List of anatomical topics

List of anatomical topics

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abdomen
Abdomen
In vertebrates such as mammals the abdomen constitutes the part of the body between the thorax and pelvis. The region enclosed by the abdomen is termed the abdominal cavity...

 - abdominal aorta
Abdominal aorta
The abdominal aorta is the largest artery in the abdominal cavity. As part of the aorta, it is a direct continuation of the descending aorta .-Path:...

 - abducens nerve - abducens nucleus
Abducens nucleus
The abducens nucleus is the originating nucleus from which the abducens nerve emerges - a cranial nerve nucleus. This nucleus is located beneath the fourth ventricle in the caudal portion of the pons, medial to the sulcus limitans....

 - abducent
Anatomical terms of motion
The movement of body structures is accomplished by the contraction of muscles. Muscles may move parts of the skeleton relatively to each other, or may move parts of internal organs relatively to each other. All such movements are classified by the directions in which the affected structures are moved...

 - abducent nerve
Abducent nerve
The abducens nerve or abducent nerve is a somatic efferent nerve that controls the movement of a single muscle, the lateral rectus muscle of the eye, in humans. In most other mammals it also innervates the musculus retractor bulbi, which can retract the eye for protection...

 - abduction
Anatomical terms of location
Standard anatomical terms of location are designations employed in science that deal with the anatomy of animals to avoid ambiguities that might otherwise arise. They are not language-specific, and thus require no translation...

 - accessory - accessory cuneate nucleus
Accessory cuneate nucleus
The accessory cuneate nucleus is located lateral to the cuneate nucleus in the medulla oblongata at the level of the sensory decussation ....

 - accessory nerve
Accessory nerve
In anatomy, the accessory nerve is a nerve that controls specific muscles of the shoulder and neck. As part of it was formerly believed to originate in the brain, it is considered a cranial nerve...

 - accessory olivary nucleus - accommodation reflex
Accommodation reflex
The accommodation reflex is a reflex action of the eye, in response to focusing on a near object, then looking at distant object , comprising coordinated changes in vergence, lens shape and pupil size...

 - acetabulum
Acetabulum
The acetabulum is a concave surface of the pelvis. The head of the femur meets with the pelvis at the acetabulum, forming the hip joint.-Structure:...

 - Achilles tendon
Achilles tendon
The Achilles tendon , also known as the calcaneal tendon or the tendo calcaneus, is a tendon of the posterior leg. It serves to attach the plantaris, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles to the calcaneus bone.- Anatomy :The Achilles is the tendonous extension of 3 muscles in the lower leg:...

 - acoustic nerve - acromion - adenohypophysis - adenoids - adipose - aditus
Aditus
An aditus is the opening to some interior space or cavity.- Anatomy :In anatomy it can refer to the:* Aditus laryngis* Aditus ad antrum mastoideum* Or uncommonly the Omental foramen, this is a dated term....

 - aditus ad antrum - adrenal gland
Adrenal gland
In mammals, the adrenal glands are endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys; in humans, the right suprarenal gland is triangular shaped, while the left suprarenal gland is semilunar shaped...

 - adrenergic
Adrenergic
An adrenergic agent is a drug, or other substance, which has effects similar to, or the same as, epinephrine . Thus, it is a kind of sympathomimetic agent...

 - afferent
Afferent
Afferent is an anatomical term with the following meanings:*Conveying towards a center, for example the afferent arterioles conveying blood towards the Bowman's capsule in the Kidney. Opposite to Efferent.*Something that so conducts, see Afferent nerve fiber...

 - afferent neuron - agger nasi
Agger nasi
The agger nasi is a small ridge on the lateral side of the nasal cavity. It is located midway at the anterior edge of the middle nasal concha, directly above the atrium of the middle meatus...

 - agnosia
Agnosia
Agnosia is a loss of ability to recognize objects, persons, sounds, shapes, or smells while the specific sense is not defective nor is there any significant memory loss...

 - agonist
Agonist
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor of a cell and triggers a response by that cell. Agonists often mimic the action of a naturally occurring substance...

 - alar ligament
Alar ligament
The alar ligaments connect the sides of the dens to tubercles on the medial side of the occipital condyle....

 - albuginea - alimentary - allantois
Allantois
Allantois is a part of a developing animal conceptus . It helps the embryo exchange gases and handle liquid waste....

 - allocortex
Allocortex
The allocortex is a part of the cerebral cortex characterized by fewer cell layers than the neocortex The allocortex (also known as heterogenetic cortex) is a part of the cerebral cortex characterized by fewer cell layers than the neocortex The allocortex (also known as heterogenetic cortex) is a...

 - alpha motor neurons - alveolar artery - alveolar process - alveolus
Pulmonary alveolus
An alveolus is an anatomical structure that has the form of a hollow cavity. Found in the lung parenchyma, the pulmonary alveoli are the dead ends of the respiratory tree, which outcrop from either alveolar sacs or alveolar ducts, which are both sites of gas exchange with the blood as well...

 - alveus of the hippocampus
Alveus of the hippocampus
The alveus of the hippocampus borders the wall of the lateral ventricle and is composed of white, myelinated fibers. The alveus arises from cell bodies in the subiculum and hippocampus, and eventually merges with the fimbria of the hippocampus. The fimbria goes on to become the fornix...

 - amatory anatomy
Amatory anatomy
Amatory anatomy, sometimes referred to simply as "anatomy," is a historical type of English poetry whereby the author describes his or her appreciation for their lover's body parts. The person being described is usually female. This technique is similar to the poetic blason....

 - amaurosis
Amaurosis
Amaurosis is vision loss or weakness that occurs without an apparent lesion affecting the eye. It may result from either a medical condition or from excess acceleration, as in flight...

 - Ammon's horn - ampulla
Ampulla
An ampulla was, in Ancient Rome, a "small nearly globular flask or bottle, with two handles" . The word is used of these in archaeology, and of later flasks, often handle-less and much flatter, for holy water or holy oil in the Middle Ages....

 - Ampulla of Vater - amygdala
Amygdala
The ' are almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep within the medial temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans. Shown in research to perform a primary role in the processing and memory of emotional reactions, the amygdalae are considered part of the limbic system.-...

 - amygdalofugal pathway
Amygdalofugal pathway
The amygdalofugal pathway is one of the three principal pathways by which fibers leave the amygdala, a limbic structure in the medial temporal lobe of the brain...

 - amygdaloid
Amygdala
The ' are almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep within the medial temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans. Shown in research to perform a primary role in the processing and memory of emotional reactions, the amygdalae are considered part of the limbic system.-...

 - amylacea
Corpora amylacea
Corpora amylacea, also known as prostatic concretions, are small hyaline masses of unknown significance found in the prostate gland, neuroglia, and pulmonary alveoli. They are derived from degenerate cells or thickened secretions and occur more frequently with advancing age...

 - anaesthesia - analgesia - analogous
Analogy (biology)
An analogy is a trait or an organ that appears similar in two unrelated organisms. The cladistic term for the same phenomenon is homoplasy, from Greek for same form. Biological anologies are often the result of convergent evolution....

 - anastomosis
Anastomosis
An anastomosis is the reconnection of two streams that previously branched out, such as blood vessels or leaf veins. The term is used in medicine, biology, mycology and geology....

 - anatomical pathology
Anatomical pathology
Anatomical pathology or Anatomic pathology is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the gross, microscopic, chemical, immunologic and molecular examination of organs, tissues, and whole bodies...

 - anatomical position - anatomical snuffbox - anatomical terms of location
Anatomical terms of location
Standard anatomical terms of location are designations employed in science that deal with the anatomy of animals to avoid ambiguities that might otherwise arise. They are not language-specific, and thus require no translation...

 - anatomical terms of motion
Anatomical terms of motion
The movement of body structures is accomplished by the contraction of muscles. Muscles may move parts of the skeleton relatively to each other, or may move parts of internal organs relatively to each other. All such movements are classified by the directions in which the affected structures are moved...

 - anatomy
Anatomy
Anatomy is a branch of biology and medicine that is the consideration of the structure of living things. It is a general term that includes human anatomy, animal anatomy , and plant anatomy...

 - anconeus - angiography - angiology
Angiology
Angiology is the medical specialty which studies the diseases of circulatory system and of the lymphatic system, i.e., arteries, veins and lymphatic vases, and its diseases...

 - angular gyrus
Angular gyrus
The angular gyrus is a region of the brain in the parietal lobe, that lies near the superior edge of the temporal lobe, and immediately posterior to the supramarginal gyrus; it is involved in a number of processes related to language, mathematics and cognition...

 - anhidrosis
Anhidrosis
Anhidrosis means lack of sweating. It is also known by a number of other names including Adiaphoresis, Ischidrosis, Hypohidrosis, Oligidria, Oligohidrosis and Sweating deficiency.-Causes:...

 - animal morphology - anisocoria
Anisocoria
-Causes:In the absence of the iris or eyeball proper, anisocoria is usually the result of a defect in efferent nervous pathways controlling the pupil traveling in the oculomotor nerve or the sympathetic pathways...

 - ankle
Ankle
The ankle joint is formed where the foot and the leg meet. The ankle, or talocrural joint, is a synovial hinge joint that connects the distal ends of the tibia and fibula in the lower limb with the proximal end of the talus bone in the foot...

 - ankle reflex
Ankle jerk reflex
The ankle jerk reflex, also known as the Achilles reflex, occurs when the Achilles tendon is tapped while the foot is dorsi-flexed. A positive result would be the jerking of the foot towards its plantar surface....

 - annular ligament
Annular ligament
The anular ligament is a strong band of fibers, which encircles the head of the radius , and retains it in contact with the radial notch of the ulna....

 - annulus of Zinn
Annulus of Zinn
The annulus of Zinn, also known as the annular tendon or common tendinous ring, is a ring of fibrous tissue surrounding the optic nerve at its entrance at the apex of the orbit. It is the origin for five of the six extraocular muscles...

 - anomaly - anomia - anosognosia
Anosognosia
Anosognosia /æˌnɒsɒgˈnəʊsɪə/ is a condition in which a person who suffers disability seems unaware of the existence of his or her disability. Unlike denial, which is a defense mechanism, anosognosia is rooted in physiology...

 - ansa cervicalis
Ansa cervicalis
The ansa cervicalis is a loop of nerves that are part of the cervical plexus. It lies superficial to the internal jugular vein in the carotid sheath....

 - ansa lenticularis
Ansa lenticularis
The ansa lenticularis is a part of the brain, making up the superior layer of the substantia innominata of Meynert...

 - anterior cerebral artery - anterior choroidal artery
Anterior choroidal artery
The anterior choroidal artery originates from the internal carotid artery, though it also rarely arises from the middle cerebral artery.-Structures supplied:The anterior choroidal artery serves many structures in the cerebrum:...

 - anterior commissure
Anterior commissure
The anterior commissure is a bundle of nerve fibers , connecting the two cerebral hemispheres across the midline, and placed in front of the columns of the fornix...

 - anterior communicating artery
Anterior communicating artery
In human anatomy, the anterior communicating artery is a blood vessel of the brain that connects the left and right anterior cerebral arteries....

 - anterior corticospinal tract
Anterior corticospinal tract
The anterior corticospinal tract is a small bundle of descending fibers that connect the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord...

 - anterior cranial fossa
Anterior cranial fossa
The floor of the anterior fossa is formed by the orbital plates of the frontal, the cribriform plate of the ethmoid, and the small wings and front part of the body of the sphenoid; it is limited behind by the posterior borders of the small wings of the sphenoid and by the anterior margin of the...

 - anterior cruciate ligament
Anterior cruciate ligament
The anterior cruciate ligament is a cruciate ligament which is one of the four major ligaments of the human knee. In the quadruped stifle , based on its anatomical position, it is referred to as the cranial cruciate ligament.The ACL originates from deep within the notch of the distal femur...

 - anterior ethmoidal foramen
Anterior ethmoidal foramen
Lateral to either olfactory groove are the internal openings of the anterior and posterior ethmoidal foramina .The anterior ethmoidal foramen, situated about the middle of the lateral margin of the olfactory groove, transmits the anterior ethmoidal vessels and the anterior ethmoidal nerve; the...

 - anterior ethmoidal nerve
Anterior ethmoidal nerve
The anterior ethmoidal nerve is a nerve which provides sensory branches to the nasal cavity. The nerve is the continuation of the Nasociliary nerve after it enters the anterior ethmoidal foramen into the anterior ethmoidal air cells. The nasociliary nerve arises from the Ophthalmic division of...

 - anterior funiculus
Anterior funiculus
The most lateral of the bundles of the anterior nerve roots is generally taken as a dividing line that separates the antero-lateral region into two parts, viz., an anterior funiculus, between the anterior median fissure and the most lateral of the anterior nerve roots; and a lateral funiculus,...

 - anterior horn cells - anterior horn of the lateral ventricle - anterior hypothalamus - anterior inferior cerebellar artery
Anterior inferior cerebellar artery
The anterior inferior cerebellar artery arises from the basilar artery at the level of the junction between the medulla oblongata and the pons in the brainstem. It passes backward to be distributed to the anterior part of the undersurface of the cerebellum, anastomosing with the posterior inferior...

 - anterior limb of the internal capsule - anterior lobe of cerebellum
Anterior lobe of cerebellum
The anterior lobe of cerebellum is the portion of the cerebellum responsible for mediating unconscious proprioception.In alcoholics, it can deteriorate.It is sometimes equated to the "paleocerebellum".-External links:...

 - anterior nucleus of the thalamus - anterior perforated substance
Anterior perforated substance
The anterior perforated substance is an irregularly quadrilateral area in front of the optic tract and behind the olfactory trigone, from which it is separated by the fissure prima; medially and in front, it is continuous with the subcallosal gyrus; it is bounded laterally by the lateral stria of...

 - anterior pituitary
Anterior pituitary
A major organ of the endocrine system, the anterior pituitary, also called the adenohypophysis, is the glandular, anterior lobe of the pituitary gland...

 - anterior root - anterior spinal artery
Anterior spinal artery
In human anatomy, the anterior spinal artery is the blood vessel that supplies the anterior portion of the spinal cord. It arises from branches of the vertebral arteries and is supplied by the anterior segmental medullary arteries, including the artery of Adamkiewicz, and courses along the anterior...

 - anterior spinocerebellar tract - anterior superior alveolar artery - anterior tibial artery
Anterior tibial artery
The anterior tibial artery of the lower limb carries blood to the anterior compartment of the leg and dorsal surface of the foot, from the popliteal artery.It is accompanied by a deep vein, the anterior tibial vein, along its course....

 - anterior vertebral muscle - anterior white commissure
Anterior white commissure
The anterior white commissure, also known as the alba anterior medullae spinalis, is a bundle of nerve fibers which cross the midline of the spinal cord just anterior to the gray commissure...

 - anterolateral region of the neck - anterolateral system
Anterolateral system
In the nervous system, the anterolateral system is an ascending pathway that conveys pain, temperature , and crude touch from the periphery to the brain. It comprises three main pathways:-External links:*...

 - antidromic
Antidromic
An antidromic impulse in an axon refers to conduction opposite of the normal direction. That is, it refers to conduction along the axon away from the axon terminal and towards the soma...

 - antihelix
Antihelix
On the pinna, a curved prominence of cartilage, parallel with and in front of the helix, is called the antihelix, also known as the anthelix; this divides above into two crura, the crura antihelicis, between which is a triangular depression, the fossa triangularis....

 - antrum
Antrum
In biology, antrum is a general term for a cavity or chamber which may have specific meaning in reference to certain organs or sites in the body.In vertebrates, it may mean for example:...

 - annulus fibrosus - annulus tendineus
Annulus of Zinn
The annulus of Zinn, also known as the annular tendon or common tendinous ring, is a ring of fibrous tissue surrounding the optic nerve at its entrance at the apex of the orbit. It is the origin for five of the six extraocular muscles...

 - anus
Anus
The anus is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth. Its function is to control the expulsion of feces, unwanted semi-solid matter produced during digestion, which, depending on the type of animal, may be one or more of: matter which the animal cannot digest,...

 - aorta
Aorta
The aorta is the largest artery in the body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it branches off into two smaller arteries...

 - aortic body
Aortic body
In the human heart, the aortic body is one of several small clusters of chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, and supporting cells located along the aortic arch.-Function:...

 - aponeurosis
Aponeurosis
Aponeuroses are layers of flat broad tendons. They have a shiny, whitish-silvery color, are histologically similar to tendons, and are very sparingly supplied with blood vessels and nerves. When dissected, aponeuroses are papery, and peel off by sections...

 - apophysis - appendage
Appendage
In invertebrate biology, an appendage is an external body part, or natural prolongation, that protrudes from an organism's body . It is a general term that covers any of the homologous body parts that may extend from a body segment...

 - appendicular skeleton
Appendicular skeleton
The Appendicular skeleton is composed of 126 bones in the human body. The word appendicular is the adjective of the noun appendage, which itself means a part that is joined to something larger...

 - appendix
Vermiform appendix
The appendix is a blind-ended tube connected to the cecum , from which it develops embryologically. The cecum is a pouchlike structure of the colon...

 - aprosody
Aprosody
Aprosody refers to the lack of variations in normal speech characteristics, such as speed, tone, and varied emphasis. It is mentioned in the context of medical diagnosis, similar to ataxia and aphasia....

 - aqueductal stenosis - aqueous humor - arachnoid - arachnoid granulation
Arachnoid granulation
Arachnoid granulations are small protrusions of the arachnoid through the dura mater...

 - arbor vitae
Arbor vitae (anatomy)
The arbor vitae is the cerebellar white matter, so called for its branched, tree-like appearance. It brings sensory and motor information to and from the cerebellum....

 - archicerebellum - archicortex
Archicortex
Archicortex is categorized under allocortex. It is any cortex with fewer than six layers, specifically three layered hippocampal cortexes. It is necessary for hippocampus formation....

 - archipallium
Archipallium
In anatomy of animals, the archipallium is the oldest region of the brain's pallium.The archipallium is often considered contiguous with the olfactory cortex, but the extent of the archipallium varies among species. In older species, such as fish, the archipallium makes up most of the cerebrum...

 - archistriatum
Archistriatum
The arcopallium refers to regions of the avian brain which partially overlap regions homologous to the amygdala of mammals. These regions have formerly been referred to as archistriatum, and before this epistriatum or amygdaloid complex, and a recent change of nomenclature has divided the region...

 - arcuate line - arcuate nucleus
Arcuate nucleus
The arcuate nucleus is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence...

 - area postrema
Area postrema
The area postrema is a medullary structure in the brain that controls vomiting. Its privileged location in the brain also allows the area postrema to play a vital role in the control of autonomic functions by the central nervous system.-Anatomy:...

 - areola
Areola
This article is about the breast tissue. For the entomology term, see the glossary of Lepidopteran terms. For an artistic cloud motif, see aureola. For the cactus feature, see Areole....

 - arm
Arm
In human anatomy, the arm is the part of the upper limb between the shoulder and the elbow joints. In other animals, the term arm can also be used for analogous structures, such as one of the paired forelimbs of a four-legged animal or the arms of cephalopods...

 - arrectores pilorum
Arrectores pilorum
The arrectores pilorum are small muscles attached to hair follicles in mammals. Contraction of these muscles causes the hairs to stand on end - known colloquially as goose bumps....

 - arteria dorsalis pedis - arterial arcades
Arterial arcades
Arterial arcades are loops of arteries around the jejunum and ileum.Nearest the duodenum the mesenteric loops are primary, the vasa recta are long and regular in distribution, and the translucent spaces are extensive....

 - artery
Artery
Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. This blood is normally oxygenated, exceptions made for the pulmonary and umbilical arteries....

 - articular condyle of mandible - articular disc - articulation - aryepiglotticus muscle - arytenoid - arytenoid cartilage
Arytenoid cartilage
The arytenoid cartilages are a pair of small three-sided pyramids which form part of the larynx, to which the vocal folds are attached...

 - arytenoideus muscle - astereognosis
Astereognosis
Astereognosis is the inability to identify an object by touch without visual input. It is a form of tactile agnosia in which an individual is unable to identify objects by handling them, despite intact sensation. With the absence of vision , an individual with astereognosis is unable to identify...

 - asterion
Asterion
In Greek mythology, Asterion denotes two sacred kings of Crete. The first Asterion or Asterius , the son of Tectamus or son of Neleus and Chloris by the Greeks called "king" of Crete, was the consort of Europa and stepfather of her sons by Zeus, who had to assume the form of the Cretan bull of...

 - asterixis
Asterixis
Asterixis is a tremor of the wrist when the wrist is extended , sometimes said to resemble a bird flapping its wings. This motor disorder is characterized by jerking movements and is associated with various encephalopathies due especially to faulty metabolism...

 - astrocyte
Astrocyte
Astrocytes , also known collectively as astroglia, are characteristic star-shaped glial cells in the brain and spinal cord...

 - asynergy
Asynergy
Asynergy is defective or lack of co-ordination between organs, muscles, limbs or joints, resulting in a loss in movement or speed. Asynergy is most likely to occur during complex movements, where several individual muscle contractions are needed to act in unison. Asynergy may be caused by...

 - ataxia
Ataxia
Ataxia is a neurological sign and symptom that consists of gross lack of coordination of muscle movements. Ataxia is a non-specific clinical manifestation implying dysfunction of the parts of the nervous system that coordinate movement, such as the cerebellum...

 - atlanto-occipital joint
Atlanto-occipital joint
The Atlanto-occipital joint consists of a pair of condyloid joints. The atlanto-occipital joint is a synovial joint.-Ligaments:The ligaments connecting the bones are:* Two Articular capsules...

 - atlas
Atlas (anatomy)
In anatomy, the atlas is the most superior cervical vertebra of the spine.It is named for the Atlas of Greek mythology, because it supports the globe of the head....

 - atresia
Atresia
Atresia is a condition in which a body orifice or passage in the body is abnormally closed or absent.Examples of atresia include:* Imperforate anus - malformation of the opening between the rectum and anus....

 - atrioventricular node
Atrioventricular node
The atrioventricular node is a part of the electrical control system of the heart that coordinates heart rate. It electrically connects atrial and ventricular chambers...

 - atrium
Atrium (anatomy)
In anatomy, the atrium , sometimes called auricle , refers to a chamber or space. For example, the term is used for a portion of the lateral ventricle in the brain and the blood collection chamber of the heart...

 - auditory aphasia - auditory cortex - auditory meatus - auditory ossicles - auditory radiations
Auditory radiations
The acoustic radiations or auditory radiations are structures found in the brain, in the ventral cochlear pathway, a part of the auditory system. Lesions to the auditory radiations could be a cause of cortical deafness....

 - auditory system
Auditory system
The auditory system is the sensory system for the sense of hearing.- Outer ear :The folds of cartilage surrounding the ear canal are called the pinna...

 - auditory tube
Eustachian tube
The Eustachian tube is a tube that links the nasopharynx to the middle ear. It is a part of the middle ear. In adult humans the Eustachian tube is approximately 35 mm long. It is named after the sixteenth-century anatomist Bartolomeo Eustachi...

 - auricle - auriculotemporal nerve
Auriculotemporal nerve
The auriculotemporal nerve is a branch of the mandibular nerve that runs with the superficial temporal artery and vein, and provides sensory innervation to various regions on the side of the head.-Origin:...

 - auscultation
Auscultation
Auscultation is the term for listening to the internal sounds of the body, usually using a stethoscope...

 - autonomic
Autonomic nervous system
The autonomic nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system that acts as a control system functioning largely below the level of consciousness, and controls visceral functions. The ANS affects heart rate, digestion, respiration rate, salivation, perspiration, diameter of the pupils,...

 - autonomic ganglion
Autonomic ganglion
Autonomic ganglia are clusters of neuronal cell bodies and their dendrites and are essentially a junction between autonomic nerves originating from the central nervous system and autonomic nerves innervating their target organs in the periphery....

 - axial skeleton
Axial skeleton
The axial skeleton consists of the 80 bones along the central axis of the human body. It is composed of six parts; the human skull, the ossicles of the middle ear, the hyoid bone of the throat, the rib cage, sternum and the vertebral column...

 - axial view - axilla - axillary artery
Axillary artery
In human anatomy, the axillary artery is a large blood vessel that conveys oxygenated blood to the lateral aspect of the thorax, the axilla and the upper limb...

 - axis
Axis (anatomy)
In anatomy, the second cervical vertebra of the spine is named the axis or epistropheus.It forms the pivot upon which the first cervical vertebra , which carries the head, rotates....

 - axon
Axon
An axon is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body or soma....

 - axon collateral - axon hillock
Axon hillock
The axon hillock is a specialized part of the cell body of a neuron that connects to the axon. As a result, the axon hillock is the last site in the soma where membrane potentials propagated from synaptic inputs are summated before being transmitted to the axon. For many years it was believed...

