egypt and Syria 1798-1801
    • Cairo revolt 1798
    • Battle of the Nile
      Battle of the Nile
      The Battle of the Nile was a major naval battle fought between British and French fleets at Aboukir Bay on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt from 1–3 August 1798...

  • Baban
    Baban were a Kurdish principality and ruling family originating from Darishmana in the region of Pijder. The founder of the dynasty and its first ruler was Fakih Ahmed a descendent of the ancient house of Soran. He also had a brother named Khidder Ahmed who lived with him...

     uprising 1806-1808
  • Events of 1807-08 (Ottoman revolts)
    • Kabakçı Mustafa
      Kabakçı Mustafa
      Kabakçı Mustafa was a rebel leader who caused the delay of Ottoman reformation in the early 19th century.-Yamaks and Kabakçı:Yamaks were a special class of soldiers who were responsible in defending Bosphorous against Cossack pirates from Ukraine. Unlike janissaries they were from Black Sea Region...


  • Muhammad Ali's Campaigns
    • Ottoman-Saudi War 1811-1818
    • Egyptian-Ottoman War (1831-1833)
    • Arab revolt in Southern Syria 1834
      1834 Arab revolt in Palestine
      The 1834 Arab revolt in Palestine was a reaction to conscription into the Egyptian army by the Wāli Muhammad Ali. Ali, as a part of a modernisation policy, began the conscription of ordinary subjects. Traditionally, soldiers were recruited from freebooters, loot-seekers, mercenaries, slaves or...

  • Cizre
    Cizre is a town and district of Şırnak Province in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, located at the border to Syria, just to the north-west of the Turkish-Syrian-Iraqi tripoint....

     uprising 1829
  • Atçalı Kel Mehmet revolt 1829-1830
  • Prince Mohammad of Soran uprising 1833
  • Yezidi uprising 1837
  • Sîncar uprising 1837

Ottoman Tanzimat period

  • First Botan uprising 1843
  • Bedr Khan Bey uprising 1843
  • Culemerg uprising 1843
  • Bedirhan Bey uprising 1847
  • Yezdan Sher uprising 1855

  • 1860 Lebanon conflict
    1860 Lebanon conflict
    The 1860 Lebanon conflict was the culmination of a peasant uprising which began in the north of Lebanon as a rebellion of Maronite peasants against their Druze overlords. It soon spread to the south of the country where the rebellion changed its character, with Druze turning against the Maronite...

     (Druze-Maronite strife)
    • French expedition in Syria
      French expedition in Syria
      The French expedition in Syria took place between 1860 and 1861. The expedition took place following the killing of thousands of Maronite, Greek Orthodox, and Melkite Greek Catholic Christians by Druzes and Muslims on Mount Lebanon and in Damascus in June–July 1860...


  • Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878)
  • Urabi Revolt
    Urabi Revolt
    The Urabi Revolt or Orabi Revolt , also known as the Orabi Revolution, was an uprising in Egypt in 1879-82 against the Khedive and European influence in the country...

     (Egypt) 1879-1882
  • Shaykh 'Ubaydullah of Nehri and Shemdinan uprising 1880-1881
  • Royal Civil War in Arabia
    Abdul Rahman bin Faisal
    *Muhammad*Abdul-Aziz*Saad*Saud*Abdallah*Musaid*Faysal*Abdul-Muhsin*Fahd*Ahmad*Saad*sixteen daughtersAbdul-Rahman bin Faisal was the last ruler of the Second Saudi State. He was the youngest son of Faisal bin Turki...

    • Battle of Mulayda
      Battle of Mulayda
      Battle of Mulayda was the last major battle during the existence of the Second Saudi State. Following problems over Zakat and the arrest of the Rashidi leader, Ibn Sabhan, Rashidies planned to end the Saudi State and conquer both Qassim region and Riyadh...

  • 1892 Tobacco Rebellion (Iran)
  • Hamidian Massacres 1894-1896
    Hamidian massacres
    The Hamidian massacres , also referred to as the Armenian Massacres of 1894–1896, refers to the massacring of Armenians by the Ottoman Empire, with estimates of the dead ranging from anywhere between 80,000 to 300,000, and at least 50,000 orphans as a result...