 - azygos
Azygos
In anatomy, azygos, from the Greek άζυξ, refers to a structure that is unpaired. This is relatively unusual, as most elements of anatomy reflect bilateral symmetry. Another term for the same concept is impar....


B


Babinski sign
Plantar reflex
The plantar reflex is a reflex elicited when the sole of the foot is stimulated with a blunt instrument. The reflex can take one of two forms. In normal adults the plantar reflex causes a downward response of the hallux...

 - baculum
Baculum
The baculum is a bone found in the penis of most mammals. It is absent in humans, but present in other primates, such as the gorilla and chimpanzee.The bone aids in sexual intercourse.-Purpose:...

 - ball and socket joint
Ball and socket joint
A ball and socket joint is a joint in which the distal bone is capable of motion around an indefinite number of axes, which have one common center...

 - band of Baillarger - Bartholin's gland
Bartholin's gland
The Bartholin's glands are two glands located slightly posterior and to the left and right of the opening of the vagina. They secrete mucus to lubricate the vagina and are homologous to bulbourethral glands in males...

 - basal cistern - basal forebrain
Basal forebrain
The basal forebrain is a collection of structures located ventrally to the striatum. It is considered to be the major cholinergic output of the central nervous system . It includes a group of structures that lie near the bottom of the front of the brain, including the nucleus basalis, diagonal band...

 - basal ganglia
Basal ganglia
The basal ganglia are a group of nuclei of varied origin in the brains of vertebrates that act as a cohesive functional unit. They are situated at the base of the forebrain and are strongly connected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and other brain areas...

 - basalis nucleus of Meynert - basal lamina
Basal lamina
The basal lamina is a layer of extracellular matrix secreted by the epithelial cells, on which the epithelium sits. It is often confused with the basement membrane, and sometimes used inconsistently in the literature, see below....

 - basement membrane
Basal lamina
The basal lamina is a layer of extracellular matrix secreted by the epithelial cells, on which the epithelium sits. It is often confused with the basement membrane, and sometimes used inconsistently in the literature, see below....

-basilar artery
Basilar artery
In human anatomy, the basilar artery is one of the arteries that supplies the brain with oxygen-rich blood.The two vertebral arteries and the basilar artery are sometimes together called the vertebrobasilar system, which supplies blood to the posterior part of circle of Willis and anastomoses with...

 - basilar membrane
Basilar membrane
The basilar membrane within the cochlea of the inner ear is a stiff structural element that separates two liquid-filled tubes that run along the coil of the cochlea, the scala media and the scala tympani .-Function:...

 - basis pedunculi - basket cell
Basket cell
Basket cells are inhibitory GABAergic interneurons found in several brain regions: the molecular layer of the cerebellum, the hippocampus, and the cortex.-Cerebellum:...

 - basolateral amygdala
Basolateral Amygdala
The Basolateral Amygdala is a major limbic-related region within the brain.The basolateral amygdala projects heavily to the nucleus accumbens. The nucleus accumbens is regarded as the limbic-motor interface, in view of these limbic afferent and its somatomotor and autonomic efferent connections...

 - biceps
Biceps
Biceps may refer to:*Biceps brachii muscle, a muscle located on the inside of the upper arm*Biceps femoris muscle, one of the hamstring muscles of the back of each thigh*Biceps , a point in a metrical pattern...

 - bicipital aponeurosis
Bicipital aponeurosis
The bicipital aponeurosis is a broad aponeurosis of the biceps brachii which is located in the cubital fossa of the elbow and separates superficial from deep structures in much of the fossa....

 - bicuspid valve
Bicuspid aortic valve
A bicuspid aortic valve is most commonly a congenital condition of the aortic valve where two of the aortic valvular leaflets fuse during development resulting in a valve that is bicuspid instead of the normal tricuspid configuration. Normally the only cardiac valve that is bicuspid is the mitral...

 - bifurcation
Aortic bifurcation
The aortic bifurcation is the point at which the abdominal aorta bifurcates into the left and right common iliac arteries. The aortic bifurcation occurs at the level of the fourth lumbar vertebrae....

 - bilateral symmetry - bile duct
Bile duct
A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile.Bile, required for the digestion of food, is excreted by the liver into passages that carry bile toward the hepatic duct, which joins with the cystic duct to form the common bile duct, which opens into the intestine.The...

 - biology
Biology
Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines...

 - bipolar cells of the retina - bitemporal heminopia - blastomere
Blastomere
A blastomere is a type of cell produced by division of the egg after fertilization.- References :* "Blastomere." Stedman's Medical Dictionary, 27th ed. . ISBN 0-683-40007-X...

 - blood
Blood
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid in animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells....

 - blood brain barrier - body
Body
With regard to living things, a body is the physical body of an individual. "Body" often is used in connection with appearance, health issues and death...

 - bone
Bone
Bones are rigid organs that constitute part of the endoskeleton of vertebrates. They support, and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells and store minerals. Bone tissue is a type of dense connective tissue...

 - bone marrow
Bone marrow
Bone marrow is the flexible tissue found in the interior of bones. In humans, bone marrow in large bones produces new blood cells. On average, bone marrow constitutes 4% of the total body mass of humans; in adults weighing 65 kg , bone marrow accounts for approximately 2.6 kg...

 - bony labyrinth
Bony labyrinth
The Bony labyrinth or osseous labyrinth consists of three parts: the vestibule, semicircular canals, and cochlea. These are cavities hollowed out of the substance of the bone, and lined by periosteum; they contain a clear fluid, the perilymph, in which the membranous labyrinth is situated....

 - Bowman's capsule
Bowman's capsule
The Bowman's capsule is a cup-like sac at the beginning of the tubular component of a nephron in the mammalian kidney that performs the first step in the filtration of blood to form urine. A glomerulus is enclosed in the sac...

 - brachial artery
Brachial artery
The brachial artery is the major blood vessel of the arm.It is the continuation of the axillary artery beyond the lower margin of teres major muscle. It continues down the ventral surface of the arm until it reaches the cubital fossa at the elbow. It then divides into the radial and ulnar arteries...

 - brachial plexus
Brachial plexus
The brachial plexus is a network of nerve fibers, running from the spine, formed by the ventral rami of the lower four cervical and first thoracic nerve roots...

 - brachiocephalic vein
Brachiocephalic vein
The left and right brachiocephalic veins in the upper chest are formed by the union of each corresponding internal jugular vein and subclavian vein...

 - brachioradialis reflex
Brachioradialis reflex
The brachioradialis reflex is observed during a neurological exam by striking the brachioradialis tendon directly with a hammer when the patient's arm is relaxing...

 - brachium conjunctivum - brachium of the inferior colliculus - brachium of the superior colliculus - brachium pontis - brachium restiformis - brain
Brain
The brain is the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals—only a few primitive invertebrates such as sponges, jellyfish, sea squirts and starfishes do not have one. It is located in the head, usually close to primary sensory apparatus such as vision, hearing,...

 - brain stem
Brain stem
In vertebrate anatomy the brainstem is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord. The brain stem provides the main motor and sensory innervation to the face and neck via the cranial nerves...

 - brainstem - branchia
Gill
A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water, afterward excreting carbon dioxide. The gills of some species such as hermit crabs have adapted to allow respiration on land provided they are kept moist...

 - branchiomeric musculature
Branchiomeric musculature
Branchiomeric muscles are striated muscles of the head and neck. Unlike skeletal muscles that developmentally come from somites, branchiomeric muscles are developmentally formed from the branchial arches....

 - breast
Breast
The breast is the upper ventral region of the torso of a primate, in left and right sides, which in a female contains the mammary gland that secretes milk used to feed infants.Both men and women develop breasts from the same embryological tissues...

 - bregma
Bregma
The bregma is the anatomical point on the skull at which the coronal suture is intersected perpendicularly by the sagittal suture.-Location:The bregma is located at the intersection of the coronal suture and the sagittal suture on the superior middle portion of the calvarium...

 - bridging veins - broad ligament of the uterus
Broad ligament of the uterus
The broad ligament of the uterus is the wide fold of peritoneum that connects the sides of the uterus to the walls and floor of the pelvis.-Subdivisions:The broad ligament may be divided into three subcomponents:...

 - Broca's area
Broca's area
Broca's area is a region of the hominid brain with functions linked to speech production.The production of language has been linked to the Broca’s area since Pierre Paul Broca reported impairments in two patients. They had lost the ability to speak after injury to the posterior inferior frontal...

 - bronchi - bronchiole
Bronchiole
The bronchioles or bronchioli are the first airway branches that no longer contain cartilage or glands in their submucosa. They are branches of the bronchi.The bronchioles terminate by entering the circular sacs called alveoli.- Structure :...

 - bronchus
Bronchus
A bronchus is a passage of airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs. The bronchus branches into smaller tubes, which in turn become bronchioles....

 - Broner - Brunner's gland - buccal fatpad - buccal membrane - buccal nerve
Buccal nerve
The buccal nerve is a nerve in the face. It is a branch of the mandibular nerve and transmits sensory information from skin over the buccal membrane and from the second and third molar teeth.-Course:It courses between the two heads of the lateral pterygoid muscle, underneath...

 - buccinator
Buccinator muscle
The buccinator is a thin quadrilateral muscle, occupying the interval between the maxilla and the mandible at the side of the face.-Action:Its purpose is to pull back the angle of the mouth and to flatten the cheek area, which aids in holding the cheek to the teeth during chewing.It aids whistling...

 - bulbospongiosus
Bulbospongiosus muscle
Bulbospongiosus is one of the superficial muscles of the perineum. It has a slightly different origin, insertion and function in males and females. In males, it covers the bulb of the penis...

 - bulbourethral gland
Bulbourethral gland
A bulbourethral gland, also called a Cowper's gland for anatomist William Cowper, is one of two small exocrine glands present in the reproductive system of human males...

 - bulbus
Bulbus
Bulbus is a genus of predatory sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Naticidae, the moon snails.-Species:Species within the genus Bulbus include:* Bulbus benthicolus Dell, 1990* Bulbus carcellesi Dell, 1990...

 - bulla - bundle of His
Bundle of His
The bundle of His, known as the AV bundle or atrioventricular bundle, is a collection of heart muscle cells specialized for electrical conduction that transmits the electrical impulses from the AV node to the point of the apex of the fascicular branches...

 - bursa
Bursa (anatomy)
A bursa is a small fluid-filled sac lined by synovial membrane with an inner capillary layer of slimy fluid . It provides a cushion between bones and tendons and/or muscles around a joint. This helps to reduce friction between the bones and allows free movement...

 - buttock

C


cafe-au-lait spots - calamus scriptorius
Rhomboid fossa
The anterior part of the fourth ventricle is named, from its shape, the rhomboid fossa, and its anterior wall, formed by the back of the pons and medulla oblongata, constitutes the floor of the fourth ventricle....

 - calcaneus - calcar
Calcar
The calcar, also known as the calcaneum , is the name given to a spur of cartilage arising from inner side of ankle and running along part of outer interfemoral membrane in bats , this is to help spread the interfemoral membrane , which is part of the wing membrane between the tail and the hind...

 - calcar avis - calcar femorale - calcarine cortex - calcarine fissure
Calcarine fissure
The calcarine fissure is an anatomical landmark located at the caudal end of the medial surface of the brain. Its name comes from the Latin "calcar" meaning "spur."-Anatomy:...

 - calcarine sulcus - calf
Calf (anatomy)
In human anatomy the calf is the back portion of the lower leg . In terms of muscle systems, the calf corresponds to the posterior compartment of the leg. Within the posterior compartment, the two largest muscles are known together as the calf muscle and attach to the heel via the Achilles tendon...

 - calix - calvaria - calyx - canal of Schlemm - canaliculus
Canaliculus (disambiguation)
A canaliculus is an anatomical term used to describe a small passageway.Examples include:*Canaliculus , a small channel found in ossified bone*Canaliculus , an adaptation found on gastric parietal cells...

 - cancellous - canine tooth
Canine tooth
In mammalian oral anatomy, the canine teeth, also called cuspids, dogteeth, fangs, or eye teeth, are relatively long, pointed teeth...

 - canthus
Canthus
The Canthus is either corner of the eye where the upper and lower eyelids meet.Canthus may also refer to:* Canthus of the eye, also called the orbital canthus* Canthus , the sides of the snout in reptiles in amphibians...

 - capillary
Capillary
Capillaries are the smallest of a body's blood vessels and are parts of the microcirculation. They are only 1 cell thick. These microvessels, measuring 5-10 μm in diameter, connect arterioles and venules, and enable the exchange of water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and many other nutrient and waste...

 - capitate - capitulum - caput
Caput
The Latin word caput, meaning literally "head" and by metonymy "top", has been borrowed in a variety of English words, including capital, captain, and decapitate...

 - caput medusae
Caput medusae
Caput medusae is the appearance of distended and engorged paraumbilical veins, which are seen radiating from the umbilicus across the abdomen to join systemic veins...

 - carapace
Carapace
A carapace is a dorsal section of the exoskeleton or shell in a number of animal groups, including arthropods such as crustaceans and arachnids, as well as vertebrates such as turtles and tortoises. In turtles and tortoises, the underside is called the plastron.-Crustaceans:In crustaceans, the...

 - cardiac - Cardiac skeleton
Cardiac skeleton
The cardiac skeleton, sometimes called the fibrous skeleton of the heart, is the structure of dense connective tissue in the heart that separates the atria from the ventricles...

 - cardiophrenic angle
Cardiophrenic angle
The cardiophrenic angle is the angle between the heart and the diaphragm, as seen on imaging . There are two cardiophrenic angles, however the one on the right is obscured by the cardiohepatic angle ....

 - cardiovascular system - carina - carotid - carotid bifurcation - carotid body
Carotid body
The carotid body is a small cluster of chemoreceptors and supporting cells located near the fork of the carotid artery ....

 - carotid canal
Carotid canal
On the interior surface of the temporal bone, behind the rough surface of the apex, is the large circular aperture of the carotid canal, which ascends at first vertically, and then, making a bend, runs horizontally forward and medialward.-Contents:...

 - carotid groove
Carotid groove
Above the attachment of each great wing of the sphenoid bone is a broad groove, curved something like the italic letter f; it lodges the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus, and is named the carotid groove....

 - carotid plexus - carotid sheath
Carotid sheath
The carotid sheath is an anatomical term for the fibrous connective tissue that surrounds the vascular compartment of the neck. It is part of the deep cervical fascia of the neck, below the superficial cervical fascia meaning the subcutaneous adipose tissue immediately beneath the skin.The deep...

 - carotid sinus
Carotid sinus
In human anatomy, the carotid sinus is a localized dilation of the internal carotid artery at its origin, the common carotid artery.-Functions:...

 - carotid siphon - carpus
Carpus
In tetrapods, the carpus is the sole cluster of bones in the wrist between the radius and ulna and the metacarpus. The bones of the carpus do not belong to individual fingers , whereas those of the metacarpus do. The corresponding part of the foot is the tarsus...

 - cartilage
Cartilage
Cartilage is a flexible connective tissue found in many areas in the bodies of humans and other animals, including the joints between bones, the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the elbow, the knee, the ankle, the bronchial tubes and the intervertebral discs...

 - caruncle - catheter
Catheter
In medicine, a catheter is a tube that can be inserted into a body cavity, duct, or vessel. Catheters thereby allow drainage, administration of fluids or gases, or access by surgical instruments. The process of inserting a catheter is catheterization...

 - cauda
Cauda
The Cauda is a characteristic feature of songs in the Conductus style of a cappella music which flourished between the mid-12th and the mid-13th century. The conductus style placed strict rules on composition, and some such rules were devoted to the cauda, which came at the penultimate syllable of...

 - cauda equina
Cauda equina
The cauda equina is a structure within the lower end of the spinal column of most vertebrates, that consists of nerve roots and rootlets from above...

 - caudal - caudate - caudate nucleus
Caudate nucleus
The caudate nucleus is a nucleus located within the basal ganglia of the brains of many animal species. The caudate nucleus is an important part of the brain's learning and memory system.-Anatomy:...

 - cava - cavernous sinus
Cavernous sinus
The cavernous sinus , within the human head, is a large collection of thin-walled veins creating a cavity bordered by the temporal bone of the skull and the sphenoid bone, lateral to the sella turcica.-Contents:...

 - cavum tympani - cavum subdurale - cecum
Cecum
The cecum or caecum is a pouch, connecting the ileum with the ascending colon of the large intestine. It is separated from the ileum by the ileocecal valve or Bauhin's valve, and is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine. It is also separated from the colon by the cecocolic...

 - celiac - celiac artery
Celiac artery
The celiac artery, also known as the celiac trunk, is the first major branch of the abdominal aorta. Branching from the aorta anterior to the upper border of L1 vertebra in humans, it is one of three anterior/ midline branches of the abdominal aorta The celiac (or coeliac) artery, also known as...

 - celiac ganglion - celiac trunk - celom
Body cavity
By the broadest definition, a body cavity is any fluid-filled space in a multicellular organism. However, the term usually refers to the space located between an animal’s outer covering and the outer lining of the gut cavity, where internal organs develop...

 - central canal
Central canal
For the engineering project, see Indiana Central Canal.The central canal is the cerebrospinal fluid-filled space that runs longitudinally through the length of the entire spinal cord. The central canal is contiguous with the ventricular system of the brain...

 - Central gelatinous substance of spinal cord - central nucleus of inferior colliculus - central retinal artery
Central retinal artery
The central retinal artery branches off the ophthalmic artery, running inferior to the optic nerve within its dural sheath to the eyeball.- Course :...

 - central sulcus
Central sulcus
-External links:* via the Neuroscience Information Framework...

 - central tegmental tract
Central tegmental tract
The central tegmental tract is a structure in the midbrain and pons.* The central tegmental tract includes ascending axonal fibers that arise from the caudal nucleus solitarius and terminate in the ventral posteromedial nucleus of thalamus...

 - centromedian nucleus
Centromedian nucleus
In the anatomy of the brain, the centromedian nucleus, also known as the centrum medianum, is a part of the intralaminar nucleus of the thalamus...

 - centrum semi - centrum semiovale - cephalic - cephalic vein
Cephalic vein
In human anatomy, the cephalic vein is a superficial vein of the upper limb.It communicates with the basilic vein via the median cubital vein at the elbow and is located in the superficial fascia along the anterolateral surface of the biceps brachii muscle.Superiorly the cephalic vein passes...

 - cerebellar peduncle - cerebellar projection - cerebellar tonsil
Cerebellar tonsil
The cerebellar tonsil is analogous to a rounded lobule on the undersurface of each cerebellar hemisphere, continuous medially with the uvula of the Cerebellar vermis and superiorly by the flocculonodular lobe Synonyms include: tonsilla cerebelli, amygdala cerebelli, the latter of which is not to...

 - cerebellopontine angle
Cerebellopontine angle
The cerebellopontine angle is a structure at the margin of the cerebellum and pons.Breast cancer can metastasize to the cerebellopontine angle.It can be a site for lipoma.It is where acoustic neuromas are usually found.-External links:...

 - cerebellorubral tract - cerebellothalamic tract
Cerebellothalamic tract
Also known as the dentatothalamic tract or the tractus cerebellothalamicus, is part of the superior cerebellar peduncle. It originates in the cerebellar nuclei, crosses completely in the decussation of the brachium conjunctivum, bypasses the red nucleus, and terminates in parts of the ventral...

 - cerebellum
Cerebellum
The cerebellum is a region of the brain that plays an important role in motor control. It may also be involved in some cognitive functions such as attention and language, and in regulating fear and pleasure responses, but its movement-related functions are the most solidly established...

 - cerebral aqueduct
Cerebral aqueduct
The mesencephalic duct, also known as the aqueductus mesencephali, aqueduct of Sylvius or the cerebral aqueduct, contains cerebrospinal fluid , is within the mesencephalon and connects the third ventricle in the diencephalon to the fourth ventricle in the mesencephalon, which is between the pons...

 - cerebral arterial circle - cerebral hemisphere
Cerebral hemisphere
A cerebral hemisphere is one of the two regions of the eutherian brain that are delineated by the median plane, . The brain can thus be described as being divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres. Each of these hemispheres has an outer layer of grey matter called the cerebral cortex that is...

 - cerebral peduncle
Cerebral peduncle
Mainly, the three common areas that give rise to the cerebral peduncles are the cortex, the spinal cord and the cerebellum. The cerebral peduncle, by most classifications, is everything in the mesencephalon except the tectum. The region includes the midbrain tegmentum, crus cerebri and pretectum...

 - cerebrospinal fluid
Cerebrospinal fluid
Cerebrospinal fluid , Liquor cerebrospinalis, is a clear, colorless, bodily fluid, that occupies the subarachnoid space and the ventricular system around and inside the brain and spinal cord...

 - cerebrum - cerumen - cervical - cervical enlargement
Cervical enlargement
The cervical enlargement corresponds with the attachments of the large nerves which supply the upper limbs.It extends from about the third cervical to the second thoracic vertebra, its maximum circumference being on a level with the attachment of the sixth pair of cervical nerves.The reason behind...

 - cervical fascia
Cervical fascia
The cervical fascia is fascia found in the region of the neck.It mainly refers to the deep cervical fascia. However, there are other cervical fascia:*superficial cervical fascia*prevertebral fascia...

 - cervical plexus
Cervical plexus
The cervical plexus is a plexus of the ventral rami of the first four cervical spinal nerves which are located from C1 to C4 cervical segment in the neck. They are located laterally to the transverse processes between prevertebral muscles from the medial side and vertebral from lateral side...

 - cervical spinal nerves - cervical spine - cervical sympathetic ganglia - cervical vertebrae
Cervical vertebrae
In vertebrates, cervical vertebrae are those vertebrae immediately inferior to the skull.Thoracic vertebrae in all mammalian species are defined as those vertebrae that also carry a pair of ribs, and lie caudal to the cervical vertebrae. Further caudally follow the lumbar vertebrae, which also...

 - cervicothoracic ganglion - cervix
Cervix
The cervix is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. It is cylindrical or conical in shape and protrudes through the upper anterior vaginal wall...

 - chaeta
Chaeta
A chaeta or cheta is a chitinous bristle or seta found on an insect, arthropod or annelid worms such as the earthworm, although the term is also frequently used to describe similar structures in other invertebrates. The plural form is chaetae or chetae.In the Polychaeta, they are located on the...

e - cheek
Cheek
Cheeks constitute the area of the face below the eyes and between the nose and the left or right ear. They may also be referred to as jowls. "Buccal" means relating to the cheek. In humans, the region is innervated by the buccal nerve...

 - chest
Chest
The chest is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals. It is sometimes referred to as the thorax or the bosom.-Chest anatomy - Humans and other hominids:...

 - Cheyne-Stokes respiration
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
Cheyne-Stokes respiration is an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by progressively deeper and sometimes faster breathing, followed by a gradual decrease that results in a temporary stop in breathing called an apnea. The pattern repeats, with each cycle usually taking 30 seconds to 2...

 - chiasma - chiasmatic sulcus - choanae - chorda tympani
Chorda tympani
The chorda tympani is a nerve that branches from the facial nerve inside the facial canal, just before the facial nerve exits the skull via the Stylomastoid foramen...

 - Chorionic villi
Chorionic villi
Chorionic villi are villi that sprout from the chorion in order to give a maximum area of contact with the maternal blood.Embryonic blood is carried to the villi by the branches of the umbilical arteries, and after circulating through the capillaries of the villi, is returned to the embryo by the...

 - choroid
Choroid
The choroid, also known as the choroidea or choroid coat, is the vascular layer of the eye, containing connective tissue, and lying between the retina and the sclera. The human choroid is thickest at the far extreme rear of the eye , while in the outlying areas it narrows to 0.1 mm...

 - choroid plexus
Choroid plexus
The choroid plexus is a structure in the ventricles of the brain where cerebrospinal fluid is produced...

 - chyle
Chyle
Chyle is a milky bodily fluid consisting of lymph and emulsified fats, or free fatty acids . It is formed in the small intestine during digestion of fatty foods, and taken up by lymph vessels specifically known as lacteals...

 - ciliary arteries
Ciliary arteries
The ciliary arteries are divisible into three groups, the long posterior, short posterior, and the anterior.* The short posterior ciliary arteries from six to twelve in number, arise from the ophthalmic as it crosses the optic nerve....

 - ciliary body
Ciliary body
The ciliary body is the circumferential tissue inside the eye composed of the ciliary muscle and ciliary processes. It is triangular in horizontal section and is coated by a double layer, the ciliary epithelium. This epithelium produces the aqueous humor. The inner layer is transparent and covers...

 - ciliary ganglion
Ciliary ganglion
The ciliary ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion located in the posterior orbit. It measures 1–2 millimeters in diameter and contains approximately 2,500 neurons. Preganglionic axons from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus travel along the oculomotor nerve and form synapses with these cells...

 - ciliary muscle
Ciliary muscle
The ciliary muscle is a ring of striated smooth muscle in the eye's middle layer that controls accommodation for viewing objects at varying distances and regulates the flow of aqueous humour into Schlemm's canal. It changes the shape of the lens within the eye not the size of the pupil which is...

 - ciliary nerves - ciliospinal reflex
Ciliospinal reflex
The ciliospinal reflex consists of dilation of the ipsilateral pupil in response to pain applied to the neck, face, and upper trunk. If the right side of the neck is subjected to a painful stimulus, the right pupil dilates . This reflex is absent in Horner's syndrome and lesions involving the...

 - cilium
Cilium
A cilium is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Cilia are slender protuberances that project from the much larger cell body....

 - cingulate gyrus - cingulum - circle of Willis
Circle of Willis
The Circle of Willis is a circle of arteries that supply blood to the brain...

 - circulatory system
Circulatory system
The circulatory system is an organ system that passes nutrients , gases, hormones, blood cells, etc...

 - circumflex artery - cisterna
Cisterna
A cisterna comprises a flattened membrane disk that makes up the Golgi apparatus. A typical Golgi has anywhere from 3 to 7 cisternae stacked upon each other like a stack of dinner plates, but there are usually around 6...

 - cisterna chyli
Cisterna chyli
The cisterna chyli is a dilated sac at the lower end of the thoracic duct into which lymph from the intestinal trunk and two lumbar lymphatic trunks flow.-Flow of lymph:...

 - cisterna magna
Cisterna magna
The cisterna magna is one of three principal openings in the subarachnoid space between the arachnoid and pia mater layers of the meninges surrounding the brain. The openings are collectively referred to as cisterns. The cisterna magna is located between the cerebellum and the dorsal surface of...

 - Clarke's column nucleus - claustrum
Claustrum
The claustrum, which is suspected to be present in all mammals, is a fairly thin vertical curved sheet of subcortical gray matter...

 - clava - clavicle
Clavicle
In human anatomy, the clavicle or collar bone is a long bone of short length that serves as a strut between the scapula and the sternum. It is the only long bone in body that lies horizontally...

 - climbing fiber
Climbing fiber
Climbing fibers are the name given to a series of neuronal projections from the inferior olivary nucleus located in the medulla oblongata.These axons pass through the pons and enter the cerebellum via the inferior cerebellar peduncle where they form synapses with the deep cerebellar nuclei and...

 - clinoid - clitoris
Clitoris
The clitoris is a sexual organ that is present only in female mammals. In humans, the visible button-like portion is located near the anterior junction of the labia minora, above the opening of the urethra and vagina. Unlike the penis, which is homologous to the clitoris, the clitoris does not...

 - clivus
Clivus (anatomy)
The clivus is a part of the cranium, a shallow depression behind the dorsum sellæ that slopes obliquely backward. It forms a gradual sloping process at the anterior most portion of the basilar occipital bone at its junction with the sphenoid bone. On axial planes, it sits just posterior to the...

 - cloaca
Cloaca
In zoological anatomy, a cloaca is the posterior opening that serves as the only such opening for the intestinal, reproductive, and urinary tracts of certain animal species...

 - clonus
Clonus
Clonus is a series of involuntary muscular contractions and relaxations. Clonus is a sign of certain neurological conditions, and is particularly associated with upper motor neuron lesions such as in stroke, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord damage and hepatic encephalopathy...

 - coccyx
Coccyx
The coccyx , commonly referred to as the tailbone, is the final segment of the vertebral column. Comprising three to five separate or fused vertebrae below the sacrum, it is attached to the sacrum by a fibrocartilaginous joint, the sacrococcygeal symphysis, which permits limited movement between...

 - cochlea
Cochlea
The cochlea is the auditory portion of the inner ear. It is a spiral-shaped cavity in the bony labyrinth, making 2.5 turns around its axis, the modiolus....

 - cochlear duct - cochlear nerve
Cochlear nerve
The cochlear nerve is a nerve in the head that carries signals from the cochlea of the inner ear to the brain...

 - coeliac - coelom
Body cavity
By the broadest definition, a body cavity is any fluid-filled space in a multicellular organism. However, the term usually refers to the space located between an animal’s outer covering and the outer lining of the gut cavity, where internal organs develop...

 - coeruleus - collar bone - collateral eminence
Collateral eminence
The collateral eminence is an elongated swelling lying lateral to and parallel with the hippocampus.It corresponds with the medial part of the collateral fissure, and its size depends on the depth and direction of this fissure....

 - collateral fissure
Collateral fissure
The collateral fissure is on the tentorial surface of the hemisphere and extends from near the occipital pole to within a short distance of the temporal pole....

 - collateral trigone - colliculus - collum
Collum
Collum is a surname, and may refer to:*Hugh Collum , British businessman*Jackie Collum , American Major League Baseball pitcher*Jason Paul Collum , American film maker*John Collum , American child actor...

 - colon
Colon (anatomy)
The colon is the last part of the digestive system in most vertebrates; it extracts water and salt from solid wastes before they are eliminated from the body, and is the site in which flora-aided fermentation of unabsorbed material occurs. Unlike the small intestine, the colon does not play a...

 - columns of the fornix - commissure
Commissure
A commissure is the place where two things are joined. The term is used especially in the fields of anatomy and biology.In anatomy, commissure refers to a bundle of nerve fibers that cross the midline at their level of origin or entry .* The most common usage of the term refers to the brain's...

 - common carotid artery
Common carotid artery
In human anatomy, the common carotid artery is an artery that supplies the head and neck with oxygenated blood; it divides in the neck to form the external and internal carotid arteries. - Structure :...

 - common facial vein
Common facial vein
The anterior facial vein usually unites with the posterior facial vein to form the common facial vein, which crosses the external carotid artery and enters the internal jugular vein at a variable point below the hyoid bone....

 - communicating veins - comparative anatomy
Comparative anatomy
Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of organisms. It is closely related to evolutionary biology and phylogeny .-Description:...

 - conchae
Turbinate
In anatomy, a nasal concha is a long, narrow and curled bone shelf that protrudes into the breathing passage of the nose...

 - condylar process of mandible - condyle - cone cell
Cone cell
Cone cells, or cones, are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that are responsible for color vision; they function best in relatively bright light, as opposed to rod cells that work better in dim light. If the retina is exposed to an intense visual stimulus, a negative afterimage will be...

 - confluence of the sinuses - conjoint tendon
Conjoint tendon
The conjoint tendon is a structure formed from the lower part transversus abdominis muscle as it inserts into the crest of the pubis and pectineal line immediately behind the superficial inguinal ring. It is usually conjoint with the tendon of the abdominal internal oblique muscle, but they may be...

 - conjugate eye movement
Conjugate eye movement
Conjugate eye movement refers to motor coordination of the eyes that allows for bilateral fixation on a single object. Several centers in the brainstem are involved. Horizontal conjugate gaze is controlled by the nuclei of CN III and CN VI, the paramedian pontine reticular formation, and the...

 - conjunctiva
Conjunctiva
The conjunctiva covers the sclera and lines the inside of the eyelids. It is composed of rare stratified columnar epithelium.-Function:...

 - connective tissue
Connective tissue
"Connective tissue" is a fibrous tissue. It is one of the four traditional classes of tissues . Connective Tissue is found throughout the body.In fact the whole framework of the skeleton and the different specialized connective tissues from the crown of the head to the toes determine the form of...

 - conoid
Conoid
In geometry, a conoid is a Catalan surface all of whose rulings intersect a fixed line, called the axis of the conoid. If all its rulings are perpendicular to its axis, then the conoid is called a right conoid....

 - consensual reflex - constrictor - contralateral - conus elasticus
Conus elasticus
The conus elasticus is the lateral portion of the cricothyroid ligament.The lateral portions are thinner and lie close under the mucous membrane of the larynx; they extend from the superior border of the cricoid cartilage to the inferior margin of the vocal ligaments, with which they are...

 - conus medullaris
Conus medullaris
The conus medullaris is the terminal end of the spinal cord. It occurs near lumbar vertebral levels 1 and 2 . After the spinal cord tapers out, the spinal nerves continue as dangling nerve roots called cauda equina. This terminal nerve root tail is referred to as the filum terminale...

 - Coracobrachialis muscle
Coracobrachialis muscle
The Coracobrachialis is the smallest of the three muscles that attach to the coracoid process of the scapula. It is situated at the upper and medial part of the arm....

 coracoid - coracoid process - cordotomy
Cordotomy
Cordotomy is a surgical procedure that disables selected pain-conducting tracts in the spinal cord, in order to achieve loss of pain and temperature perception. This procedure is commonly performed on patients experiencing severe pain due to cancer or other diseases for which there is currently no...

 - cornea
Cornea
The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber. Together with the lens, the cornea refracts light, with the cornea accounting for approximately two-thirds of the eye's total optical power. In humans, the refractive power of the cornea is...

 - corneal reflex
Corneal reflex
The corneal reflex, also known as the blink reflex, is an involuntary blinking of the eyelids elicited by stimulation of the cornea , or bright light, though could result from any peripheral stimulus. Stimulation should elicit both a direct and consensual response...

 - corniculate
Corniculate
Corniculate, an Anglicisation of the Latin diminutives corniculata, corniculatum, and corniculatus, describes an object possessing hornlike extensions. The root is Latin cornu = "horn". The term is used to describe the shape of the corniculate cartilages of the larynx...

 - cornu - corona - corona radiata
Corona radiata
In neuroanatomy, the corona radiata is a white matter sheet that continues caudally as the internal capsule and rostrally as the centrum semiovale. This sheet of axons contains both descending and ascending axons that carry nearly all of the neural traffic from and to the cerebral cortex...

 - coronal plane - coronal suture
Coronal suture
The coronal suture is a dense, fibrous connective tissue joint that separates the frontal and parietal bones of the skull. At birth, the bones of the skull do not meet.-Pathology:...

 - coronal view - coronary - coronary arteries - coronary sinus
Coronary sinus
The coronary sinus is a collection of veins joined together to form a large vessel that collects blood from the myocardium of the heart. It is present in all mammals, including humans...

 - coronoid - coronoid process - corpora quadrigemina
Corpora quadrigemina
In the brain, the corpora quadrigemina are the four colliculi—two inferior, two superior—located on the tectum of the dorsal aspect of the midbrain.They are respectively named the inferior and superior colliculus....

 - corpus albicans
Corpus albicans
The corpus albicans is the regressed form of the corpus luteum. As the corpus luteum is being broken down by macrophages, fibroblasts lay down type I collagen, forming the corpus albicans. This process is called "luteolysis". The remains of the corpus albicans may persist as a scar on the surface...

 - corpus callosum
Corpus callosum
The corpus callosum , also known as the colossal commissure, is a wide, flat bundle of neural fibers beneath the cortex in the eutherian brain at the longitudinal fissure. It connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres and facilitates interhemispheric communication...

 - corpus striatum - corpuscle - corrugator - cortex
Cortex (anatomy)
In anatomy and zoology the cortex is the outermost layer of an organ. Organs with well-defined cortical layers include kidneys, adrenal glands, ovaries, the thymus, and portions of the brain, including the cerebral cortex, the most well-known of all cortices.The cerebellar cortex is the thin gray...

 - corticobulbar axons - corticomedial amygdala - corticopontine fibers
Corticopontine fibers
Corticopontine fibers are projections from the cerebral cortex to the pontine nuclei.Depending upon the lobe of origin, they can be classified as frontopontine fibers, parietopontine fibers, temporopontine fibers and occipitopontine fibers....

 - corticospinal tract
Corticospinal tract
The corticospinal or pyramidal tract is a collection of axons that travel between the cerebral cortex of the brain and the spinal cord....

 - corticostriate fiber - costal cartilages
Costal cartilages
The costal cartilages are bars of hyaline cartilage which serve to prolong the ribs forward and contribute very materially to the elasticity of the walls of the thorax.-Differences from 1-12:...

 - costal margin
Costal margin
The costal margin, sometimes referred to as the costal arch, is the medial margin formed by the false ribs and one true rib -- specifically, from the seventh rib to the tenth rib....

 - costophrenic angle
Costophrenic angle
In anatomy, the costophrenic angles are the places where the diaphragm meet the ribs .Each costophrenic angle can normally be seen as on chest x-ray as a sharply-pointed, downward indentation between each hemi-diaphragm and the adjacent chest wall . A small portion of each lung normally reaches...

 - Cowper's gland
Bulbourethral gland
A bulbourethral gland, also called a Cowper's gland for anatomist William Cowper, is one of two small exocrine glands present in the reproductive system of human males...

 - coxae - cranial
Human skull
The human skull is a bony structure, skeleton, that is in the human head and which supports the structures of the face and forms a cavity for the brain.In humans, the adult skull is normally made up of 22 bones...

 - cranial autonomic ganglia - cranial bone
Human skull
The human skull is a bony structure, skeleton, that is in the human head and which supports the structures of the face and forms a cavity for the brain.In humans, the adult skull is normally made up of 22 bones...

 - cranial nerve ganglia
Cranial nerve ganglia
In neuroanatomy, the cranial nerve ganglia are sensory ganglia of the cranial nerves. The dorsal root ganglia are the corresponding structures of the spinal nerves....

 - cranial nerve lesion - cranial nerve nuclei - cranial nerves
Cranial nerves
Cranial nerves are nerves that emerge directly from the brain, in contrast to spinal nerves, which emerge from segments of the spinal cord. In humans, there are traditionally twelve pairs of cranial nerves...

 - cranium - cremaster
Cremaster muscle
-Contraction:Its function is to raise and lower the testes in order to regulate the temperature of the testes and promote spermatogenesis. Contraction may also occur during arousal which can prevent injury to the testicles during sex....

 - cribriform - cribriform plate
Cribriform plate
The cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone is received into the ethmoidal notch of the frontal bone and roofs in the nasal cavities....

 - cricoarytenoid ligament
Cricoarytenoid ligament
The Cricoarytenoid ligament extends from the lamina of the cricoid cartilage to the medial surface of the base and muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage....

 - cricoarytenoid muscle
Cricoarytenoid muscle
Cricoarytenoid muscles are muscles that connect the cricoid cartilage and arytenoid cartilage.More specifically, it can refer to:* Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle* Lateral cricoarytenoid muscle...

 - cricoid
Cricoid
The cricoid cartilage, or simply cricoid , is the only complete ring of cartilage around the trachea.-Location:...

 - cricoid cartilage - cricothyroid joint - cricothyroid ligament
Cricothyroid ligament
The cricothyroid ligament is the larger part of the laryngeal membrane, continuing inferiorly as a median or anterior part and twin lateral ligaments....

 - cricothyroid muscle
Cricothyroid muscle
The cricothyroid muscle is the only tensor muscle of the larynx, aiding with phonation. It attaches to the anterolateral aspect of the cricoid and the inferior cornu and lower lamina of the thyroid cartilage, and its action tilts the thyroid forward to help tense the vocal cords...

 - crista
Crista
Cristae are the internal compartments formed by the inner membrane of a mitochondrion. They are studded with proteins, including ATP synthase and a variety of cytochromes. The maximum surface for chemical reactions to occur is within the mitochondria...

 - crista galli
Crista galli
The crista galli is a median ridge of bone that projects from the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone.It is where the falx cerebri attaches anteriorly to the skull....

 - crossed extensor reflex
Crossed extensor reflex
The crossed extensor reflex is a withdrawal reflex.When the reflex occurs the flexors in the withdrawing limb contract and the extensors relax, while in the other limb, the opposite occurs...

 - cruciform ligament - crus - crus cerebri - crus of the diaphragm - cubital - cuboid - culmen
Culmen (cerebellum)
The culmen is the portion of the anterior vermis adjacent to the primary fissure of cerebellum.The culmen and the anterior parts of the quadrangular lobules form the lobus culminis.-External links:* http://www.ib.amwaw.edu.pl/anatomy/atlas/image_11e.htm...

 - cuneate - cuneate fasciculus - cuneate nucleus
Cuneate nucleus
One of the dorsal column nuclei, the cuneate nucleus is a wedge-shaped nucleus in the closed part of the medulla oblongata. It contains cells that give rise to the cuneate tubercle, visible on the posterior aspect of the medulla...

 - cuneate tubercle - cuneiforms
Cuneiform (anatomy)
There are three cuneiform bones in the human foot:* the medial cuneiform* the intermediate cuneiform also known as the middle* the lateral cuneiform...

 - cuneocerebellar fibers - cuneus
Cuneus
The cuneus is a portion of the human brain in the occipital lobe.The cuneus receives visual information from the contralateral superior retina representing the inferior visual field. It is most known for its involvement in basic visual processing. Pyramidal cells in the cuneus project to...

 - cupula - cusp - cutaneous - cyst
Cyst
A cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division on the nearby tissue. It may contain air, fluids, or semi-solid material. A collection of pus is called an abscess, not a cyst. Once formed, a cyst could go away on its own or may have to be removed through surgery.- Locations :* Acne...

 - cystic duct
Cystic duct
The cystic duct is the short duct that joins the gall bladder to the common bile duct. It usually lies next to the cystic artery. It is of variable length...

 - cystogram

D


dartos
Dartos
The dartos fascia is a fat-free layer of smooth muscular fiber outside the external spermatic fascia but below the skin. It is a continuation of Scarpa's fascia, which is a membranous layer of the subcutaneous tissue in the abdominal wall...

 - DCML
Posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway
The posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway is the sensory pathway responsible for transmitting fine touch, vibration and conscious proprioceptive information from the body to the cerebral cortex; as well as tactile pressure, barognosis, graphesthesia, stereognosis, recognition...

 - decerebrate response - declive - decomposition of movement - decorticate response - deep cerebellar nuclei
Deep cerebellar nuclei
The Cerebellum has four deep cerebellar nuclei embedded in the white matter in its center.-Inputs:These nuclei receive inhibitory inputs from Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex and excitatory inputs from mossy fiber and climbing fiber pathways. Most output fibers of the cerebellum originate...

 - deep lingual artery
Deep lingual artery
The deep lingual artery is the terminal portion of the lingual artery after the sublingual artery is given off.As seen in the picture, it travels superiorly in a tortuous course along the under surface of the tongue, below the Longitudinalis inferior, and above the mucous membrane.It lies on the...

 - deglutition - deltoid
Deltoid muscle
In human anatomy, the deltoid muscle is the muscle forming the rounded contour of the shoulder. Anatomically, it appears to be made up of three distinct sets of fibers though electromyography suggests that it consists of at least seven groups that can be independently coordinated by the central...

 - deltopectoral triangle - demyelination - dendrite
Dendrite
Dendrites are the branched projections of a neuron that act to conduct the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project...

 - dendritic spine
Dendritic spine
A dendritic spine is a small membranous protrusion from a neuron's dendrite that typically receives input from a single synapse of an axon. Dendritic spines serve as a storage site for synaptic strength and help transmit electrical signals to the neuron's cell body...

 - dens - dental alveolus
Dental alveolus
Dental alveolus are sockets in the jaws in which the roots of teeth are held in the alveolar process of maxilla with the periodontal ligament. The lay term for dental alveoli is tooth sockets...

 - dental caries - dental formula
Dentition
Dentition pertains to the development of teeth and their arrangement in the mouth. In particular, the characteristic arrangement, kind, and number of teeth in a given species at a given age...

 - dental pulp - dentate gyrus
Dentate gyrus
The dentate gyrus is part of the hippocampal formation. It is thought to contribute to new memories as well as other functional roles. It is notable as being one of a select few brain structures currently known to have high rates of neurogenesis in adult rats, .The dentate gyrus cells receive...

 - dentate nucleus
Dentate nucleus
The dentate nucleus is located within the deep white matter of each cerebellar hemisphere, and it is the largest single structure linking the cerebellum to the rest of the brain. It is the largest and most lateral, or farthest from the midline, of the four pairs of deep cerebellar nuclei, the...

 - dentatothalamic tract
Dentatothalamic tract
The dentatothalamic tract is a tract which connects the dentate nucleus and the thalamus while sending collaterals to the red nucleus....

 - denticulate ligament - dentine - dentition
Dentition
Dentition pertains to the development of teeth and their arrangement in the mouth. In particular, the characteristic arrangement, kind, and number of teeth in a given species at a given age...

 - depressor anguli oris muscle
Depressor anguli oris muscle
The Depressor anguli oris arises from the oblique line of the mandible, whence its fibres converge, to be inserted, by a narrow fasciculus, into the angle of the mouth.-Anatomy:...

 - dermatoglyphics
Dermatoglyphics
Dermatoglyphics is the scientific study of fingerprints. The term was coined by Dr. Harold Cummins, the father of American fingerprint analysis, even though the process of fingerprint identification had already been in use for several hundred years. All primates have ridged skin...

 - dermatome - dermis
Dermis
The dermis is a layer of skin between the epidermis and subcutaneous tissues, and is composed of two layers, the papillary and reticular dermis...

 - descendens cervicalis - descending aorta
Descending aorta
The descending aorta is part of the aorta, the largest artery in the body. The descending aorta is the part of the aorta beginning at the aortic arch that runs down through the chest and abdomen. The descending aorta is divided into two portions, the thoracic and abdominal, in correspondence with...

 - descending duodenum - detrusor - deviated septum
Deviated septum
Nasal septum deviation is a common physical disorder of the nose, involving a displacement of the nasal septum.-Causes:It is most frequently caused by impact trauma, such as by a blow to the face. It can also be a congenital disorder, caused by compression of the nose during childbirth...

 - diagonal band - diagonal band of Broca
Diagonal band of Broca
The diagonal band of Broca forms the medial margin of the anterior perforated substance.-Contents:It consists of fibers that are said to arise in the parolfactory area, the gyrus subcallosus and the anterior perforated substance, and course backward in the longitudinal striae to the dentate gyrus...

 - diaphragm - diaphragma sellae
Diaphragma sellae
The diaphragma sellae or sellar diaphragm is the circular fold of dura mater that almost completely roofs the fossa hypophyseos of the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone within the skull. It retains the pituitary gland in the fossa hypophyseos, with only the infundibulum of the pituitary gland...

 - diaphragmatic recess - diaphysis
Diaphysis
The diaphysis is the main or mid section of a long bone. It is made up of cortical bone and usually contains bone marrow and adipose tissue ....

 - diastole
Diastole
Diastole is the period of time when the heart fills with blood after systole . Ventricular diastole is the period during which the ventricles are relaxing, while atrial diastole is the period during which the atria are relaxing...

 - diencephalon
Diencephalon
The diencephalon is the region of the vertebrate neural tube which gives rise to posterior forebrain structures. In development, the forebrain develops from the prosencephalon, the most anterior vesicle of the neural tube which later forms both the diencephalon and the...

 - digastric fossa - digastric muscle
Digastric muscle
The digastric muscle is a small muscle located under the jaw. so digastric muscles are muscle fibers in ligament of treitz ,omohyoid , occipitofrontalis....

 - digastric triangle - digestive system - diplopia
Diplopia
Diplopia, commonly known as double vision, is the simultaneous perception of two images of a single object that may be displaced horizontally, vertically, or diagonally in relation to each other...

 - diploë
Diploë
Diploë refers to the spongy bone structure of the internal part of short, irregular, and flat bones.In the cranial bones, the layers of compact tissue are familiarly known as the tables of the skull; the outer one is thick and tough; the inner is thin, dense, and brittle, and hence is termed the...

 - dislocation
Dislocation (medicine)
Joint dislocation, or luxation , occurs when bones in a joint become displaced or misaligned. It is often caused by a sudden impact to the joint. The ligaments always become damaged as a result of a dislocation...

 - dissection
Dissection
Dissection is usually the process of disassembling and observing something to determine its internal structure and as an aid to discerning the functions and relationships of its components....

 - distal - diverticulum
Diverticulum
A diverticulum is medical or biological term for an outpouching of a hollow structure in the body. Depending upon which layers of the structure are involved, they are described as being either true or false....

 - doll's eyes phenomenon - dorsal
Dorsum (biology)
In anatomy, the dorsum is the upper side of animals that typically run, fly, or swim in a horizontal position, and the back side of animals that walk upright. In vertebrates the dorsum contains the backbone. The term dorsal refers to anatomical structures that are either situated toward or grow...

 - dorsal cochlear nucleus
Dorsal cochlear nucleus
The dorsal cochlear nucleus , is a cortex-like structure on the dorso-lateral surface of the brainstem...

 - dorsal column - dorsal column nuclei
Dorsal column nuclei
In neuroanatomy, the dorsal column nuclei are a pair of nuclei in the brainstem. The name refers collectively to the cuneate nucleus and gracile nucleus, which are present at the junction between the spinal cord and the medulla oblongata...