    • Zeitun Rebellion (1895–1896)
  • Unification of Saudi Arabia
    Unification of Saudi Arabia
    The unification of Saudi Arabia was the process by which the various tribes, sheikhdoms, and emirates of most of the Arabian Peninsula were consolidated under the control of the House of Saud, or Al Saud, between 1902 and 1932, when the modern-day Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was proclaimed...

    • Saudi–Rashidi War
      Saudi–Rashidi War
      Saudi–Rashidi War of 1903-1907, also referred as the First Saudi–Rashidi War or the Battles over Qasim, was engaged between the Saudi loyal forces of the newborn Sultanate of Nejd versus the Emirate of Ha'il , under the Rashidis...

  • Persian Constitutional Revolution 1908-1909
  • Young Turk Revolution
    Young Turk Revolution
    The Young Turk Revolution of 1908 reversed the suspension of the Ottoman parliament by Sultan Abdul Hamid II, marking the onset of the Second Constitutional Era...

    • 31 March Incident
      31 March Incident
      The 31 March Incident was a 1909 rebellion of reactionaries in İstanbul against the restoration of constitutional monarchy that had taken place in 1908. It took place on 13 April 1909...

    • Countercoup (1909)
      Countercoup (1909)
      The Countercoup of 1909 was an attempt to dismantle the Second Constitutional Era of the Ottoman Empire and replace it with a monarchy under Sultan Abdul Hamid II...

  • Adana Massacre
    Adana massacre
    The Adana massacre occurred in Adana Province, in the Ottoman Empire, in April 1909. An massacre of Armenian Christians in the city of Adana amidst governmental upheaval resulted in a series of anti-Armenian pogroms throughout the district...

  • Hauran Druze Rebellion 1909
  • 1913 Ottoman coup d'état

  • Middle Eastern theatre of World War I
    Middle Eastern theatre of World War I
    The Middle Eastern theatre of World War I was the scene of action between 29 October 1914, and 30 October 1918. The combatants were the Ottoman Empire, with some assistance from the other Central Powers, and primarily the British and the Russians among the Allies of World War I...

    • Sinai and Palestine campaign
      Sinai and Palestine Campaign
      The Sinai and Palestine Campaigns took place in the Middle Eastern Theatre of World War I. A series of battles were fought between British Empire, German Empire and Ottoman Empire forces from 26 January 1915 to 31 October 1918, when the Armistice of Mudros was signed between the Ottoman Empire and...

    • Mesopotamian Campaign
      Mesopotamian Campaign
      The Mesopotamian campaign was a campaign in the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I fought between the Allies represented by the British Empire, mostly troops from the Indian Empire, and the Central Powers, mostly of the Ottoman Empire.- Background :...

    • Caucasus Campaign
      Caucasus Campaign
      The Caucasus Campaign comprised armed conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire, later including Azerbaijan, Armenia, Central Caspian Dictatorship and the UK as part of the Middle Eastern theatre or alternatively named as part of the Caucasus Campaign during World War I...

    • Persian Campaign
      Persian Campaign
      The Persian Campaign or Invasion of Persia was a series of engagements at northern Persian Azerbaijan and western Persia between the British Empire and the Russian Empire against the Ottoman Empire, beginning in December 1914 and ending with the Armistice of Mudros on October 30, 1918 as part of...

    • Galipoli campaign
    • North African Campaign (World War I)
      North African Campaign (World War I)
      The North Africa Campaign was a series of conflicts during World War I, part of Middle Eastern theatre of World War I in southwest Libya and southern Tripolitania...

    • Arab Revolt
      Arab Revolt
      The Arab Revolt was initiated by the Sherif Hussein bin Ali with the aim of securing independence from the ruling Ottoman Turks and creating a single unified Arab state spanning from Aleppo in Syria to Aden in Yemen.- Background :...

    • Armenian Genocide
      Armenian Genocide
      The Armenian Genocide—also known as the Armenian Holocaust, the Armenian Massacres and, by Armenians, as the Great Crime—refers to the deliberate and systematic destruction of the Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire during and just after World War I...

    • Assyrian Genocide
      Assyrian genocide
      The Assyrian Genocide refers to the mass slaughter of the Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac population of the Ottoman Empire during the 1890s, the First World War, and the period of 1922-1925...

    • 1st Dersim rebellion

Post-Ottoman era conflicts

See also