 - dorsal funiculus - dorsal horn - dorsal root
Dorsal root
In anatomy and neurology, the dorsal root is the afferentsensory root of a spinal nerve.At the distal end of the dorsal root is the dorsal root ganglion, which contains the neuron cell bodies of the nerve fibres conveyed by the root.If the dorsal root of a spinal nerve were severed it would lead...

 - dorsal root ganglion
Dorsal root ganglion
In anatomy and neuroscience, a dorsal root ganglion is a nodule on a dorsal root that contains cell bodies of neurons in afferent spinal nerves.-Unique unipolar structure:...

 - dorsal spinocerebellar tract
Dorsal spinocerebellar tract
The dorsal spinocerebellar tract conveys inconscient proprioceptive information from the body to the cerebellum....

 - dorsal trigeminothalamic tract - dorsolateral fasciculus - dorsomedial nucleus of thalamus - dorsum sellae
Dorsum sellae
In the sphenoid bone, the anterior boundary of the sella turcica is completed by two small eminences, one on either side, called the middle clinoid processes, while the posterior boundary is formed by a square-shaped plate of bone, the dorsum sellæ, ending at its superior angles in two tubercles,...

 - dowager's hump
Kyphosis
Kyphosis , also called roundback or Kelso's hunchback, is a condition of over-curvature of the thoracic vertebrae...

 - ductless gland
Ductless gland
Ductless glands are glands that secrete their product directly onto a surface rather than through a duct. Examples are the goblet cells in the epithelial surface of the digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive systems...

 - ductus - ductus deferens - duodenum
Duodenum
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds. In fish, the divisions of the small intestine are not as clear and the terms anterior intestine or proximal intestine may be used instead of duodenum...

 - dura mater
Dura mater
The dura mater , or dura, is the outermost of the three layers of the meninges surrounding the brain and spinal cord. It is derived from Mesoderm. The other two meningeal layers are the pia mater and the arachnoid mater. The dura surrounds the brain and the spinal cord and is responsible for...

 - dural septae - dural venous sinus

E


ear
Ear
The ear is the organ that detects sound. It not only receives sound, but also aids in balance and body position. The ear is part of the auditory system....

 - eardrum
Eardrum
The eardrum, or tympanic membrane, is a thin membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear in humans and other tetrapods. Its function is to transmit sound from the air to the ossicles inside the middle ear. The malleus bone bridges the gap between the eardrum and the other ossicles...

 - ectopia - Edinger-Westphal nucleus
Edinger-Westphal nucleus
The Edinger-Westphal nucleus is the accessory parasympathetic cranial nerve nucleus of the oculomotor nerve , supplying the constricting muscles of the iris...

 - efferent ducts
Efferent ducts
The efferent ducts connect the rete testis with the initial section of the epididymis.There are two basic designs for efferent ductule structure:...

 - efferent nerve fiber - efferent limb - ejaculatory duct
Ejaculatory duct
-Anatomy:The ejaculatory ducts are paired structures in male anatomy. Each ejaculatory duct is formed by the union of the vas deferens with the duct of the seminal vesicle. They pass through the prostate, and open into the urethra at the Colliculus seminalis...

 - elbow - electrical conduction system of the heart
Electrical conduction system of the heart
The normal intrinsic electrical conduction of the heart allows electrical propagation to be transmitted from the Sinoatrial Node through both atria and forward to the Atrioventricular Node. Normal/baseline physiology allows further propagation from the AV node to the ventricle or Purkinje Fibers...

 - emboliform nucleus
Emboliform nucleus
The emboliform nucleus lies immediately to the medial side of the nucleus dentatus, and partly covering its hilus. It is one among the four pairs of cerebellar nuclei, which are from lateral to medial: the dentate, interposed , and fastigial nuclei...

 - embolus
Embolism
In medicine, an embolism is the event of lodging of an embolus into a narrow capillary vessel of an arterial bed which causes a blockage in a distant part of the body.Embolization is...

 - embryo
Embryo
An embryo is a multicellular diploid eukaryote in its earliest stage of development, from the time of first cell division until birth, hatching, or germination...

 - embryonic yolk stalk - emissary veins
Emissary veins
The emissary veins are valveless veins which normally drain external veins of the skull into the dural venous sinuses. However, because they are valveless, pus can flow into the skull through them as well, making them a possible route for transmission of extracranial infection to get into the...

 - enamel
Tooth enamel
Tooth enamel, along with dentin, cementum, and dental pulp is one of the four major tissues that make up the tooth in vertebrates. It is the hardest and most highly mineralized substance in the human body. Tooth enamel is also found in the dermal denticles of sharks...

 - encephalon - encephalopathy
Encephalopathy
Encephalopathy means disorder or disease of the brain. In modern usage, encephalopathy does not refer to a single disease, but rather to a syndrome of global brain dysfunction; this syndrome can be caused by many different illnesses.-Terminology:...

 - endocardium
Endocardium
The endocardium is the innermost layer of tissue that lines the chambers of the heart. Its cells are embryologically and biologically similar to the endothelial cells that line blood vessels....

 - endocranium
Endocranium
For internal cast of the cranium, see Endocast.The endocranium in comparative anatomy is a part of the skull base in vertebrates and represent the basal, inner part of the cranium. The term is also applied to the outer layer of the dura mater in human anatomy.-Basic structure:Structurally, the...

 - endocrine gland - endocrine system
Endocrine system
In physiology, the endocrine system is a system of glands, each of which secretes a type of hormone directly into the bloodstream to regulate the body. The endocrine system is in contrast to the exocrine system, which secretes its chemicals using ducts. It derives from the Greek words "endo"...

 - endoderm - endolymph
Endolymph
Endolymph is the fluid contained in the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear. It is also called Scarpa's fluid, after Antonio Scarpa.-Composition:...

 - endometrium
Endometrium
-Function:The endometrium is the innermost glandular layer and functions as a lining for the uterus, preventing adhesions between the opposed walls of the myometrium, thereby maintaining the patency of the uterine cavity. During the menstrual cycle or estrous cycle, the endometrium grows to a...

 - endoneurium
Endoneurium
The endoneurium, also referred to as an endoneurial channel, sheath or tube, is a layer of delicate connective tissue made up of endoneurial cells that encloses the myelin sheath of a spinal cord nerve fiber. These are bundled up into groups called nerve fascicles, which have a protective sheath...

 - endorphin
Endorphin
Endorphins are endogenous opioid peptides that function as neurotransmitters. They are produced by the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus in vertebrates during exercise, excitement, pain, consumption of spicy food, love and orgasm, and they resemble the opiates in their abilities to produce...

 - endothelium
Endothelium
The endothelium is the thin layer of cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. These cells are called endothelial cells. Endothelial cells line the entire circulatory system, from the heart...

 - enkephalin
Enkephalin
An enkephalin is a pentapeptide involved in regulating nociception in the body. The enkephalins are termed endogenous ligands, or specifically endorphins, as they are internally derived and bind to the body's opioid receptors. Discovered in 1975, two forms of enkephalin were revealed, one...

 - entorhinal cortex
Entorhinal cortex
The entorhinal cortex is located in the medial temporal lobe and functions as a hub in a widespread network for memory and navigation. The EC is the main interface between the hippocampus and neocortex...

 - ependyma
Ependyma
Ependyma is the thin epithelial membrane lining the ventricular system of the brain and the spinal cord. Ependyma is one of the four types of neuroglia in the central nervous system. It is involved in the production of cerebrospinal fluid ....

 - epicanthus - epicardium
Epicardium
Epicardium describes the outer layer of heart tissue . When considered as a part of the pericardium, it is the inner layer, or visceral pericardium, continuous with the serous layer....

 - epicondyle
Epicondyle
Epicondyle may refer to:...

 - epicranial aponeurosis - epidermis - epididymis
Epididymis
The epididymis is part of the male reproductive system and is present in all male amniotes. It is a narrow, tightly-coiled tube connecting the efferent ducts from the rear of each testicle to its vas deferens. A similar, but probably non-homologous, structure is found in cartilaginous...

 - epidural hematoma
Epidural hematoma
Epidural or extradural hematoma is a type of traumatic brain injury in which a buildup of blood occurs between the dura mater and the skull. The dura mater also covers the spine, so epidural bleeds may also occur in the spinal column...

 - epidural space
Epidural space
In the spine, the epidural space is the outermost part of the spinal canal. It is the space within the canal lying outside the dura mater...

 - epigastrium
Epigastrium
The epigastrium is the upper central region of the abdomen. It is located between the costal margins and the subcostal plane....

 - epiglottic cartilage - epiglottis
Epiglottis
The epiglottis is a flap that is made of elastic cartilage tissue covered with a mucous membrane, attached to the entrance of the larynx. It projects obliquely upwards behind the tongue and the hyoid bone, pointing dorsally. The term, like tonsils, is often incorrectly used to refer to the uvula...

 - epimysium
Epimysium
Epimysium is a layer of connective tissue, which ensheaths the entire muscle. It is composed of dense irregular connective tissue. It is continuous with fascia and other connective tissue wrappings of muscle including the endomysium, and perimysium. It is also continuous with tendons where it...

 - epineurium
Neurolemma
Neurolemma is the outermost nucleated cytoplasmic layer of Schwann cells that surrounds the axon of the neuron. It forms the outermost layer of the nerve fiber in the peripheral nervous system....

 - epiphyseal growth plates - epiphysis
Epiphysis
The epiphysis is the rounded end of a long bone, at its joint with adjacent bone. Between the epiphysis and diaphysis lies the metaphysis, including the epiphyseal plate...

 - epiploic foramen - epithalamus
Epithalamus
The epithalamus is a dorsal posterior segment of the diencephalon which includes the habenula, the stria medullaris and the pineal body...

 - epithelium
Epithelium
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue. Epithelial tissues line the cavities and surfaces of structures throughout the body, and also form many glands. Functions of epithelial cells include secretion, selective...

 - epitympanic recess
Epitympanic recess
The epitympanic recess is a hollow located on the superior/roof aspect of the middle ear.-Clinical significance:This recess is a possible route of spread of infection to the mastoid air cells located in the mastoid process of the temporal bone of the skull. Inflammation which has spread to the...

 - erector spinae
Erector spinae
The Erector spinæ is a muscle group of the back in humans and animals. It is also known as sacrospinalis in older texts. A more modern term is extensor spinae, though this is not in widespread use. The name of the muscle is pronounced e-rec-tor speen-aye, or e-rec-tor spinae-ee.It is really not...

 - esophageal plexus
Esophageal plexus
The esophageal plexus is formed by fibers from two sources: 1.branches of the vagus nerve 2.visceral branches of the sympathetic trunk. The esophageal plexus and the cardiac plexus contain the same types of fibers and are both considered thoracic autonomic plexus.-Parasympathetic Fibers:1. The...

 - esophageal sphincter - esophagus
Esophagus
The esophagus is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. During swallowing, food passes from the mouth through the pharynx into the esophagus and travels via peristalsis to the stomach...

 - essential tremor
Essential tremor
Essential tremor is a slowly progressive neurological disorder whose most recognizable feature is a tremor of the arms that is apparent during voluntary movements such as eating and writing...

 - ethmoid bone
Ethmoid bone
The ethmoid bone is a bone in the skull that separates the nasal cavity from the brain. As such, it is located at the roof of the nose, between the two orbits. The cubical bone is lightweight due to a spongy construction. The ethmoid bone is one of the bones that makes up the orbit of the eye...

 - ethmoid sinus
Ethmoid sinus
The ethmoid sinus is each of the two paranasal sinuses within the ethmoid bone, comprising the ethmoidal air cells and filled with air. These are divided into anterior, middle and posterior group. The ethmoidal air cells consist of numerous thin-walled cavities situated in the ethmoidal labyrinth...

 - ethmoidal air cells - ethmoidal bulla - Europhiles - eustachian tube
Eustachian tube
The Eustachian tube is a tube that links the nasopharynx to the middle ear. It is a part of the middle ear. In adult humans the Eustachian tube is approximately 35 mm long. It is named after the sixteenth-century anatomist Bartolomeo Eustachi...

 - excretory system
Excretory system
The excretory system is a passive biological system that removes excess, unnecessary or dangerous materials from an organism, so as to help maintain homeostasis within the organism and prevent damage to the body. It is responsible for the elimination of the waste products of metabolism as well as...

 - exocrine gland
Exocrine gland
Exocrine glands are a type of ductal glands that secrete their products into ducts that lead directly into the external environment...

 - exophthalmos
Exophthalmos
Exophthalmos is a bulging of the eye anteriorly out of the orbit. Exophthalmos can be either bilateral or unilateral . Measurement of the degree of exophthalmos is performed using an exophthalmometer...

 - exoskeleton
Exoskeleton
An exoskeleton is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton of, for example, a human. In popular usage, some of the larger kinds of exoskeletons are known as "shells". Examples of exoskeleton animals include insects such as grasshoppers...

 - exotropia
Exotropia
Exotropia is a form of strabismus where the eyes are deviated outward. It is the opposite of esotropia. People with exotropia often experience crossed diplopia. Intermittent exotropia is a fairly common condition. "Sensory exotropia" occurs in the presence of poor vision...

 - extensor plantar response - extensor posturing - extensor retinaculum - external auditory meatus - external capsule
External capsule
The external capsule is a series of white matter fiber tracts in the brain. These fibers run between the most lateral segment of the lentiform nucleus and the claustrum....

 - external carotid artery
External carotid artery
In human anatomy, the external carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck. It arises from the common carotid artery when it bifurcates into the external and internal carotid artery.-Course:...

 - external ear - external iliac artery
External iliac artery
The external iliac arteries are two major arteries which bifurcate off the common iliac arteries anterior to the sacroiliac joint of the pelvis. They proceed anterior and inferior along the medial border of the psoas major muscles...

 - external jugular vein
External jugular vein
The external jugular vein receives the greater part of the blood from the exterior of the cranium and the deep parts of the face, being formed by the junction of the posterior division of the retromandibular vein with the posterior auricular vein.-Path:...

 - external laryngeal nerve
External laryngeal nerve
The external laryngeal nerve is the smaller, external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. It descends on the larynx, beneath the sternothyroid muscle, to supply the cricothyroid muscle....

 - external medullary lamina - external nasal nerve
External nasal nerve
The external nasal branches are terminal branches of the anterior ethmoidal nerves , and provide sensory innervation to the skin of the side of the nose and of the septum mobile nasi....

 - external occipital protuberance
External occipital protuberance
Near the middle of the occipital squama is the external occipital protuberance, and extending lateralward from it on either side is the superior nuchal line, and above this the faintly marked highest nuchal line.It is less pronounced in females....

 - external ophthalmoplegia - extraocular muscles
Extraocular muscles
The extraocular muscles are the six muscles that control the movements of the eye . The actions of the extraocular muscles depend on the position of the eye at the time of muscle contraction.-List of muscles:-Importance:...

 - extraperitoneal - extrapyramidal motor system - extrapyramidal signs - extrapyramidal system
Extrapyramidal system
In human anatomy, the extrapyramidal system is a neural network located in the brain that is part of the motor system involved in the coordination of movement. The system is called "extrapyramidal" to distinguish it from the tracts of the motor cortex that reach their targets by traveling through...

 - extreme capsule
Extreme capsule
The extreme capsule is a long association fiber pathway of white matter in the brain that provides bidirectional communication between such areas as the claustrum and the insular cortex, and the inferior frontal gyrus and the middle-posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus...

 - extrinsic muscle - eye
Human eye
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light for several purposes. As a conscious sense organ, the eye allows vision. Rod and cone cells in the retina allow conscious light perception and vision including color differentiation and the perception of depth...

 - eyebrow
Eyebrow
The eyebrow is an area of thick, delicate hairs above the eye that follows the shape of the lower margin of the brow ridges of some mammals. Their main function is to prevent sweat, water, and other debris from falling down into the eye socket, but they are also important to human communication and...

 - eyelash
Eyelash
An eyelash or simply lash is one of the hairs that grow at the edge of the eyelid. Eyelashes protect the eye from debris and perform some of the same function as whiskers do on a cat or a mouse in the sense that they are sensitive to being touched, thus providing a warning that an object is near...

 - eyelid
Eyelid
An eyelid is a thin fold of skin that covers and protects an eye. With the exception of the prepuce and the labia minora, it has the thinnest skin of the whole body. The levator palpebrae superioris muscle retracts the eyelid to "open" the eye. This can be either voluntarily or involuntarily...


F


fabella
Fabella
The fabella is a small sesamoid bone found in some mammals embedded in the tendon of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle behind the lateral condyle of the femur. It is a variant of normal anatomy and present in humans in 10% to 30% of individuals. Rarely, there are 2 or 3 of these bones...

 - face
Face
The face is a central sense organ complex, for those animals that have one, normally on the ventral surface of the head, and can, depending on the definition in the human case, include the hair, forehead, eyebrow, eyelashes, eyes, nose, ears, cheeks, mouth, lips, philtrum, temple, teeth, skin, and...

 - facet - facial artery
Facial artery
The facial artery is a branch of the external carotid artery that supplies structures of the superficial face.-Structure:...

 - facial bone - facial colliculus
Facial colliculus
The facial colliculus is an elevated area located on the dorsal pons. In the floor of the 4th ventricle It is formed by motor fibers of the facial nerve as they loop over the abducens nucleus...

 - facial nerve
Facial nerve
The facial nerve is the seventh of twelve paired cranial nerves. It emerges from the brainstem between the pons and the medulla, and controls the muscles of facial expression, and functions in the conveyance of taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and oral cavity...

 - facial nucleus - facial vein - falciform ligament
Falciform ligament
The falciform ligament is a ligament that attaches the liver to the anterior body wall.It is a broad and thin antero-posterior peritoneal fold, falciform in shape, its base being directed downward and backward and its apex upward and backward...

 - Fallopian tube
Fallopian tube
The Fallopian tubes, also known as oviducts, uterine tubes, and salpinges are two very fine tubes lined with ciliated epithelia, leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus, via the utero-tubal junction...

 - false vocal cord - falx cerebri
Falx cerebri
The falx cerebri, also known as the cerebral falx, so named from its sickle-like form, is a strong, arched fold of dura mater which descends vertically in the longitudinal fissure between the cerebral hemispheres....

 - fascia
Fascia
A fascia is a layer of fibrous tissue that permeates the human body. A fascia is a connective tissue that surrounds muscles, groups of muscles, blood vessels, and nerves, binding those structures together in much the same manner as plastic wrap can be used to hold the contents of sandwiches...

 - fascia lata
Fascia lata
-Thickness:It is an investment for the whole of the thigh, but varies in thickness in different parts.Thus, it is thicker in the upper and lateral part of the thigh, where it receives a fibrous expansion from the Glutæus maximus, and where the Tensor fasciæ latæ is inserted between its layers; it...

 - fasciculation
Fasciculation
A fasciculation , or "muscle twitch", is a small, local, involuntary muscle contraction and relaxation visible under the skin arising from the spontaneous discharge of a bundle of skeletal muscle fibers...

 - fasciculus lenticularis - fastigial nucleus
Fastigial nucleus
The fastigial nucleus or nucleus fastigii refers specifically to the concentration of gray matter nearest to the middle line at the anterior end of the superior vermis, and immediately over the roof of the fourth ventricle, from which it is separated by a thin layer of white matter...

 - fastigium - fat
Fat
Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and generally insoluble in water. Chemically, fats are triglycerides, triesters of glycerol and any of several fatty acids. Fats may be either solid or liquid at room temperature, depending on their structure...

 - fauces - femoral artery
Femoral artery
The femoral artery is a general term comprising a few large arteries in the thigh. They begin at the inguinal ligament and end just above the knee at adductor canal or Hunter's canal traversing the extent of the femur bone....

 - femoral neck - femoral triangle
Femoral triangle
The femoral triangle is an anatomical region of the upper inner human thigh.-Boundaries:It is bounded by:* the inguinal ligament* the medial border of the adductor longus muscle...

 - femur
Femur
The femur , or thigh bone, is the most proximal bone of the leg in tetrapod vertebrates capable of walking or jumping, such as most land mammals, birds, many reptiles such as lizards, and amphibians such as frogs. In vertebrates with four legs such as dogs and horses, the femur is found only in...

 - fenestra - fenestra cochleae - fenestra ovalis - fenestra vestibuli - fetus
Fetus
A fetus is a developing mammal or other viviparous vertebrate after the embryonic stage and before birth.In humans, the fetal stage of prenatal development starts at the beginning of the 11th week in gestational age, which is the 9th week after fertilization.-Etymology and spelling variations:The...

 - fibre - fibril
Fibril
Fibril is a fine fiber approximately 1 nm in diameter.Cytoplasmic fibrils are observed on the protoplasmic cylinders found in most spirochetal species, although no function of the cytoplasmic fibrils has been ascribed....

 - fibrillation
Fibrillation
Fibrillation is the rapid, irregular, and unsynchronized contraction of muscle fibers. An important occurrence is with regards to the heart.-Cardiology:There are two major classes of cardiac fibrillation: atrial fibrillation and ventricular fibrillation....

 - fibrous coat of the eye - fibrous pericardium
Fibrous pericardium
The fibrous pericardium is the most superficial layer of the pericardium. It is made up of dense connective tissue, a loose connective tissue which acts to protect the heart, anchoring it to the surrounding walls, and preventing it from overfilling with blood...

 - fibrous skeleton of the heart - fibula - fields of Forel
Fields of forel
Fields of Forel is an area in a deep part of the brain known as the diencephalon. It is below the thalamus and consists of three defined, white matter areas of the subthalamus. These three regions are named "H fields" ....

 - filiform papillae - filum - filum terminale
Filum terminale
The filum terminale , is a delicate strand of fibrous tissue, about 20 cm. in length, proceeding downward from the apex of the conus medullaris. It gives longitudinal support to the spinal cord and consists of two parts:...

 - fimbriae - finger
Finger
A finger is a limb of the human body and a type of digit, an organ of manipulation and sensation found in the hands of humans and other primates....

 - fingernail - first thoracic ganglion - fissure
Fissure
In anatomy, a fissure is a groove, natural division, deep furrow, elongated cleft, or tear in various parts of the body.-Brain:...

 - fistula
Fistula
In medicine, a fistula is an abnormal connection or passageway between two epithelium-lined organs or vessels that normally do not connect. It is generally a disease condition, but a fistula may be surgically created for therapeutic reasons.-Locations:Fistulas can develop in various parts of the...

 - flaccid paralysis
Flaccid paralysis
Flaccid paralysis is a clinical manifestation characterized by weakness or paralysis and reduced muscle tone without other obvious cause .-Polio:...

 - flaccidity - flank - flexion
Flexion
In anatomy, flexion is a position that is made possible by the joint angle decreasing. The skeletal and muscular systems work together to move the joint into a "flexed" position. For example the elbow is flexed when the hand is brought closer to the shoulder...

 - flexor retinaculum - floating ribs - flocculonodular lobe
Flocculonodular lobe
The flocculonodular lobe is a lobe of the cerebellum consisting of the nodule and the flocculus.It is closely associated with the vestibulocerebellum. This lobe is involved in the maintenance of equilibrium.-External links:...

 - flocculus - fluent aphasia - foetus - fontanelle
Fontanelle
A fontanelle is an anatomical feature on an infant's skull.-Anatomy:Fontanelles are soft spots on a baby's head which, during birth, enable the bony plates of the skull to flex, allowing the child's head to pass through the birth canal. The ossification of the bones of the skull causes the...

 - foot - foramen
Foramen
In anatomy, a foramen is any opening. Foramina inside the body of humans and other animals typically allow muscles, nerves, arteries, veins, or other structures to connect one part of the body with another.-Skull:...

 - foramen lacerum
Foramen lacerum
The foramen lacerum is a triangular hole in the base of the skull located at the base of the medial pterygoid plate.-Transit through the foramen lacerum:...

 - foramen magnum - foramen of Luschka - foramen of Magendie - foramen of Monro - foramen ovale - foramen rotundum
Foramen rotundum
The foramen rotundum is a circular hole in the sphenoid bone that connects the middle cranial fossa and the pterygopalatine fossa.-Structure:...

 - foramen spinosum
Foramen spinosum
The foramen spinosum is one of several foramina located in the base of the skull, on the sphenoid bone, situated lateral to the foramen ovale, in a posterior angle.-Contents:It permits the passage of certain arteries, veins and/or other structures:...

 - forceps major - forearm
Forearm
-See also:*Forearm flexors*Forearm muscles...

 - forebrain - forehead
Forehead
For the Arsenal striker see GervinhoIn human anatomy, the forehead is the fore part of the head. It is, formally, an area of the head bounded by three features, two of the skull and one of the scalp. The top of the forehead is marked by the hairline, the edge of the area where hair on the scalp...

 - foreskin
Foreskin
In male human anatomy, the foreskin is a generally retractable double-layered fold of skin and mucous membrane that covers the glans penis and protects the urinary meatus when the penis is not erect...

 - formication
Formication
Formication is the medical term for a sensation that resembles that of insects crawling on the skin. It is one specific form of a set of sensations known as paresthesia, which also include the more common prickling, tingling sensation of "pins and needles"...

 - fornix - fossa
Fossa (anatomy)
In anatomical terminology, fossa has come to mean a depression or hollow, in general, in a bone. Other parts of the body may be involved, for example, the antecubital fossa...

 - Fourth trochanter
Fourth trochanter
The fourth trochanter is a shared characteristic common to archosaurs. It is a knob-like feature on the medial side of the femur that serves as a muscle attachment....

 - fourth ventricle
Fourth ventricle
The fourth ventricle is one of the four connected fluid-filled cavities within the human brain. These cavities, known collectively as the ventricular system, consist of the left and right lateral ventricles, the third ventricle, and the fourth ventricle...

 - fovea
Fovea
The fovea centralis, also generally known as the fovea , is a part of the eye, located in the center of the macula region of the retina....

 - foveola
Foveola
The foveola is located within a region called the macula, a yellowish, cone photo receptor filled portion of the human retina. The foveola is approximately 0.35 mm in diameter and lies in the center of the fovea and contains only cone cells, and a cone-shaped zone of Müller cells...

 - frenulum
Frenulum
A frenulum is a small fold of tissue that secures or restricts the motion of a mobile organ in the body.-In human anatomy:...

 - frenulum linguae
Frenulum linguae
The frenulum of tongue is the frenulum of the tongue, a small fold of mucous membrane extending from the floor of the mouth to the midline of the underside of the tongue.-Development:The tongue starts to develop at about 4 weeks...

 - frenum - frontal air sinus - frontal bone
Frontal bone
The frontal bone is a bone in the human skull that resembles a cockleshell in form, and consists of two portions:* a vertical portion, the squama frontalis, corresponding with the region of the forehead....

 - frontal eye field - frontalis - frontal horn of lateral ventricle - frontal lobe
Frontal lobe
The frontal lobe is an area in the brain of humans and other mammals, located at the front of each cerebral hemisphere and positioned anterior to the parietal lobe and superior and anterior to the temporal lobes...

 - frontal nerve
Frontal nerve
The frontal nerve is the largest branch of the ophthalmic nerve, and may be regarded, both from its size and direction, as the continuation of the nerve....

 - frontal plane - frontal pole - frontal sinus
Frontal sinus
Sinuses are mucosa-lined airspaces within the bones of the face and skull. The frontal sinuses, situated behind the superciliary arches, are absent at birth, but are generally fairly well developed between the seventh and eighth years, only reaching their full size after puberty...

 - frontonasal duct
Frontonasal duct
The frontal air sinuses are lined by mucous membrane, and each communicates with the corresponding nasal cavity by means of a passage called the frontonasal duct....

 - fundiform ligament
Fundiform ligament
The fundiform ligament is a specialization, thickening, of the superficial fascia extending from the linea alba of the lower abdominal wall....

 - fundus - fungiform papillae - funiculus - furcula
Furcula
The ' is a forked bone found in birds, formed by the fusion of the two clavicles. In birds, its function is the strengthening of the thoracic skeleton to withstand the rigors of flight....

 - fusiform gyrus
Fusiform gyrus
The fusiform gyrus is part of the temporal lobe in Brodmann Area 37. It is also known as the occipitotemporal gyrus. Other sources have the fusiform gyrus above the occipitotemporal gyrus and underneath the parahippocampal gyrus....


G


gag reflex
Gag reflex
The pharyngeal reflex or gag reflex is a reflex contraction of the back of the throat, evoked by touching the soft palate or sometimes the back of the tongue. It prevents something from entering the throat except as part of normal swallowing and helps prevent choking...

 - galea aponeurotica
Galea aponeurotica
The galea aponeurotica is a tough layer of dense fibrous tissue which covers the upper part of the cranium; behind, it is attached, in the interval between its union with the Occipitales, to the external occipital protuberance and highest nuchal lines of the occipital bone; in front, it forms a...

 - gall bladder - gamma motoneurons
Gamma motoneurons
Gamma motoneurons , also called gamma motor neurons, are the efferent component of the fusimotor system, the system by which the central nervous system controls and modifies muscle spindle sensitivity. The fusimotor system refers to the combination of muscle spindles and γ-motoneurons...

 - ganglion
Ganglion
In anatomy, a ganglion is a biological tissue mass, most commonly a mass of nerve cell bodies. Cells found in a ganglion are called ganglion cells, though this term is also sometimes used to refer specifically to retinal ganglion cells....

 - ganglion cell
Ganglion cell
A retinal ganglion cell is a type of neuron located near the inner surface of the retina of the eye. It receives visual information from photoreceptors via two intermediate neuron types: bipolar cells and amacrine cells...

 - ganglion cell of the retina - gasserian ganglion - gastrocnemius - gastroduodenal artery
Gastroduodenal artery
In anatomy, the gastroduodenal artery is a small blood vessel in the abdomen.It supplies blood directly to the pylorus and proximal part of the duodenum, and indirectly to the pancreatic head .It most commonly arises from the common hepatic artery of the celiac trunk, but there are...

 - gastroesophageal junction - gastrohepatic ligament - gastrointestinal tract
Gastrointestinal tract
The human gastrointestinal tract refers to the stomach and intestine, and sometimes to all the structures from the mouth to the anus. ....

 - gemellus - geniculate ganglion
Geniculate ganglion
The geniculate ganglion is an L-shaped collection of fibers and sensory neurons of the facial nerve located in the facial canal of the head...

 - geniculate nucleus - geniculocalcarine tract - geniculum
Geniculum
A geniculum is a small genu, or angular knee-like structure. It is often used in anatomical nomenclature to designate a sharp knee-like bend in a small structure or organ....

 - genioglossus muscle - geniohyoid muscle
Geniohyoid muscle
The Geniohyoid muscle is a narrow muscle situated superior to the medial border of the mylohyoid muscle. It is named for its passage from the chin to the hyoid bone.-Origin and insertion:...

 - genitalia - genu of corpus callosum - genu of the internal capsule - gill
Gill
A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water, afterward excreting carbon dioxide. The gills of some species such as hermit crabs have adapted to allow respiration on land provided they are kept moist...

 - gingiva
Gingiva
The gingiva , or gums, consists of the mucosal tissue that lies over the mandible and maxilla inside the mouth.-General description:...

 - gizzard
Gizzard
The gizzard, also referred to as the ventriculus, gastric mill, and gigerium, is an organ found in the digestive tract of some animals, including birds, reptiles, earthworms and some fish. This specialized stomach constructed of thick, muscular walls is used for grinding up food; often rocks are...

 - glabella
Glabella
The glabella, in humans, is the space between the eyebrows and above the nose. It is slightly elevated, and joins the two superciliary ridges.-Etymology:The term is derived from the Latin glabellus, meaning smooth, as this area is usually hairless....

 - gland
Gland
A gland is an organ in an animal's body that synthesizes a substance for release of substances such as hormones or breast milk, often into the bloodstream or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface .- Types :...

 - glandula - glans
Glans
The glans is a vascular structure located at the tip of the penis in men or a homologous genital structure of the clitoris in women.-Structure:...

 - glenohumeral joint
Shoulder
The human shoulder is made up of three bones: the clavicle , the scapula , and the humerus as well as associated muscles, ligaments and tendons. The articulations between the bones of the shoulder make up the shoulder joints. The major joint of the shoulder is the glenohumeral joint, which...

 - glenoid fossa - glia - globose nucleus
Globose nucleus
The globose nucleus is one of the deep cerebellar nuclei. It is located medial to the emboliform nucleus and lateral to the fastigial nucleus. This nucleus contains primarily large and small multipolar neurons....

 - globus pallidus
Globus pallidus
The globus pallidus also known as paleostriatum, is a sub-cortical structure of the brain. Topographically, it is part of the telencephalon, but retains close functional ties with the subthalamus - both of which are part of the extrapyramidal motor system...

 - glomerulus
Glomerulus
A glomerulus is a capillary tuft that is involved in the first step of filtering blood to form urine.A glomerulus is surrounded by Bowman's capsule, the beginning component of nephrons in the vertebrate kidney. A glomerulus receives its blood supply from an afferent arteriole of the renal...

 - glossoepiglottic fold - glossopharyngeal nerve
Glossopharyngeal nerve
The glossopharyngeal nerve is the ninth of twelve pairs of cranial nerves . It exits the brainstem out from the sides of the upper medulla, just rostral to the vagus nerve...

 - glottis
Glottis
The glottis is defined as the combination of the vocal folds and the space in between the folds .-Function:...

 - gluteus maximus - gluteus medius - gluteus minimus - goiter
Goitre
A goitre or goiter , is a swelling in the thyroid gland, which can lead to a swelling of the neck or larynx...

 - Golgi apparatus
Golgi apparatus
The Golgi apparatus is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. It was identified in 1898 by the Italian physician Camillo Golgi, after whom the Golgi apparatus is named....

 - gonad
Gonad
The gonad is the organ that makes gametes. The gonads in males are the testes and the gonads in females are the ovaries. The product, gametes, are haploid germ cells. For example, spermatozoon and egg cells are gametes...

 - gracile fasciculus - gracile nucleus
Gracile nucleus
Located in the medulla oblongata, the gracile nucleus is one of the dorsal column nuclei that participate in the sensation of fine touch and proprioception of the lower body...

 - gracile tubercle - Gracilis muscle
Gracilis muscle
The gracilis is the most superficial muscle on the medial side of the thigh. It is thin and flattened, broad above, narrow and tapering below.-Origin and insertion:...

 - granular layer - gravid - gray matter
Gray Matter
"Gray Matter" is a short story by Stephen King, first published in the October 1973 issue of Cavalier magazine, and later collected in King's 1978 collection Night Shift. It is set in the same area as King's novel Dreamcatcher.-Setting:...

 - Gray's Anatomy
Gray's Anatomy
Gray's Anatomy is an English-language human anatomy textbook originally written by Henry Gray. The book is widely regarded as an extremely influential work on the subject, and has continued to be revised and republished from its initial publication in 1858 to the present day...

 - great cerebral vein - great toe
Hallux
In tetrapods, the hallux is the innermost toe of the foot. Despite its name it may not be the longest toe on the foot of some individuals...

 - greater auricular nerve
Greater auricular nerve
The great auricular nerve originates from the cervical plexus, composed of branches of spinal nerves C2 and C3. It provides sensory innervation for the skin over parotid gland and mastoid process, and both surfaces of the outer ear.-Terminology:...

 - greater horn of the hyoid - greater occipital nerve
Greater occipital nerve
The greater occipital nerve is a spinal nerve, specifically the medial branch of the dorsal primary ramus of cervical spinal nerve 2. This nerve arises from between the first and second cervical vertebrae, along with the lesser occipital nerve. It ascends after emerging from the suboccipital...

 - greater omentum
Greater omentum
The greater omentum is a large fold of parietal peritoneum that hangs down from the stomach...

 - greater palatine artery
Greater palatine artery
The greater palatine artery is a terminal branch of the maxillary artery supplying blood to the hard palate and nasal septum.-Course:The descending palatine artery branches off of the maxillary artery in the pterygopalatine fossa and descends through the greater palatine canal along with the...

 - greater palatine canal
Greater palatine canal
The greater palatine canal is a passage in the skull that transmits the greater palatine artery, vein, and nerve between the pterygopalatine fossa and the oral cavity.-Structure:...

 - greater palatine foramen
Greater palatine foramen
At either posterior angle of the hard palate is the greater palatine foramen, for the transmission of the descending palatine vessels and anterior palatine nerve; and running anteriorly and medially from it is a groove, for the same vessels and nerve.- Variations :The greater palatine foramen is...

 - greater palatine nerve
Greater palatine nerve
The greater palatine nerve is a branch of the pterygopalatine ganglion that carries both general sensory and parasympathetic fibers...

 - greater petrosal nerve - greater superficial petrosal nerve - Greater trochanter
Greater trochanter
The greater trochanter of the femur is a large, irregular, quadrilateral eminence and a part of the skeletal system.It is directed a little lateralward and backward, and, in the adult, is about 1 cm lower than the head...

 - greater wing of sphenoid - groin
Groin
In human anatomy, the groin areas are the two creases at the junction of the torso with the legs, on either side of the pubic area. This is also known as the medial compartment of the thigh. A pulled groin muscle usually refers to a painful injury sustained by straining the hip adductor muscles...

 - gubernaculum
Gubernaculum
The paired Gubernacula are embryonic structures which begin as undifferentiated mesenchyme attaching to the caudal end of the gonads .-Function during development:...

 - gums
Gingiva
The gingiva , or gums, consists of the mucosal tissue that lies over the mandible and maxilla inside the mouth.-General description:...

 - gustatory - gyrencephalic - gyrus
Gyrus
A gyrus is a ridge on the cerebral cortex. It is generally surrounded by one or more sulci .-Notable gyri:* Superior frontal gyrus, lat. gyrus frontalis superior* Middle frontal gyrus, lat. gyrus frontalis medius...


H


habenula
Habenula
In neuroanatomy, habenula originally denoted the stalk of the pineal gland , but gradually came to refer to a neighboring group of nerve cells with which the pineal gland was believed to be associated, the habenular nucleus...

 - habenular nuclei
Habenular nuclei
The habenular nuclei comprise a small group of nuclei that are part of the epithalamus of the diencephalon, situated at the posterior end of the thalamus, on its upper surface.The habenular nuclei are typically divided into:* lateral habenular nucleus...

 - haemorrhoid - hair
Hair
Hair is a filamentous biomaterial, that grows from follicles found in the dermis. Found exclusively in mammals, hair is one of the defining characteristics of the mammalian class....

 - hair cells - hair follicle
Hair follicle
A hair follicle is a skin organ that produces hair. Hair production occurs in phases, including a growth phase , and cessation phase , and a rest phase . Stem cells are principally responsible for the production of hair....

 - hallux
Hallux
In tetrapods, the hallux is the innermost toe of the foot. Despite its name it may not be the longest toe on the foot of some individuals...

 - hamate
Hamate bone
The hamate bone is a bone in the human hand that may be readily distinguished by its wedge-shaped form, and the hook-like process which projects from its volar surface. It is situated at the medial and lower angle of the carpus, with its base downward, resting on the fourth and fifth metacarpal...

 - hamstrings - hamulus of hamate - hand
Hand
A hand is a prehensile, multi-fingered extremity located at the end of an arm or forelimb of primates such as humans, chimpanzees, monkeys, and lemurs...

 - hard palate
Hard palate
The hard palate is a thin horizontal bony plate of the skull, located in the roof of the mouth. It spans the arch formed by the upper teeth.It is formed by the palatine process of the maxilla and horizontal plate of palatine bone....

 - haustra
Haustra
The haustra of the colon are the small pouches caused by sacculation, which give the colon its segmented appearance. The taenia coli runs the length of the large intestine...

 - Haversian system - head of rib
Head of rib
The head of the rib is the end of a rib closest to the vertebral column, with which it articulates.It is marked by a kidney-shaped articular surface, divided by a horizontal crest into two facets for articulation with the depression formed on the bodies of two adjacent thoracic vertebrae; the upper...

 - heart
Heart
The heart is a myogenic muscular organ found in all animals with a circulatory system , that is responsible for pumping blood throughout the blood vessels by repeated, rhythmic contractions...

 - heel
Heel
In human anatomy, the heel is the prominence at the posterior end of the foot. It is based on the projection of one bone, the calcaneus or heel bone, behind the articulation of the bones of the lower leg.- Human anatomy :...

 - helicotrema
Helicotrema
The helicotrema is the part of the cochlear labyrinth where the scala tympani and the scala vestibuli meet. It is the main component of the cochlear apex. The hair cells in this area best detect low frequency sounds.-External links:* at Allegheny University of the Health Sciences* at IUPUI...

 - helix
Helix (ear)
The prominent rim of the auricula is called the helix. Where the helix turns downward behind, a small tubercle is frequently seen: the auricular tubercle of Darwin....

 - hematoma
Hematoma
A hematoma, or haematoma, is a localized collection of blood outside the blood vessels, usually in liquid form within the tissue. This distinguishes it from an ecchymosis, which is the spread of blood under the skin in a thin layer, commonly called a bruise...

 - hemiazygos vein
Hemiazygos vein
The hemiazygos vein is a vein running superiorly in the lower thoracic region, just to the left side of the vertebral column.-Structure:...

 - hemiballismus
Hemiballismus
Hemiballismus is a very rare movement disorder. It is 500 times rarer than Parkinson's disease. Its effects can sometimes be severe enough to prevent patients from being able to perform daily functions. It is usually associated with structural brain lesions but can occur with metabolic abnormalities...

 - hemidiaphragm - hemiparesis
Hemiparesis
Hemiparesis is weakness on one side of the body. It is less severe than hemiplegia - the total paralysis of the arm, leg, and trunk on one side of the body. Thus, the patient can move the impaired side of his body, but with reduced muscular strength....

 - hemisphere
Cerebral hemisphere
A cerebral hemisphere is one of the two regions of the eutherian brain that are delineated by the median plane, . The brain can thus be described as being divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres. Each of these hemispheres has an outer layer of grey matter called the cerebral cortex that is...

 - hemothorax
Hemothorax
A hemothorax is a condition that results from blood accumulating in the pleural cavity.-Cause and presentation:Its cause is usually traumatic, from a blunt or penetrating injury to the thorax, resulting in a rupture of the serous membrane either lining the thorax or covering the lungs...

 - hepatic - hepatic artery - hepatic flexure
Hepatic flexure
Hepatic flexure is the sharp bend between the ascending and the transverse colon. The right colic flexure is adjacent to the liver, and is therefore also known as the hepatic flexure. Thus, the left colic flexure is also known as the splenic flexure...

 - hepatic portal vein - hepatic veins - hepatoduodenal ligament
Hepatoduodenal ligament
The hepatoduodenal ligament is the portion of the lesser omentum extending between the porta hepatis of the liver and the superior part of the duodenum.Running inside it are the following:* hepatic artery proper* hepatic portal vein* common bile duct...

 - hepatopancreatic ampulla
Hepatopancreatic ampulla
The ampulla of Vater, also known as the ', is formed by the union of the pancreatic duct and the common bile duct. The ampulla is specifically located at the major duodenal papilla....

 hepatopancreatic sphincter - hernia
Hernia
A hernia is the protrusion of an organ or the fascia of an organ through the wall of the cavity that normally contains it. A hiatal hernia occurs when the stomach protrudes into the mediastinum through the esophageal opening in the diaphragm....

 - herniated disk - hiatus
Hiatus (anatomy)
In anatomy, a hiatus is a natural fissure in a structure.Examples include:* Esophageal hiatus, the opening in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes from the thorax into the abdomen* Hiatus for greater petrosal nerve* Maxillary hiatus...

 - hiatus semilunaris
Hiatus semilunaris
The hiatus semilunaris is a crescent-shaped groove in the lateral wall of the nasal cavity just inferior to the ethmoidal bulla. It is the location of the openings for the frontal sinus, maxillary sinus, and anterior ethmoidal sinus...

 - hilar vessels - Hilton's law
Hilton's law
Hilton's law expoused by John Hilton in a series of medical lectures given in 1860-1862, is the observation that in the study of anatomy, one often finds that a nerve that innervates a joint also tends to innervate the muscles that move the joint and the skin that covers the distal attachments of...

 - hilum
Hilum (anatomy)
In human anatomy, the hilum is a depression or fissure where structures such as blood vessels and nerves enter an organ.-Examples of hila:* Hilum of kidney, admits the renal artery, vein, ureter, and nerves...

 - hindbrain - hip bone
Hip bone
The hip bone, innominate bone or coxal bone is a large, flattened, irregularly shaped bone, constricted in the center and expanded above and below...

 - hippocampal formation
Hippocampal formation
The hippocampal formation is a compound structure in the medial temporal lobe of the brain. There is currently no consensus concerning which brain regions are encompassed by the term, with some authors defining it as the dentate gyrus, the hippocampus proper and the subiculum; and others including...

 - hippocampal pyramidal cell - hippocampal sulcus
Hippocampal sulcus
The hippocampal sulcus, also known as the hippocampal fissure, is a sulcus that separates the dentate gyrus from the subiculum and the CA1 field in the hippocampus.-Development in humans:...

 - hippocampus
Hippocampus
The hippocampus is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates. It belongs to the limbic system and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory and spatial navigation. Humans and other mammals have two hippocampi, one in...

 - histology
Histology
Histology is the study of the microscopic anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals. It is performed by examining cells and tissues commonly by sectioning and staining; followed by examination under a light microscope or electron microscope...

 - history of anatomy
History of anatomy
The development of anatomy as a science extends from the earliest examinations of sacrificial victims to the sophisticated analyses of the body performed by modern scientists. It has been characterized, over time, by a continually developing understanding of the functions of organs and structures...

 - Hoffmann's reflex - homologous
Homology (biology)
Homology forms the basis of organization for comparative biology. In 1843, Richard Owen defined homology as "the same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function". Organs as different as a bat's wing, a seal's flipper, a cat's paw and a human hand have a common underlying...

 - hormone
Hormone
A hormone is a chemical released by a cell or a gland in one part of the body that sends out messages that affect cells in other parts of the organism. Only a small amount of hormone is required to alter cell metabolism. In essence, it is a chemical messenger that transports a signal from one...

 - horn
Horn (anatomy)
A horn is a pointed projection of the skin on the head of various animals, consisting of a covering of horn surrounding a core of living bone. True horns are found mainly among the ruminant artiodactyls, in the families Antilocapridae and Bovidae...

 - human anatomical parts named after people - human anatomy
Human anatomy
Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the human body. Anatomy is subdivided into gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy. Gross anatomy is the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by the naked eye...

 - human body
Human body
The human body is the entire structure of a human organism, and consists of a head, neck, torso, two arms and two legs.By the time the human reaches adulthood, the body consists of close to 100 trillion cells, the basic unit of life...

 - human skeleton
Human skeleton
The human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. It serves as a scaffold which supports organs, anchors muscles, and protects organs such as the brain, lungs and heart....

 - humerus
Humerus
The humerus is a long bone in the arm or forelimb that runs from the shoulder to the elbow....

 - humours
Four humours
Four Temperaments is a theory of proto-psychology that stems from the ancient medical concept of humorism and suggests that four bodily fluids affect human personality traits and behaviors.- History and development :...

 - hunchback
Kyphosis
Kyphosis , also called roundback or Kelso's hunchback, is a condition of over-curvature of the thoracic vertebrae...

 - hyaline cartilage
Hyaline cartilage
Hyaline cartilage consists of a slimy mass, pearly bluish in colour with firm consistency and considerable collagen. It contains no nerves or blood vessels, and its structure is relatively simple....

 - hymen
Hymen
The hymen is a membrane that surrounds or partially covers the external vaginal opening. It forms part of the vulva, or external genitalia. The size of the hymenal opening increases with age. Although an often practiced method, it is not possible to confirm with certainty that a girl or woman is a...

 - hyoglossus muscle - hyoid bone
Hyoid bone
The hyoid bone is a horseshoe-shaped bone situated in the anterior midline of the neck between the chin and the thyroid cartilage. At rest, it lies at the level of the base of the mandible in the front and the third cervical vertebra behind.Unlike other bones, the hyoid is only distantly...

 - hypaxial muscles - hypogastric artery - hypogastric nerve
Hypogastric nerve
The hypogastric nerve is a term for the transition between the superior hypogastric plexus and the inferior hypogastric plexus. The hypogastric nerve enters the sympathetic chain at T10-L2.-Structure:...

 - hypoglossal canal
Hypoglossal canal
The hypoglossal canal is a bony canal in the occipital bone of the skull.-Anatomy:It transmits the hypoglossal nerve from its point of entry near the medulla oblongata to its exit from the base of the skull near the jugular foramen...

 - hypoglossal nerve
Hypoglossal nerve
The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve , leading to the tongue. The nerve arises from the hypoglossal nucleus and emerges from the medulla oblongata in the preolivary sulcus separating the olive and the pyramid. It then passes through the hypoglossal canal...

 - hypoglossal nucleus
Hypoglossal nucleus
The hypoglossal nucleus is a cranial nerve nucleus, and it extends the length of the medulla, and being a motor nucleus, is close to the midline...

 - hypoglossal trigone
Hypoglossal trigone
In the upper part of the medulla oblongata, the hypoglossal nucleus approaches the rhomboid fossa, where it lies close to the middle line, under an eminence named the hypoglossal trigone.-External links:...

 - hypopharynx
Hypopharynx
In human anatomy, the hypopharynx is the bottom part of the pharynx, and is the part of the throat that connects to the esophagus....

 - hypophyseal artery - hypophyseal fossa - hypophyseal portal system
Hypophyseal portal system
The hypophyseal portal system is the system of blood vessels that link the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary in the brain.It allows endocrine communication between the two structures. It is part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The anterior pituitary receives releasing and...

 - hypophysis
Pituitary gland
In vertebrate anatomy the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 g , in humans. It is a protrusion off the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain, and rests in a small, bony cavity covered by a dural fold...

 - hypophysis cerebri - hypothalamic sulcus
Hypothalamic sulcus
Groove in lateral wall of third ventricle, marking the boundary between the thalamus and hypothalamus. The upper and lower portions of the lateral wall of the third ventricle correspond to the alar lamina and basal lamina respectively of the lateral wall of the fore-brain vesicle and are separated...

 - hypothalamohypophyseal portal system - hypothalamohypophyseal tract - hypothalamoreticular tract - hypothalamospinal tract
Hypothalamospinal tract
The hypothalamospinal tract connects the thalamus to the ciliospinal center of the intermediolateral cell column in the spinal cord . It is found in the dorsolateral quadrant of the lateral funiculus, in the lateral tegmentum of the medulla, pons and midbrain. Lesions of the hypothalamospinal tract...

 - hypothalamotegmental tract
Hypothalamotegmental tract
The hypothalamotegmental tract is a pathway from the hypothalamus to the reticular formation. Axons from the posterior hypothalamus descend through the mesencephalic and pontine reticular formations. They connect with reticular neurons important in visceral and autonomic activity. The tract is a...

 - hypothalamus
Hypothalamus
The Hypothalamus is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions...

 - hypothalmotegmental axon - hypothenar muscles

I


ileal vessels
Ileal vessels
In anatomy, the ileal vessels are the arteries and veins which supply or drain the ileum, the final section of the small intestine.These are:*Unnamed branches of the superior mesenteric artery...

 - ileocecal valve
Ileocecal valve
The ileocecal valve, or ileocaecal valve, is of a bilabial papilla structure with physiological sphincter muscle situated at the junction of the small intestine and the large intestine, with recent evidence indicating an anatomical sphincter may also be present in humans) Its critical function is...

 - ileocolic artery
Ileocolic artery
The ileocolic artery is the lowest branch arising from the concavity of the superior mesenteric artery.It passes downward and to the right behind the peritoneum toward the right iliac fossa, where it divides into a superior and an inferior branch; the inferior anastomoses with the end of the...

 - ileum
Ileum
The ileum is the final section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds. In fish, the divisions of the small intestine are not as clear and the terms posterior intestine or distal intestine may be used instead of ileum.The ileum follows the duodenum...

 - iliac crest
Iliac crest
-External links: - "Superficial muscles of the gluteal region and posterior thigh." - "Anterior Abdominal Wall: Osteology and Surface Anatomy " - "The Back, Posterior View" * *...

 - iliac lymph nodes - iliac region - iliac spine - iliacus muscle
Iliacus muscle
The iliacus is a flat, triangular muscle which fills the iliac fossa.- Course :The iliacus arises from the iliac fossa on the interior side of the hip bone, and also from the region of the anterior inferior iliac spine...

 - iliolumbar artery
Iliolumbar artery
The iliolumbar artery is the first branch of the posterior trunk of the internal iliac artery.-Course:The iliolumbar artery turns upward behind the obturator nerve and the external iliac artery and vein, to the medial border of the psoas major, behind which it divides into:* Lumbar branch of...

 - iliopsoas muscle - iliotibial band - ilium
Ilium (bone)
The ilium is the uppermost and largest bone of the pelvis, and appears in most vertebrates including mammals and birds, but not bony fish. All reptiles have an ilium except snakes, although some snake species have a tiny bone which is considered to be an ilium.The name comes from the Latin ,...

 - immune system
Immune system
An immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumor cells. It detects a wide variety of agents, from viruses to parasitic worms, and needs to distinguish them from the organism's own...

 - impar ligament - incisive canal - incisive fossa - incisor
Incisor
Incisors are the first kind of tooth in heterodont mammals. They are located in the premaxilla above and mandible below.-Function:...

 - incisura - incus
Incus
The incus or anvil is the anvil-shaped small bone or ossicle in themiddle ear. It connects the malleus to the stapes. It was first described by Alessandro Achillini of Bologna.The incus transmits sound vibrations from the malleus to the stapes....

 - index finger
Index finger
The index finger, , is the first finger and the second digit of a human hand. It is located between the first and third digits, between the thumb and the middle finger...

 - indusium griseum - infarction
Infarction
In medicine, infarction refers to tissue death that is caused by a local lack of oxygen due to obstruction of the tissue's blood supply. The resulting lesion is referred to as an infarct.-Causes:...

 - inferior alveolar artery
Inferior alveolar artery
- Course :It descends with the inferior alveolar nerve to the mandibular foramen on the medial surface of the ramus of the mandible.It runs along the mandibular canal in the substance of the bone, accompanied by the nerve, and opposite the first premolar tooth divides into two branches, incisor and...

 - inferior alveolar nerve
Inferior alveolar nerve
The inferior alveolar nerve is a branch of the mandibular nerve, which is itself the third branch of the trigeminal nerve .-Path:...

 - inferior cerebellar peduncle
Inferior cerebellar peduncle
The upper part of the posterior district of the medulla oblongata is occupied by the inferior cerebellar peduncle , a thick rope-like strand situated between the lower part of the fourth ventricle and the roots of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves.Each cerebellar inferior peduncle connects the...

 - inferior cervical sympathetic ganglion - inferior colliculus
Inferior colliculus
The inferior colliculus is the principal midbrain nucleus of the auditory pathway and receives input from several more peripheral brainstem nuclei in the auditory pathway, as well as inputs from the auditory cortex...

 - inferior concha - inferior frontal gyrus
Inferior frontal gyrus
The inferior frontal gyrus is a gyrus of the frontal lobe . It is labelled gyrus frontalis inferior, its Latin name...

 - inferior gluteal artery
Inferior gluteal artery
The inferior gluteal artery , the larger of the two terminal branches of the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery, is distributed chiefly to the buttock and back of the thigh....

 - inferior horn - inferior meatus
Inferior meatus
The inferior meatus, the largest of the three meatuses of the nose, is the space between the inferior concha and the floor of the nasal cavity....

 - inferior mesenteric artery
Inferior mesenteric artery
In human anatomy, the inferior mesenteric artery, often abbreviated as IMA, supplies the large intestine from the left colic flexure to the upper part of the rectum, which includes the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and part of the rectum...

 - inferior mesenteric vein
Inferior mesenteric vein
In human anatomy, the inferior mesenteric vein is a blood vessel that drains blood from the large intestine. It usually terminates when reaching the splenic vein, which goes on to form the portal vein with the superior mesenteric vein...

 - inferior nasal concha - inferior oblique muscle
Inferior oblique muscle
The Obliquus oculi inferior is a thin, narrow muscle placed near the anterior margin of the floor of the orbit.-Action:Its actions are lateral rotation, elevation and abduction of the eye....

 - inferior olivary nucleus
Inferior olivary nucleus
The inferior olivary nucleus is the largest nucleus situated in the olivary body, part of the medulla oblongata.-Function:It is closely associated with the cerebellum, meaning that it is involved in control and coordination of movements, sensory processing and cognitive tasks likely by encoding the...

 - inferior orbital fissure
Inferior orbital fissure
Not to be confused with the infraorbital groove, infraorbital canal, and infraorbital foramen.The lateral wall and the floor of the orbit are separated posteriorly by the inferior orbital fissure which transmits the maxillary nerve and its zygomatic branch, and the ascending branches from the...

 - inferior petrosal sinus
Inferior petrosal sinus
The inferior petrosal sinuses, within the human head, are beneath the brain and allow blood to drain from the center of the head.They drain on either side inferiorly from the cavernous sinus and join with the sigmoid sinus to form the internal jugular vein, which continues inferiorly to drain...

 - inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
Inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
The Inferior pharyngeal constrictor, the thickest of the three constrictors, arises from the sides of the cricoid and thyroid cartilage. Similarly to the superior and middle pharyngeal constrictor muscles, it is innervated by the vagus nerve , specifically, by branches from the pharyngeal plexus...

 - inferior pubic ramus
Inferior pubic ramus
The inferior pubic ramus is a part of the pelvis and is thin and flat. It passes laterally and downward from the medial end of the superior ramus; it becomes narrower as it descends and joins with the inferior ramus of the ischium below the obturator foramen....

 - inferior rectus muscle
Inferior rectus muscle
The inferior rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit.-Actions:It depresses, adducts, and helps extort the eye.The inferior rectus muscle is the only muscle that is capable of depressing the pupil when it is in a fully abducted position....

 - inferior sagittal sinus
Inferior sagittal sinus
The inferior sagittal sinus , within the human head, is an area beneath the brain which allows blood to drain outwards posteriorly from the center of the head. It drains to the straight sinus , which connects to the transverse sinuses...

 - inferior salivatory nucleus
Inferior salivatory nucleus
In the brain, the inferior salivatory nucleus is a cluster of neurons controlling the parasympathetic input to the parotid gland. It is one of the components of the glossopharyngeal nerve .-Location:...

 - inferior temporal gyrus
Inferior temporal gyrus
The inferior temporal gyrus is placed below the middle temporal sulcus, and is connected behind with the inferior occipital gyrus; it also extends around the infero-lateral border on to the inferior surface of the temporal lobe, where it is limited by the inferior sulcus...

 - inferior thyroid artery
Inferior thyroid artery
The inferior thyroid artery arrises from the thyrocervical trunk and passes upward, in front of the vertebral artery and Longus colli, then turns medially behind the carotid sheath and its contents, and also behind the sympathetic trunk, the middle cervical ganglion resting upon the...

 - inferior thyroid vein - Inferior tibiofibular joint - inferior vena cava
Inferior vena cava
The inferior vena cava , also known as the posterior vena cava, is the large vein that carries de-oxygenated blood from the lower half of the body into the right atrium of the heart....

 - inferior vestibular nucleus
Inferior vestibular nucleus
The inferior vestibular nucleus is the vestibular nucleus which lies near the fourth ventricle.-External links:* http://www.neuroanatomy.wisc.edu/virtualbrain/BrainStem/13VNAN.html* http://www.anatomyatlases.org/MicroscopicAnatomy/Section17/Plate17331.shtml...

 - infraglottic cavity
Infraglottic cavity
The infraglottic cavity is the portion of the larynx below the ventricles of the larynx and rima glottidis.-External links: *...

 - infrahyoid strap muscles
Infrahyoid
The infrahyoid muscles are a group of four pairs of muscles in the anterior part of the neck. The infrahyoid muscles are a group of four pairs of muscles in the anterior part of the neck. The infrahyoid muscles are a group of four pairs of muscles in the anterior part of the neck. (The term...

 - infraorbital canal
Infraorbital canal
Not to be confused with the infraorbital groove and infraorbital foramen, which are on opposite ends of the canal.One of the canals of the orbital surface of the maxilla, the infraorbital canal, opens just below the margin of the orbit...

 - infraorbital foramen
Infraorbital foramen
Above the canine fossa is the infraorbital foramen, the end of the infraorbital canal; it transmits the infraorbital artery, vein, and infraorbital nerve.-External links: *...

 - infraorbital groove
Infraorbital groove
Not to be confused with the inferior orbital fissure, which is just lateral to the infraorbital groove.Also not to be confused with the infraorbital canal, into which the groove enters, nor the infraorbital foramen, which is the canal's opening on the other side.Near the middle of the posterior...

 - infraorbital nerve
Infraorbital nerve
After the maxillary nerve enters the infraorbital canal, the nerve is frequently called the infraorbital nerve. This nerve innervates the lower eyelid, upper lip, and part of the nasal vestibule and exits the infraorbital foramen of the maxilla.-See also:...

 - infraspinatus muscle
Infraspinatus muscle
In human anatomy, the infraspinatus muscle is a thick triangular muscle, which occupies the chief part of the infraspinatous fossa. As one of the four muscles of the rotator cuff, the main function of the infraspinatus is to externally rotate the arm and stabilize the shoulder joint.-Origin and...

 - infratemporal fossa
Infratemporal fossa
The infratemporal fossa is an irregularly shaped cavity, situated below and medial to the zygomatic arch.* anteriorly, by the infratemporal surface of the maxilla and the ridge which descends from its zygomatic process...

 - infratentorial - infundibular nucleus - infundibulum - inguinal - inguinal canal
Inguinal canal
The inguinal canal is a passage in the anterior abdominal wall which in men conveys the spermatic cord and in women the round ligament. The inguinal canal is larger and more prominent in men.-Site:...

 - inguinal ligament
Inguinal ligament
The inguinal ligament is a band running from the pubic tubercle to the anterior superior iliac spine. Its anatomy is very important for operating on hernia patients.-Anatomy:...

 - inguinal lymph nodes - inguinal rings - inguinal triangle
Inguinal triangle
In human anatomy, the inguinal triangle is a region of the abdominal wall. It is also known by the eponym Hesselbach's triangle, after Franz Kaspar Hesselbach.-Boundaries:It is defined by the following structures:...

 - inion - inner table of skull - innervate - innominate - insula
Insular cortex
In each hemisphere of the mammalian brain the insular cortex is a portion of the cerebral cortex folded deep within the lateral sulcus between the temporal lobe and the frontal lobe. The cortical area overlying it towards the lateral surface of the brain is the operculum...

 - integument - integumentary system
Integumentary system
The integumentary system is the organ system that protects the body from damage, comprising the skin and its appendages...

 - interatrial septum
Interatrial septum
The interatrial septum is the wall of tissue that separates the right and left atria of the heart.-Development:The interatrial septum forms during the first and second months of fetal development. Formation of the septum occurs in several stages...

 - intercalated disc
Intercalated disc
When observing cardiac tissue through a microscope, intercalated discs are an identifying feature of cardiac muscle. Cardiac muscle consists of single heart muscle cells which have to be connected by intercalated discs to work as a functional organ. By contrast, skeletal muscle consists of...

 - intercondylar eminences - intercostal muscles - interdigitation - interhemispheric fissure - intermediate horn cell - intermediolateral cell column - intermediolateral nucleus
Intermediolateral nucleus
The intermediolateral nucleus is a region of gray matter found in Rexed lamina VII of the spinal column.Rexed Lamina VII contains several well defined nuclei including the nucleus dorsalis , the intermediolateral cell column , and the sacral autonomic nucleus.It extends from the first thoracic...

 - internal acoustic meatus - internal arcuate fiber - internal capsule
Internal capsule
The internal capsule is an area of white matter in the brain that separates the caudate nucleus and the thalamus from the lenticular nucleus. The internal capsule contains both ascending and descending axons....

 - internal carotid artery
Internal carotid artery
In human anatomy, the internal carotid arteries are two major arteries, one on each side of the head and neck. They arise from the common carotid arteries where these bifurcate into the internal and external carotid artery, and they supply the brain....

 - internal cerebral vein - internal ear - internal iliac artery
Internal iliac artery
The internal iliac artery is the main artery of the pelvis.-Structure:The internal iliac artery supplies the walls and viscera of the pelvis, the buttock, the reproductive organs, and the medial compartment of the thigh...

 - internal iliac vein
Internal iliac vein
The internal iliac vein begins near the upper part of the greater sciatic foramen, passes upward behind and slightly medial to the Internal iliac artery and, at the brim of the pelvis, joins with the external iliac vein to form the common iliac vein.-Tributaries:With the exception of the fetal...

 - internal jugular vein
Internal jugular vein
The two internal jugular veins collect the blood from the brain, the superficial parts of the face, and the neck.-Path:On both sides and at the base of the brain, the inferior petrosal sinus and the sigmoid sinus join to form the internal jugular vein...

 - internal laryngeal nerve
Internal laryngeal nerve
The internal laryngeal nerve is the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. It descends to the thyrohyoid membrane, pierces it in company with the superior laryngeal artery, and is distributed to the mucous membrane of the larynx....

 - internal medullary lamina - internal oblique muscle - internal thoracic artery
Internal thoracic artery
In human anatomy, the internal thoracic artery , previously known as the internal mammary artery , is an artery that supplies the anterior chest wall and the breasts...

 - internal thoracic veins - interneuron
Interneuron
An interneuron is a multipolar neuron which connects afferent neurons and efferent neurons in neural pathways...

 - internuncial - interosseus membrane - interpeduncular cistern
Interpeduncular cistern
The interpeduncular cistern is a wide cavity where the arachnoid extends across between the two temporal lobes....

 - interpeduncular fossa
Interpeduncular fossa
The Interpeduncular fossa is a somewhat lozenge-shaped area of the base of the brain, limited in front by the optic chiasma, behind by the antero-superior surface of the pons, antero-laterally by the converging optic tracts, and postero-laterally by the diverging cerebral peduncles.The structures...

 - interstitial - interthalamic adhesion
Interthalamic adhesion
The medial surface of the thalamus constitutes the upper part of the lateral wall of the third ventricle, and is connected to the corresponding surface of the opposite thalamus by a flattened gray band, the Interthalamic adhesion .In non-human mammals it is a large structure...

 - intertrochanteric line - interventricular foramen of Monro - interventricular septum
Interventricular septum
Interventricular septum , abbreviated IVS, is the stout wall separating the lower chambers of the heart from one another....

 - intervertebral disc
Intervertebral disc
Intervertebral discs lie between adjacent vertebrae in the spine. Each disc forms a cartilaginous joint to allow slight movement of the vertebrae, and acts as a ligament to hold the vertebrae together.-Structure:...

 - Intestinal villus - intestine
Intestine
In human anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the pyloric sphincter of the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine...

 - intrafusal - intrafusal muscle fibers - intralaminar thalamic nuclei - intramedullary - intrathalamic adhesion - intravenous - intrinsic muscles of the tongue - introitus
Introitus
The introitus is an entrance that goes into a canal or hollow organ. Introitus is another name for the vaginal orifice.Introitus has also been used for classifying uterine prolapse:*1st degree prolapse: cervix is in the vagina...

 - ipsilateral - iris
Iris (anatomy)
The iris is a thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupils and thus the amount of light reaching the retina. "Eye color" is the color of the iris, which can be green, blue, or brown. In some cases it can be hazel , grey, violet, or even pink...

 - iris dilator muscle
Iris dilator muscle
The iris dilator muscle , is a smooth muscle of the eye, running radially in the iris and therefore fit as a dilator. It has its origin from the anterior epithelium. It is innervated by the sympathetic system, which acts by releasing noradrenaline, which acts on α1-receptors...

 - iris sphincter muscle
Iris sphincter muscle
The iris sphincter muscle is a muscle in the part of the eye called the iris...

 - ischemia
Ischemia
In medicine, ischemia is a restriction in blood supply, generally due to factors in the blood vessels, with resultant damage or dysfunction of tissue. It may also be spelled ischaemia or ischæmia...

 - ischial spine
Ischial spine
From the posterior border of the body of the Ischium there extends backward a thin and pointed triangular eminence, the ischial spine, more or less elongated in different subjects.It can serve as a landmark in pudendal anesthesia.-Surfaces:...

 - ischial tuberosity - ischiorectal fossa
Ischiorectal fossa
The ischioanal fossa is somewhat prismatic in shape, with its base directed to the surface of the perineum, and its apex at the line of meeting of the obturator and anal fasciae.-Boundaries:...

 - ischium - Islets of Langerhans
Islets of Langerhans
The islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine cells. Discovered in 1869 by German pathological anatomist Paul Langerhans at the age of 22, the islets of Langerhans constitute approximately 1 to 2% of the mass of the pancreas...

 - isthmus

J


Jacksonian seizure
Jacksonian seizure
Jacksonian seizure is associated with a form of epilepsy. They involve a progression of the location of the seizure in the brain, which leads to a "march" of the motor presentation of symptoms.-Presentation:...

 - jaw
Jaw
The jaw is any opposable articulated structure at the entrance of the mouth, typically used for grasping and manipulating food. The term jaws is also broadly applied to the whole of the structures constituting the vault of the mouth and serving to open and close it and is part of the body plan of...

 - jejunum
Jejunum
The jejunum is the middle section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds. In fish, the divisions of the small intestine are not as clear and the terms middle intestine or mid-gut may be used instead of jejunum.The jejunum lies between the duodenum...

 - joint
Joint
A joint is the location at which two or more bones make contact. They are constructed to allow movement and provide mechanical support, and are classified structurally and functionally.-Classification:...

 - joint capsule
Joint capsule
An articular capsule is an envelope surrounding a synovial joint.-Layers:Each capsule consists of two layers:* an outer layer composed of avascular white fibrous tissue...

 - joint space - jugular - jugular foramen
Jugular foramen
The jugular foramen is a large aperture in the base of the skull. It is located behind the carotid canal and is formed in front by the petrous portion of the temporal, and behind by the occipital; it is generally larger on the right than on the left side....

 - jugular notch - jugum - juxtaglomerular apparatus
Juxtaglomerular apparatus
The juxtaglomerular apparatus is a microscopic structure in the kidney, which regulates the function of each nephron. The juxtaglomerular apparatus is named for its proximity to the glomerulus: it is found between the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle and the returning distal convoluted tubule...


K


keel
Keel (bird)
A keel or carina in bird anatomy is an extension of the sternum which runs axially along the midline of the sternum and extends outward, perpendicular to the plane of the ribs. The keel provides an anchor to which a bird's wing muscles attach, thereby providing adequate leverage for flight...

 - keloid
Keloid
A keloid is a type of scar, which depending on its maturity, is composed mainly of either type III or type I collagen. It is a result of an overgrowth of granulation tissue at the site of a healed skin injury which is then slowly replaced by collagen type 1...

 - keratin
Keratin
Keratin refers to a family of fibrous structural proteins. Keratin is the key of structural material making up the outer layer of human skin. It is also the key structural component of hair and nails...

 - kidney
Kidney
The kidneys, organs with several functions, serve essential regulatory roles in most animals, including vertebrates and some invertebrates. They are essential in the urinary system and also serve homeostatic functions such as the regulation of electrolytes, maintenance of acid–base balance, and...

 - kinesthesia - kinocilium
Kinocilium
A kinocilium is a special type of cilium on the apex of hair cells located in the sensory epithelium of the vertebrate inner ear.-Anatomy in humans:...

 - knee
Knee
The knee joint joins the thigh with the leg and consists of two articulations: one between the fibula and tibia, and one between the femur and patella. It is the largest joint in the human body and is very complicated. The knee is a mobile trocho-ginglymus , which permits flexion and extension as...

 - knee jerk reflex - kneecap - knuckle
Metacarpophalangeal joint
The metacarpophalangeal joints are of the condyloid kind, formed by the reception of the rounded heads of the metacarpal bones into shallow cavities on the proximal ends of the first phalanges, with the exception of that of the thumb, which presents more of the characters of a ginglymoid joint...

 - koniocortex - kyphosis
Kyphosis
Kyphosis , also called roundback or Kelso's hunchback, is a condition of over-curvature of the thoracic vertebrae...


L


labia majora
Vulva
The vulva consists of the external genital organs of the female mammal. This article deals with the vulva of the human being, although the structures are similar for other mammals....

 - labia minora
Vulva
The vulva consists of the external genital organs of the female mammal. This article deals with the vulva of the human being, although the structures are similar for other mammals....

 - labium - labrum
Labrum (disambiguation)
Labrum can refer to:* Labrum , a lip-like mouth part* Labrum , a large water-filled vessel or basin with an overhanging lip* Labrum , an English surname-Human anatomy:...

 - labyrinth - lacrimal bone
Lacrimal bone
The lacrimal bone, the smallest and most fragile bone of the face, is situated at the front part of the medial wall of the orbit. It has two surfaces and four borders.-Lateral or orbital surface:...

 - lacrimal canaliculus - lacrimal fossa - lacrimal gland
Lacrimal gland
The lacrimal glands are paired almond-shaped glands, one for each eye, that secrete the aqueous layer of the tear film. They are situated in the upper, outer portion of each orbit, in the lacrimal fossa of the orbit formed by the frontal bone. Inflammation of the lacrimal glands is called...

 - lacrimal nerve
Lacrimal nerve
The lacrimal nerve is the smallest of the three branches of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve.It sometimes receives a filament from the trochlear nerve, but this is possibly derived from the branch that goes from the ophthalmic to the trochlear nerve.It passes forward in a separate...

 - lacrimal papilla
Lacrimal papilla
At the basal angles of the lacus lacrimalis, on the margin of each eyelid, is a small conical elevation, the lacrimal papilla, the apex of which is pierced by a small orifice, the punctum lacrimale, the commencement of the lacrimal duct.-External links:*...

 - lacrimal punctum
Lacrimal punctum
The lacrimal canaliculi, one in each eyelid, commence at minute orifices, termed puncta lacrimalia , on the summits of the papillae lacrimales, seen on the margins of the lids at the lateral extremity of the lacus lacrimalis...

 - lacrimal sac
Lacrimal sac
The lacrimal sac is the upper dilated end of the nasolacrimal duct, and is lodged in a deep groove formed by the lacrimal bone and frontal process of the maxilla...

 - lactation
Lactation
Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young. The process occurs in all female mammals, however it predates mammals. In humans the process of feeding milk is called breastfeeding or nursing...

 - lacteal
Lacteal
A lacteal is a lymphatic capillary that absorbs dietary fats in the villi of the small intestine.Triglycerides are emulsified by bile and hydrolyzed by the enzyme lipase, resulting in a mixture of fatty acids and monoglycerides. These then pass from the intestinal lumen into the enterocyte, where...

 - lactiferous duct
Lactiferous duct
Lactiferous ducts lead from the lobules of the mammary gland to the tip of the nipple. They are also referred to as galactophores, galactophorous ducts, mammary ducts, mamillary ducts and milk ducts...

 - lacuna - lacunae laterales - lacus lacrimalis - lambdoid suture
Lambdoid suture
The lambdoid suture is a dense, fibrous connective tissue joint on the posterior aspect of the skull that connects the parietal and temporal bones with the occipital bone.Its name comes from its lambda-like shape....

 - lamella - lamina
Lamina (anatomy)
Lamina is a general anatomical term meaning "plate" or "layer." It is used in both gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy to describe structures.Some examples include:...

 - lamina papyracea - lamina terminalis
Lamina terminalis
The median portion of the wall of the fore-brain vesicle consists of a thin lamina, the lamina terminalis, which stretches from the interventricular foramen to the recess at the base of the optic stalk and contains the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, which regulates the osmolarity of...

 - laminectomy
Laminectomy
Laminectomy is a spine operation to remove the portion of the vertebral bone called the lamina. There are many variations of laminectomy. In the most minimal form small skin incisions are made, back muscles are pushed aside rather than cut, and the parts of the vertebra adjacent to the lamina are...

 - language center
Language center
The term language center refers to the areas of the brain which serve a particular function for speech processing and production.- Current scientific consensus :...

 - lanugo
Lanugo
Lanugo is fine, downy hair as a type of fur. It is often found in teratomas .-Fetal development:Lanugo grows on fetuses as a normal part of gestation, but is usually shed and replaced by vellus hair at about 33 to 36 weeks of gestational age...

 - large intestine
Large intestine
The large intestine is the third-to-last part of the digestive system — — in vertebrate animals. Its function is to absorb water from the remaining indigestible food matter, and then to pass useless waste material from the body...

 - laryngeal inlet
Laryngeal inlet
The laryngeal inlet is the opening that connects the pharynx and the larynx.-Borders:Its borders are formed by:* the free curved edge of the epiglottis, anteriorly...

 - laryngopharynx - larynx
Larynx
The larynx , commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the neck of amphibians, reptiles and mammals involved in breathing, sound production, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration. It manipulates pitch and volume...

 - lateral aperture - lateral cervical muscle - lateral corticospinal tract
Lateral corticospinal tract
The lateral corticospinal tract is the largest part of the corticospinal tract...

 - lateral cricoarytenoid muscle
Lateral cricoarytenoid muscle
The lateral cricoarytenoid muscles extend from the lateral cricoid cartilage to the ipsilateral arytenoid cartilage. By rotating the arytenoid cartilages medially, these muscles adduct the vocal cords and thereby close the rima glottidis, protecting the airway...

 - lateral cuneate nucleus - lateral dorsal nucleus of thalamus
Lateral dorsal nucleus of thalamus
The lateral dorsal nucleus is a nucleus of the thalamus.It acts in concert with the anterior nuclei of thalamus.It receives significant input from several subdivisions of visual cortex, and has a primary output to parietal cortex on the dorsolateral cortical convexity, giving it access to limbic...

 - lateral fissure - lateral funiculus
Lateral funiculus
The most lateral of the bundles of the anterior nerve roots is generally taken as a dividing line that separates the antero-lateral region into two parts, viz., an anterior funiculus, between the anterior median fissure and the most lateral of the anterior nerve roots; and a lateral funiculus,...

 - lateral geniculate body or nucleus - lateral horn
Lateral horn
In the thoracic region, the postero-lateral part of the anterior column projects lateralward as a triangular field, which is named the lateral column .-Nerve Cells in the Lateral Column:...

 - lateral hypothalamus
Lateral hypothalamus
The lateral hypothalamus or lateral hypothalamic area is a part of the hypothalamus.It is concerned with hunger. Damage to this area can cause reduced food intake...

 - lateral lemniscus
Lateral lemniscus
The lateral lemniscus is a tract of axons in the brainstem that carries information about sound from the cochlear nucleus to various brainstem nuclei and ultimately the contralateral inferior colliculus of the midbrain...

 - lateral olfactory stria
Lateral olfactory stria
The lateral olfactory stria is directed across the lateral part of the anterior perforated substance and then bends abruptly medialward toward the uncus of the hippocampal gyrus.-External links:* http://instruct.uwo.ca/anatomy/530/olfactor.gif...

 - lateral posterior nucleus - lateral pterygoid muscle
Lateral pterygoid muscle
The lateral pterygoid is a muscle of mastication with two heads. It lies superiorly to the medial pterygoid.-Origin and insertion:...

 - lateral pterygoid plate
Lateral pterygoid plate
The lateral pterygoid plate of the sphenoid is broad, thin, and everted; its lateral surface forms part of the medial wall of the infratemporal fossa, and gives attachment to the lateral pterygoid muscle; its medial surface forms part of the pterygoid fossa, and gives attachment to the medial...

 - lateral recess
Lateral recess
The lateral recess is a projection of the fourth ventricle which extends into the inferior cerebellar peduncle of the brainstem. The lateral aperture, an opening in each extremity of the lateral recess, provides a conduit for cerebrospinal fluid to flow from the brain's ventricular system into the...

 (of the fourth ventricle) - lateral rectus muscle
Lateral rectus muscle
The lateral rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit. It is one of six extraocular muscles that control the movements of the eye and the only muscle innervated by the abducens nerve, cranial nerve VI....

 - lateral sclerosis - lateral semicircular canal - lateral spinothalamic tract
Lateral spinothalamic tract
The lateral spinothalamic tract , which is a part of the Anterolateral system, is a bundle of sensory axons ascending through the white matter of the spinal cord, carrying sensory information to the brain. It carries pain and temperature sensory information to the thalamus of the brain...

 - lateral striate arteries - lateral thalamic nucleus - lateral ventricles
Lateral ventricles
The lateral ventricles are part of the ventricular system of the brain. Classified as part of the telencephalon, they are the largest of the ventricles....

 - lateral vertebral muscle - lateral vestibular nucleus
Lateral vestibular nucleus
The lateral vestibular nucleus is the continuation upward and lateralward of the principal nucleus, and in it terminate many of the ascending branches of the vestibular nerve.-Anatomy:...

 - lateral vestibulospinal tract
Lateral vestibulospinal tract
The lateral vestibulospinal tract is one of the descending spinal tracts of the ventromedial pathway.The lateral part of the vestibulospinal tract is the major portion and is composed of fibers originating in the lateral, superior, and inferior vestibular nuclei . It projects ipsilaterally down to...

 - latissimus dorsi - Laurer's canal
Laurer's canal
Laurer's canal is a part of the reproductive system of trematodes, analogous to the vagina. In the Digeneans it opens from the dorsal surface of the worm, and in the Aspidogastreans ends in a blind ended sac...

 - left atrium
Left atrium
The left atrium is one of the four chambers in the human heart. It receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins, and pumps it into the left ventricle, via the mitral valve.-Foramen ovale:...

 - left colic artery
Left colic artery
The left colic artery is a branch of the inferior mesenteric artery that runs to the left behind the peritoneum and in front of the psoas major muscle, and after a short, but variable, course divides into an ascending and a descending branch; the stem of the artery or its branches cross the left...

 - left common carotid artery - left gastroepiploic artery - left mainstem bronchi - left marginal artery
Left marginal artery
The left marginal artery is a branch of the circumflex artery, originating at the posterior interventricular sulcus, traveling along the left margin of heart towards the apex of the heart.-Additional images:...

 - left pulmonary artery
Left pulmonary artery
The left pulmonary artery or left branch of the pulmonary artery, shorter and somewhat smaller than the right, passes horizontally in front of the descending aorta and left bronchus to the root of the left lung, where it divides into two branches, one for each lobe of the lung.Above, it is...

 - left ventricle
Left ventricle
The left ventricle is one of four chambers in the human heart. It receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium via the mitral valve, and pumps it into the aorta via the aortic valve.-Shape:...

 - leg - lemniscus - lens - lenticular nucleus - lenticulostriate artery - lentiform - lentiform nucleus
Lentiform nucleus
The lentiform nucleus or lenticular nucleus comprises the putamen and the globus pallidus within the basal ganglia. It is a large, cone-shaped mass of gray matter just lateral to the internal capsule.-Etymology:...

 - leptomeninx - lesser occipital nerve
Lesser occipital nerve
The lesser occipital nerve or small occipital nerve is a cutaneous spinal nerve arising between the second and third cervical vertebrae, along with the greater occipital nerve...

 - lesser omentum
Lesser omentum
The lesser omentum is the double layer of peritoneum that extends from the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach and the start of the duodenum.- Structure :...

 - lesser palatine foramen - lesser petrosal nerve
Lesser petrosal nerve
The lesser petrosal nerve consists of parasympathetic fibres. It leaves the tympanic plexus to synapse in the otic ganglion, and eventually provide parasympathetic innervation to the parotid gland....

 - Lesser trochanter
Lesser trochanter
The lesser trochanter of the femur is a conical eminence, which varies in size in different subjects-Anatomy:It projects from the lower and back part of the base of the femur neck.From its apex three well-marked borders extend:...

 - lesser wing of sphenoid - levator - levator labii superioris muscle - levator palpebrae muscle - levator palpebrae superioris - levator scapulae muscle
Levator scapulae muscle
In human anatomy, the levator scapulae is a skeletal muscle situated at the back and side of the neck. As the name suggests, its main function is to lift the scapula.-Origin and insertion:...

 - levator velum palatini muscle - ligament
Ligament
In anatomy, the term ligament is used to denote any of three types of structures. Most commonly, it refers to fibrous tissue that connects bones to other bones and is also known as articular ligament, articular larua, fibrous ligament, or true ligament.Ligament can also refer to:* Peritoneal...

 - ligament of Treitz - ligamentum arteriosum
Ligamentum arteriosum
The ligamentum arteriosum is a small ligament attached to the superior surface of the pulmonary trunk and the inferior surface of the aortic arch...

 - ligamentum flavum - ligamentum teres - light reflex - limbic system
Limbic system
The limbic system is a set of brain structures including the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior thalamic nuclei, septum, limbic cortex and fornix, which seemingly support a variety of functions including emotion, behavior, long term memory, and olfaction. The term "limbic" comes from the Latin...

 - limen insulae
Limen insulae
The Limen insulae is the point at which the Insular cortex is continuous with the cortex of the Frontal lobe.-External links:*http://www.uams.edu/radiology/education/residency/diagnostic/pdf/sylvian_cistern_RSNA2003.pdf...

 - line of Gennari
Line of Gennari
In the human brain, the stria of Gennari is a band of myelinated axons projecting into layer 4B of the primary visual cortex from layer 4Cα. This formation is visible to the naked eye, and is coterminous with area V1.Although other species have areas which are designated primary visual cortex,...

 - linea alba - linea aspera
Linea aspera
The linea aspera is a ridge of roughened surface on the posterior aspect of the femur, to which are attached muscles and intermuscular septum.Its margins diverge above and below....

 - lingua
Tongue
The tongue is a muscular hydrostat on the floors of the mouths of most vertebrates which manipulates food for mastication. It is the primary organ of taste , as much of the upper surface of the tongue is covered in papillae and taste buds. It is sensitive and kept moist by saliva, and is richly...

 - lingual artery
Lingual artery
The lingual artery arises from the external carotid between the superior thyroid and facial artery. It can be located easily in the tongue.-Path:It first runs obliquely upward and medialward to the greater cornu of the hyoid bone....

 - lingual nerve
Lingual nerve
The lingual nerve is a branch of the mandibular nerve , itself a branch of the trigeminal nerve, which supplies sensory innervation to the tongue...

 - lingual tonsil - lingual vein - lingula - lip
Lip
Lips are a visible body part at the mouth of humans and many animals. Lips are soft, movable, and serve as the opening for food intake and in the articulation of sound and speech...

 - lipofuscin
Lipofuscin
Lipofuscin is the name given to finely granular yellow-brown pigment granules composed of lipid-containing residues of lysosomal digestion. It is considered one of the aging or "wear-and-tear" pigments, found in the liver, kidney, heart muscle, adrenals, nerve cells, and ganglion cells...

 - Lissauer's tract - lissencephalic - list of human anatomical features - Little's area - liver
Liver
The liver is a vital organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. It has a wide range of functions, including detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion...

 - lobule - locus coeruleus - loin
Loin
The loins are the sides between the lower ribs and pelvis, and the lower part of the back. It is often used when describing the anatomy of humans and quadrupeds . The anatomical reference also carries over into the description of cuts of meat from some such animals, eg...

 - long bone
Long bone
The long bones are those that are longer than they are wide. They are one of five types of bones: long, short, flat, irregular and sesamoid. Long bones, especially the femur and tibia, are subjected to most of the load during daily activities and they are crucial for skeletal mobility. They grow...

 - long ciliary nerves
Long ciliary nerves
The long ciliary nerves, two or three in number, are given off from the nasociliary, as it crosses the optic nerve.They accompany the short ciliary nerves from the ciliary ganglion, pierce the posterior part of the sclera, and running forward between it and the choroid, are distributed to the iris...

 - longitudinal fissure - longus capitis muscle
Longus capitis muscle
The longus capitis muscle , broad and thick above, narrow below, arises by four tendinous slips, from the anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth cervical vertebræ, and ascends, converging toward its fellow of the opposite side, to be inserted into the...

 - longus capitus muscle - longus colli muscle
Longus colli muscle
The Longus colli muscle is a muscle of the human body.The Longus colli is situated on the anterior surface of the vertebral column, between the atlas and the third thoracic vertebra....

 - love handles - lower motor neuron
Lower motor neuron
Lower motor neurons are the motor neurons connecting the brainstem and spinal cord to muscle fibers, bringing the nerve impulses from the upper motor neurons out to the muscles...

 - lucidum - lumbar
Lumbar
In tetrapod anatomy, lumbar is an adjective that means of or pertaining to the abdominal segment of the torso, between the diaphragm and the sacrum ...

 - lumbar artery - lumbar enlargement
Lumbar enlargement
The lumbar enlargement gives attachment to the nerves which supply the lower limbs.It commences about the level of T11, and reaches its maximum circumference, of about 33 mm., at L1 , below which it tapers rapidly into the conus medullaris.An analogous region for the upper limbs exists at the...

 - lumbar spine - lumbar vertebrae
Lumbar vertebrae
The lumbar vertebrae are the largest segments of the movable part of the vertebral column, and are characterized by the absence of the foramen transversarium within the transverse process, and by the absence of facets on the sides of the body...

 - lumbosacral enlargement - lumbosacral plexus
Lumbosacral plexus
The anterior divisions of the lumbar nerves, sacral nerves, and coccygeal nerve form the lumbosacral plexus, the first lumbar nerve being frequently joined by a branch from the twelfth thoracic. For descriptive purposes this plexus is usually divided into three parts:* lumbar plexus* sacral plexus*...

 - lumbrical - lunate
Lunate bone
The lunate bone is a carpal bone in the human hand that may be distinguished by its deep concavity and crescentic outline. It is situated in the center of the proximal row of the carpus region between the fore arm and hand...

 - lung
Lung
The lung is the essential respiration organ in many air-breathing animals, including most tetrapods, a few fish and a few snails. In mammals and the more complex life forms, the two lungs are located near the backbone on either side of the heart...

 - lymph
Lymph
Lymph is considered a part of the interstitial fluid, the fluid which lies in the interstices of all body tissues. Interstitial fluid becomes lymph when it enters a lymph capillary...

 - lymph nodes - lymphatic system
Lymphatic system
The lymphoid system is the part of the immune system comprising a network of conduits called lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph unidirectionally toward the heart. Lymphoid tissue is found in many organs, particularly the lymph nodes, and in the lymphoid follicles associated...

 - lymphatic vessels

M


macroscopic
Macroscopic
The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or processes are of a size which is measurable and observable by the naked eye.When applied to phenomena and abstract objects, the macroscopic scale describes existence in the world as we perceive it, often in contrast to experiences or...

 - macula
Macula
The macula or macula lutea is an oval-shaped highly pigmented yellow spot near the center of the retina of the human eye. It has a diameter of around 5 mm and is often histologically defined as having two or more layers of ganglion cells...

 - macular sparing - magnocellular nuclei - main pulmonary artery - major duodenal papilla
Major duodenal papilla
The common bile duct and the pancreatic duct together perforate the medial side of the second portion of the duodenum obliquely, some 7 to 10 cm below the pylorus, forming a structure called the major duodenal papilla....

 - malleolus
Malleolus
Each leg is supported by two bones, the tibia on the inner side of the leg and the fibula on the outer side of the leg.The medial malleolus is the prominence on the inner side of the ankle, formed by the lower end of the tibia....

 - malleus
Malleus
The malleus or hammer is a hammer-shaped small bone or ossicle of the middle ear which connects with the incus and is attached to the inner surface of the eardrum...

 - Malpighian layer
Malpighian layer
The Malpighian layer of the skin is a term that is generally defined as both the stratum basale and stratum spinosum as a unit, although it is occasionally defined as the stratum basale specifically...

 - mammae - mammary gland
Mammary gland
A mammary gland is an organ in mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring. Mammals get their name from the word "mammary". In ruminants such as cows, goats, and deer, the mammary glands are contained in their udders...

 - mammilla - mammillary bodies - mammillothalamic tract
Mammillothalamic tract
The mammillothalamic fasciculus arises from cells in both the medial and lateral nuclei of the mammillary body and by fibers that are directly continued from the fornix.The Mammillothalamic fasciculus then connects the mammillary body to the dorsal tegmental nuclei, the ventral...

 - mammogram - mandible - mandibular condyles - mandibular foramen
Mandibular foramen
The Mandibular foramen is an opening on the internal surface of the ramus for divisions of the mandibular vessels and nerve to pass.-Contents:...

 - mandibular fossa
Mandibular fossa
The mandibular fossa is the depression in the temporal bone that articulates with the mandibular condyle. In the temporal bone, the mandibular fossa is bounded, in front, by the articular tubercle; behind, by the tympanic part of the bone, which separates it from the external acoustic meatus; it is...

 - mandibular nerve
Mandibular nerve
The mandibular nerve is the largest of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve.-Roots:It is made up of two roots:* a large sensory root proceeding from the inferior angle of the trigeminal ganglion....

 - mandibular notch
Mandibular notch
The upper border of the ramus of mandible is thin, and is surmounted by two processes, the coronoid process anteriorly and the condyloid process posteriorly, separated by a deep concavity, the mandibular notch...

 - manubrium
Manubrium
The manubrium or manubrium sterni is the broad, upper part of the sternum. Located ventrally with a quadrangular shape, wider superiorly and narrower inferiorly, it articulates with the clavicles and the first two ribs.-Borders:The superior border is the thickest and presents at its center the...

 - massa intermedia - masseter muscle
Masseter muscle
In human anatomy, the masseter is one of the muscles of mastication.In the animal kingdom, it is particularly powerful in herbivores to facilitate chewing of plant matter.-Origin and insertion of the two heads:...

 - masseteric vessels - mastication
Mastication
Mastication or chewing is the process by which food is crushed and ground by teeth. It is the first step of digestion and it increases the surface area of foods to allow more efficient break down by enzymes. During the mastication process, the food is positioned between the teeth for grinding by...

 - mastoid air cells - mastoid process
Mastoid process
The mastoid process is a conical prominence projecting from the undersurface of the mastoid portion of the temporal bone. It is located just behind the external acoustic meatus, and lateral to the styloid process...

 - matrix
Matrix (biology)
In biology, matrix is the material between animal or plant cells, in which more specialized structures are embedded, and a specific part of the mitochondrion that is the site of oxidation of organic molecules. The internal structure of connective tissues is an extracellular matrix...

 - maxilla
Maxilla
The maxilla is a fusion of two bones along the palatal fissure that form the upper jaw. This is similar to the mandible , which is also a fusion of two halves at the mental symphysis. Sometimes The maxilla (plural: maxillae) is a fusion of two bones along the palatal fissure that form the upper...

 - maxillae - maxillary antrum - maxillary artery - maxillary nerve - maxillary sinus
Maxillary sinus
The pyramid shaped maxillary sinus is the largest of the paranasal sinuses, and drains into the nose. It is present at birth as rudimentary air cells, and develops throughout childhood.-General characteristics:...

 - meatus
Meatus
In anatomy, a meatus is a natural body opening or canal .Examples include:* the external acoustic meatus, the opening of the ear canal...

 - meconium
Meconium
Meconium is the earliest stools of an infant. Unlike later feces, meconium is composed of materials ingested during the time the infant spends in the uterus: intestinal epithelial cells, lanugo, mucus, amniotic fluid, bile, and water. Meconium is almost sterile, unlike later feces, is viscous and...

 - medial forebrain bundle
Medial forebrain bundle
The Medial forebrain bundle , is a complex bundle of axons coming from the basal olfactory regions, the periamygdaloid region, and the septal nuclei.-Anatomy:...

 - medial geniculate boby - medial geniculate nucleus or body - medial lemniscus
Medial lemniscus
The medial lemniscus, also known as Reil's band or Reil's ribbon, is a pathway in the brainstem that carries sensory information from the gracile and cuneate nuclei to the thalamus.-Path:...

 - medial longitudinal fasciculus
Medial longitudinal fasciculus
The medial longitudinal fasciculus is a pair of crossed fiber tracts , one on each side of the brainstem. These bundles of axons are situated near the midline of the brainstem and are composed of both ascending and descending fibers that arise from a number of sources and terminate in different...

 - medial meniscus
Medial meniscus
-External links: *...

 - medial olfactory stria
Medial olfactory stria
The medial olfactory stria turns medialward behind the parolfactory area and ends in the subcallosal gyrus; in some cases a small intermediate stria is seen running backward to the anterior perforated substance.-External links:...

 - medial pterygoid plate
Medial pterygoid plate
The medial pterygoid plate of the sphenoid is narrower and longer than the lateral pterygoid plate; it curves lateralward at its lower extremity into a hook-like process, the pterygoid hamulus, around which the tendon of the Tensor veli palatini glides.The lateral surface of this plate forms part...

 - medial rectus muscle
Medial rectus muscle
The medial rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit.As with most of the muscles of the orbit, it is innervated by the inferior division of the oculomotor nerve ....

 - medial vestibular nucleus
Medial vestibular nucleus
The medial vestibular nucleus is one of the vestibular nuclei. It is located in the medulla oblongata.Lateral vestibulo-spinal tract - via ventrolateral medulla and spinal cord to ventral funiculus...

 - medial vestibulospinal tract
Medial vestibulospinal tract
The medial vestibulospinal tract is one of the descending spinal tracts of the ventromedial pathway.The medial part of the vestibulospinal tract is the smaller part, and is primarily made of fibers from the medial vestibular nucleus...

 - median aperture
Median aperture
The median aperture drains CSF from the fourth ventricle into the cisterna magna. The two lateral apertures , one on the left and one on the right, are the primary routes for drainage of cerebrospinal fluid from the fourth ventricle into the cerebellopontine angle cistern...

 - median eminence
Median eminence
The median eminence is part of the inferior boundary for the hypothalamus part of the human brain. A small swelling on the tuber cinereum posterior to the infundibulum - atop the pituitary stalk - the median eminence lies in the area roughly bounded on its posterolateral region by the cerebral...

 - median neuropathy - mediastinum
Mediastinum
The mediastinum is a non-delineated group of structures in the thorax, surrounded by loose connective tissue. It is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity...

 - medilla oblongata - medulla oblongata
Medulla oblongata
The medulla oblongata is the lower half of the brainstem. In discussions of neurology and similar contexts where no ambiguity will result, it is often referred to as simply the medulla...

 - medullary cavity
Medullary cavity
The medullary cavity is the central cavity of bone shafts where red bone marrow and/or yellow bone marrow is stored; hence, the medullary cavity is also known as the marrow cavity...

 - medullary velum - Meissner's corpuscle
Meissner's corpuscle
Meissner's corpuscles are a type of mechanoreceptor. They are a type of nerve ending in the skin that is responsible for sensitivity to light touch. In particular, they have highest sensitivity when sensing vibrations lower than 50 Hertz...

 - membrane
Biological membrane
A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separatingmembrane that acts as a selective barrier, within or around a cell. It consists of a lipid bilayer with embedded proteins that may constitute close to 50% of membrane content...

 - membraneous urethra - membranous labyrinth
Membranous labyrinth
The receptors for the senses of equilibrium and hearing are housed within a collection of fluid filled tubes and chambers known as the membranous labyrinth...

 - mengingioma - meninges
Meninges
The meninges is the system of membranes which envelopes the central nervous system. The meninges consist of three layers: the dura mater, the arachnoid mater, and the pia mater. The primary function of the meninges and of the cerebrospinal fluid is to protect the central nervous system.-Dura...

 - meningiomas - meniscus (anatomy)
Meniscus (anatomy)
In anatomy, a meniscus is a crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous structure that, in contrast to articular disks, only partly divides a joint cavity. In humans it is present in the knee, acromioclavicular, sternoclavicular, and temporomandibular joints; in other organisms they may be present in other...

 - mental foramen
Mental foramen
The mental foramen is one of two holes located on the anterior surface of the mandible. It permits passage of the mental nerve and vessels. The mental foramen descends slightly in edentulous individuals.- Variations :...

 - mental nerve
Mental nerve
Mental nerve is a general somatic afferent nerve which provides sensation to the anterior aspects of the chin and lower lip as well as the buccal gingivae of the mandibular anterior teeth and the premolars...

 - mentalis muscle - mentum
Mentum
The mentum refers to a projecting structure near the mouth of any of several animals:#In insects, the mentum is the distal part of the labium. The mentum bears the palps, glossae, paraglossae, and/or ligula....

 - mesencephalic reticular formation - mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus and tract - mesencephalon
Mesencephalon
The midbrain or mesencephalon is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal , and temperature regulation....

 - midbrain
Mesencephalon
The midbrain or mesencephalon is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal , and temperature regulation....

 - mesenchyme
Mesenchyme
Mesenchyme, or mesenchymal connective tissue, is a type of undifferentiated loose connective tissue that is derived mostly from mesoderm, although some are derived from other germ layers; e.g. some mesenchyme is derived from neural crest cells and thus originates from the ectoderm...

 - mesentery
Mesentery
In anatomy, the mesentery is the double layer of peritoneum that suspends the jejunum and ileum from the posterior wall of the abdomen. Its meaning, however, is frequently extended to include double layers of peritoneum connecting various components of the abdominal cavity.-Mesentery :The...

 - mesoderm - mesosalpinx
Mesosalpinx
The mesosalpinx is part of the lining of the abdominal cavity in higher vertebrates, specifically the portion of the broad ligament that stretches from the ovary to the level of the uterine tube....

 - metacarpus - metaphysis
Metaphysis
The metaphysis is the wider portion of a long bone adjacent to the epiphyseal plate. It is this part of the bone that grows during childhood; as it grows, it ossifies near the diaphysis and the epiphyses...

 - metastatic lesion - metatarsals - metatarsus
Metatarsus
The metatarsus or metatarsal bones are a group of five long bones in the foot located between the tarsal bones of the hind- and mid-foot and the phalanges of the toes. Lacking individual names, the metatarsal bones are numbered from the medial side : the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth...

 - metathalamus
Metathalamus
The metathalamus is a composite structure of the thalamus, consisting of the medial geniculate nucleus and the lateral geniculate nucleus.-External links:*...

 - metencephalon
Metencephalon
The metencephalon is a developmental categorization of portions of the central nervous system. The metencephalon is composed of the pons and the cerebellum; contains a portion of the fourth ventricle; and the trigeminal nerve , abducens nerve , facial nerve , and a portion of the vestibulocochlear...

 - metopic - Meyer's loop - microglia
Microglia
Microglia are a type of glial cell that are the resident macrophages of the brain and spinal cord, and thus act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the central nervous system . Microglia constitute 20% of the total glial cell population within the brain...

 - micturition - midbrain - middle cerebellar peduncle - middle cerebral artery
Middle cerebral artery
-External links:*...

 - middle cervical sympathetic ganglion - middle colic artery
Middle colic artery
The middle colic artery is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery that mostly supplies the transverse colon. It arises just below the pancreas, and, passing downward and forward between the layers of the transverse mesocolon, divides into two branches: right and left.* The right branch...

 - middle concha - middle cranial fossa
Middle cranial fossa
The middle fossa, deeper than the anterior cranial fossa, is narrow medially and widens laterally to the sides of the skull. It is separated from the posterior fossa by the clivus and the petrous crest....

 - middle ear
Middle ear
The middle ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the cochlea. The mammalian middle ear contains three ossicles, which couple vibration of the eardrum into waves in the fluid and membranes of the inner ear. The hollow space of the middle ear has...

 - middle ear bone complex - middle meatus
Middle meatus
The middle meatus is a nasal opening or canal situated between the middle and inferior conchæ, and extends from the anterior to the posterior end of the latter....

 - middle meningeal artery
Middle meningeal artery
The middle meningeal artery is typically the third branch of the first part of the maxillary artery, one of the two terminal branches of the external carotid artery...

 - middle meningeal vein - middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle
Middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle
The middle pharyngeal constrictor is a fanshaped muscle, smaller than the Inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle.-Origin and insertion:It arises from the whole length of the upper border of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone, from the lesser cornu, and from the stylohyoid ligament.The fibers...

 - middle sacral artery - middle superior alveolar artery - middle temporal gyrus
Middle temporal gyrus
Middle temporal gyrus is a gyrus in the brain on the Temporal lobe. It is located between the superior temporal gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus. Its exact function is unknown, but it has been connected with processes as different as contemplating distance, recognition of known faces, and...

 - midline nuclei - miosis
Miosis
Miosis is the constriction of the pupil of the eye to two millimeters or less...

 - mitral cell
Mitral cell
Mitral cells are neurons that are part of the olfactory system. They are located in the olfactory bulb in the mammalian central nervous system. They receive information from the axons of olfactory receptor neurons, forming synapses in neuropils called glomeruli...

 - modiolus - molar
Molar (tooth)
Molars are the rearmost and most complicated kind of tooth in most mammals. In many mammals they grind food; hence the Latin name mola, "millstone"....

 - molecular layer - monaminergic neurons - mononeuropathy multiplex - mons veneris - moro reflex
Moro reflex
The Moro reflex, which is distinct from the startle reflex, is one of the infantile reflexes.It may be observed in incomplete form in premature birth after the 28th week of gestation, and is usually present in complete form by week 34...

 - morphology
Morphology (biology)
In biology, morphology is a branch of bioscience dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features....

 - morula
Morula
A morula is an embryo at an early stage of embryonic development, consisting of cells in a solid ball contained within the zona pellucida....

 - mossy fiber ending - motor aphasia - motor cortex
Motor cortex
Motor cortex is a term that describes regions of the cerebral cortex involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary motor functions.-Anatomy of the motor cortex :The motor cortex can be divided into four main parts:...

 - motor endplate - motor neuron
Motor neuron
In vertebrates, the term motor neuron classically applies to neurons located in the central nervous system that project their axons outside the CNS and directly or indirectly control muscles...

 - motor unit
Motor unit
”A motor unit is a single α-motor neuron and all of the corresponding muscle fibers it innervates; all of these fibers will be of the same type . When a motor unit is activated, all of its fibers contract...

 - mouth
Mouth
The mouth is the first portion of the alimentary canal that receives food andsaliva. The oral mucosa is the mucous membrane epithelium lining the inside of the mouth....

 - mucoperiosteum
Mucoperiosteum
Mucoperiosteum is a compound structure consisting of mucous membrane and of periosteum.It can be found in the palate....

 - mucosa - mucous membranes - multifidus - muscle
Muscle
Muscle is a contractile tissue of animals and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. Muscle cells contain contractile filaments that move past each other and change the size of the cell. They are classified as skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscles. Their function is to...

 - muscle fascicle
Muscle fascicle
In anatomy, a fascicle is a bundle of skeletal muscle fibers surrounded by perimysium, a type of connective tissue.Specialized muscle fibers in the heart that transmit electrical impulses from the Atrioventricular Node to the Purkinje Fibers are fascicles, also referred to as bundle branches...

 - muscle spindle
Muscle spindle
Muscle spindles are sensory receptors within the belly of a muscle, which primarily detect changes in the length of this muscle. They convey length information to the central nervous system via sensory neurons. This information can be processed by the brain to determine the position of body parts...

 - muscles of the thorax - muscular atrophy - muscular system
Muscular system
The muscular system is the anatomical system of a species that allows it to move. The muscular system in vertebrates is controlled through the nervous system, although some muscles can be completely autonomous.- Muscles :...

 - muscular triangle - mydriasis
Mydriasis
Mydriasis is a dilation of the pupil due to disease, trauma or the use of drugs. Normally, the pupil dilates in the dark and constricts in the light to respectively improve vividity at night and to protect the retina from sunlight damage during the day...

 - myelencephalon
Myelencephalon
The myelencephalon is categorized as a secondary vesicle in the development of the central nervous system. The prefix "myelen" is derived from Greek for medulla...

 - myelin
Myelin
Myelin is a dielectric material that forms a layer, the myelin sheath, usually around only the axon of a neuron. It is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. Myelin is an outgrowth of a type of glial cell. The production of the myelin sheath is called myelination...

 - myelogram - myelomeningocele - myelopathy
Myelopathy
Myelopathy refers to pathology of the spinal cord. When due to trauma, it is known as spinal cord injury. When inflammatory, it is known as myelitis. Disease that is vascular in nature is known as vascular myelopathy....

 - mylohyoid - mylohyoid groove
Mylohyoid groove
The margin of the mandibular foramen is irregular; it presents in front a prominent ridge, surmounted by a sharp spine, the lingula mandibulæ, which gives attachment to the sphenomandibular ligament; at its lower and back part is a notch from which the mylohyoid groove runs obliquely downward and...

 - mylohyoid line
Mylohyoid line
Extending upward and backward on either side from the lower part of the symphysis of the mandible is the mylohyoid line, which is the origin of the mylohyoid muscle; the posterior part of this line, near the alveolar margin, gives attachment to a small part of the Constrictor pharyngis superior,...

 - mylohyoid muscle
Mylohyoid muscle
The mylohyoid muscle is a muscle running from the mandible to the hyoid bone, forming the floor of the oral cavity. It is named for its two attachments, with the prefix "mylo" coming from the Greek word for "molar". These muscles are mesodermal in origin...

 - mylohyoid nerve
Mylohyoid nerve
The mylohyoid nerve is a nerve that innervates the mylohyoid muscle and the anterior belly of the digastric muscle.-Structure:...

 - myocardium - myology
Myology
The muscular system consists of skeletal muscle that act to move or position parts of the body , or smooth and cardiac muscle that propels, expels, or controls the flow of fluids and contained substance.The British Myology Society is an example of a professional group promoting myology ...

 - myotome
Myotome
In vertebrate embryonic development, a myotome is a group of tissues formed from somites that develop into the body wall muscle.Each myotome divides into a dorsal epaxial part and a ventral hypaxial part....

 - myotonia
Myotonia
Myotonia is a symptom of a small handful of certain neuromuscular disorders characterized by the slow relaxation of the muscles after voluntary contraction or electrical stimulation. Generally, repeated effort is needed to relax the muscles, and the condition improves after the muscles have warmed...

 - myotonic dystrophy
Myotonic dystrophy
Myotonic dystrophy is a chronic, slowly progressing, highly variable inherited multisystemic disease. It is characterized by wasting of the muscles , cataracts, heart conduction defects, endocrine changes, and myotonia. Myotonic dystrophy can occur in patients of any age...


N


nape
Nape
The nape is the back of the neck. In technical anatomical/medical terminology, the nape is referred to by the word nucha, which also gives the adjective corresponding to "nape" in English, "nuchal"....

 - naris - nasal bone
Nasal bone
The nasal bones are two small oblong bones, varying in size and form in different individuals; they are placed side by side at the middle and upper part of the face, and form, by their junction, "the bridge" of the nose.Each has two surfaces and four borders....

 - nasal choanae - nasal concha
Turbinate
In anatomy, a nasal concha is a long, narrow and curled bone shelf that protrudes into the breathing passage of the nose...

 - nasal septum
Nasal septum
The nasal septum separates the left and right airways in the nose, dividing the two nostrils.It is depressed by the Depressor septi nasi muscle.-Composition:The fleshy external end of the nasal septum is sometimes also called columella....

 - nasal turbinates
Turbinate
In anatomy, a nasal concha is a long, narrow and curled bone shelf that protrudes into the breathing passage of the nose...

 - nasion
Nasion
The nasion is the intersection of the frontal and two nasal bones of the human skull. Its manifestation on the visible surface of the face is a distinctly depressed area directly between the eyes, just superior to the bridge of the nose....

 - nasociliary nerve
Nasociliary nerve
The nasociliary nerve is a branch of the ophthalmic nerve. It is intermediate in size between the two other main branches of the ophthalmic nerve, the frontal nerve and the lacrimal nerve, and is more deeply placed.-Path:...

 - nasolacrimal canal
Nasolacrimal canal
The canal containing the nasolacrimal duct is called the nasolacrimal canal.It is formed by indentations in the inferior nasal conchae, maxilla and lacrimal bone...

 - nasolacrimal duct
Nasolacrimal duct
The nasolacrimal duct carries tears from the lacrimal sac into the nasal cavity. Excess tears flow through nasolacrimal duct which drains into the inferior nasal meatus...

 - nasopalatine nerve
Nasopalatine nerve
One branch of the posterior superior nasal branches , longer and larger than the others, is named the nasopalatine nerve ....

 - nasopharynx
Nasopharynx
The nasopharynx is the uppermost part of the pharynx. It extends from the base of the skull to the upper surface of the soft palate; it differs from the oral and laryngeal parts of the pharynx in that its cavity always remains patent .-Lateral:On its lateral wall is the pharyngeal ostium of the...

 - natal
Childbirth
Childbirth is the culmination of a human pregnancy or gestation period with the birth of one or more newborn infants from a woman's uterus...

 - navicular - neck
Neck
The neck is the part of the body, on many terrestrial or secondarily aquatic vertebrates, that distinguishes the head from the torso or trunk. The adjective signifying "of the neck" is cervical .-Boner anatomy: The cervical spine:The cervical portion of the human spine comprises seven boney...

 - neocerebellum - neocortex
Neocortex
The neocortex , also called the neopallium and isocortex , is a part of the brain of mammals. It is the outer layer of the cerebral hemispheres, and made up of six layers, labelled I to VI...

 - neonatal
Infant
A newborn or baby is the very young offspring of a human or other mammal. A newborn is an infant who is within hours, days, or up to a few weeks from birth. In medical contexts, newborn or neonate refers to an infant in the first 28 days after birth...

 - neopallium - neospinothalamic axon - neostriatum - nephron
Nephron
The renal tubule is the portion of the nephron containing the tubular fluid filtered through the glomerulus. After passing through the renal tubule, the filtrate continues to the collecting duct system, which is not part of the nephron....

 - nerve of the pterygoid canal - nerve
Nerve
A peripheral nerve, or simply nerve, is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of peripheral axons . A nerve provides a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses that are transmitted along each of the axons. Nerves are found only in the peripheral nervous system...

 - nerve fascicle
Nerve fascicle
A small bundle of nerve fibers, enclosed by the perineurium, is called a funiculus; if the nerve is of small size, it may consist only of a single funiculus; but if large, the funiculi are collected together into larger bundles or nerve fascicles, which are bound together in a common membranous...

 - nervi erigentes - nervous system
Nervous system
The nervous system is an organ system containing a network of specialized cells called neurons that coordinate the actions of an animal and transmit signals between different parts of its body. In most animals the nervous system consists of two parts, central and peripheral. The central nervous...

 - neural crest cell - neural foramen - neural groove
Neural groove
The neural groove is a shallow median groove between the neural folds of an embryo. The neural folds are two longitudinal ridges that are caused by a folding up of the ectoderm in front of the primitive streak of the developing embryo...

 - neural tube defect - neural tube
Neural tube
In the developing vertebrate, the neural tube is the embryo's precursor to the central nervous system, which comprises the brain and spinal cord...

 - neural - neuroectoderm
Neuroectoderm
Neuroectoderm is the term for ectoderm which receives Bone Morphogenetic Protein-inhibiting signals from proteins such as noggin, which leads to the development of the nervous system from this tissue....

 - neuroglia - neurohypophysis - neurolemma
Neurolemma
Neurolemma is the outermost nucleated cytoplasmic layer of Schwann cells that surrounds the axon of the neuron. It forms the outermost layer of the nerve fiber in the peripheral nervous system....

 - neurology
Neurology
Neurology is a medical specialty dealing with disorders of the nervous system. Specifically, it deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of disease involving the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissue,...

 - neuromuscular junction
Neuromuscular junction
A neuromuscular junction is the synapse or junction of the axon terminal of a motor neuron with the motor end plate, the highly-excitable region of muscle fiber plasma membrane responsible for initiation of action potentials across the muscle's surface, ultimately causing the muscle to contract...

 - neuron
Neuron
A neuron is an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information by electrical and chemical signaling. Chemical signaling occurs via synapses, specialized connections with other cells. Neurons connect to each other to form networks. Neurons are the core components of the nervous...

 - neuropil
Neuropil
In neuroanatomy, a neuropil, which is sometimes referred to as a neuropile, is a region between neuronal cell bodies in the gray matter of the brain and blood-brain barrier . It consists of a dense tangle of axon terminals, dendrites and glial cell processes...

 - nevus
Nevus
Nevus is the medical term for sharply-circumscribed and chronic lesions of the skin. These lesions are commonly named birthmarks and moles. Nevi are benign by definition...

 - nictitating membrane
Nictitating membrane
The nictitating membrane is a transparent or translucent third eyelid present in some animals that can be drawn across the eye for protection and to moisten it while maintaining visibility. Some reptiles, birds, and sharks have a full nictitating membrane; in many mammals, there is a small...

 - nigrostriatal axon - nipple
Nipple
In its most general form, a nipple is a structure from which a fluid emanates. More specifically, it is the projection on the breasts or udder of a mammal by which breast milk is delivered to a mother's young. In this sense, it is often called a teat, especially when referring to non-humans, and...

 - Nissl body
Nissl body
A Nissl body is a large granular body found in neurons. These granules are rough endoplasmic reticulum and are the site of protein synthesis...

 - nociception
Nociception
Nociception is defined as "the neural processes of encoding and processing noxious stimuli." It is the afferent activity produced in the peripheral and central nervous system by stimuli that have the potential to damage tissue...

 - nodes of Ranvier
Nodes of Ranvier
Myelin sheath gaps or nodes of Ranvier are the gaps formed between the myelin sheaths generated by different cells. A myelin sheath is a many-layered coating, largely composed of a fatty substance called myelin, that wraps around the axon of a neuron and very efficiently insulates it...

 - nodose ganglion
Nodose ganglion
The nodose ganglion is cylindrical in form, of a reddish color, and in length...

 - nodule - nodulus - norma frontalis - norma lateralis - nose
Human nose
The visible part of the human nose is the protruding part of the face that bears the nostrils. The shape of the nose is determined by the ethmoid bone and the nasal septum, which consists mostly of cartilage and which separates the nostrils...

 - nostril
Nostril
A nostril is one of the two channels of the nose, from the point where they bifurcate to the external opening. In birds and mammals, they contain branched bones or cartilages called turbinates, whose function is to warm air on inhalation and remove moisture on exhalation...

 - nares
Nostril
A nostril is one of the two channels of the nose, from the point where they bifurcate to the external opening. In birds and mammals, they contain branched bones or cartilages called turbinates, whose function is to warm air on inhalation and remove moisture on exhalation...

 - notochord
Notochord
The notochord is a flexible, rod-shaped body found in embryos of all chordates. It is composed of cells derived from the mesoderm and defines the primitive axis of the embryo. In some chordates, it persists throughout life as the main axial support of the body, while in most vertebrates it becomes...

 - nucha - nuchal ligament
Nuchal ligament
The paxwax or nuchal ligament is a fibrous membrane, which, in the neck, represents the supraspinal ligaments of the lower vertebræ...

 - nucleus
Nucleus (neuroanatomy)
In neuroanatomy, a nucleus is a brain structure consisting of a relatively compact cluster of neurons. It is one of the two most common forms of nerve cell organization, the other being layered structures such as the cerebral cortex or cerebellar cortex. In anatomical sections, a nucleus shows up...

 - nucleus accumbens
Nucleus accumbens
The nucleus accumbens , also known as the accumbens nucleus or as the nucleus accumbens septi , is a collection of neurons and forms the main part of the ventral striatum...

 - nucleus ambiguus
Nucleus ambiguus
The nucleus ambiguus is a region of histologically disparate cells located just dorsal to the inferior olivary nucleus in the lateral portion of the upper medulla...

 - nucleus fastigius
Nucleus fastigius
The nucleus fastigius is located in the cerebellum. It is made up of the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii, and is grey matter embedded in the white matter of the cerebellum.-References:*...

 - nucleus of Luys - nucleus pulposus
Nucleus pulposus
Nucleus pulposus is the jelly-like substance in the middle of the spinal disc. It is the remnant of the notochord . It functions to distribute hydraulic pressure in all directions within each disc under compressive loads. The nucleus pulposus consists of chondrocyte-like cells, collagen fibrils,...

 - nucleus solitarius - nystagmus, pathologic - nystagmus, physiologic

O


obex
Obex
The obex is the point in the human brain at which the fourth ventricle narrows to become the central canal of the spinal cord.The obex occurs in the caudal medulla.The decussating of sensory fibers happens at this point....

 - oblique muscles - obturator canal
Obturator canal
The obturator canal is a passageway formed in the obturator foramen by part of the obturator membrane. It connects the pelvis to the thigh.The obturator artery, obturator vein, and obturator nerve all travel through the canal.-Pathology:...

 - obturator externus muscle
Obturator externus muscle
The obturator externus muscle is a flat, triangular muscle, which covers the outer surface of the anterior wall of the pelvis.It is sometimes considered part of the medial compartment of thigh, and sometimes considered part of the gluteal region....

 - obturator foramen
Obturator foramen
The obturator foramen is the hole created by the ischium and pubis bones of the pelvis through which nerves and muscles pass.- General structure :...

 - obturator internus muscle
Obturator internus muscle
The obturator internus muscle originates on the medial surface of the obturator membrane, the ischium near the membrane, and the rim of the pubis.It exits the pelvic cavity through the lesser sciatic foramen....

 - occipital - occipital artery
Occipital artery
The occipital artery arises from the external carotid artery opposite the facial artery, its path is below the posterior belly of digastric to the occipital region. This artery supplies blood to the back of the scalp and sterno-mastoid muscles...

 - occipital bone
Occipital bone
The occipital bone, a saucer-shaped membrane bone situated at the back and lower part of the cranium, is trapezoidal in shape and curved on itself...

 - occipital horn - occipital lobe
Occipital lobe
The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex. The primary visual cortex is Brodmann area 17, commonly called V1...

 - occipitalis muscle
Occipitalis muscle
The Occipitalis, thin and quadrilateral in form, arises by tendinous fibers from the lateral two-thirds of the superior nuchal line of the occipital bone, and from the mastoid part of the temporal. It ends in the galea aponeurotica....

 - occiput
Occiput
The occiput is the anatomical term for the posterior portion of the head, in insects the posterior part of those head capsule.-Clinical significance:Trauma to the occiput can cause a basilar skull fracture....

 - occlusion - oculocephalic reflex - oculomotor - oculomotor complex - oculomotor nerve
Oculomotor nerve
The oculomotor nerve is the 3rd of 12 paired cranial nerves. It enters the orbit via the superior orbital fissure and controls most of the eye's movements, including constriction of the pupil and maintaining an open eyelid by innervating the Levator palpebrae superiors muscle. The optic nerve is...

 - oculomotor nucleus
Oculomotor nucleus
The fibers of the oculomotor nerve arise from a nucleus in the midbrain, which lies in the gray substance of the floor of the cerebral aqueduct and extends in front of the aqueduct for a short distance into the floor of the third ventricle...

 - oculus
Oculus
An Oculus, circular window, or rain-hole is a feature of Classical architecture since the 16th century. They are often denoted by their French name, oeil de boeuf, or "bull's-eye". Such circular or oval windows express the presence of a mezzanine on a building's façade without competing for...

 - odontoid process - oesophagus - olecranon process - olfaction
Olfaction
Olfaction is the sense of smell. This sense is mediated by specialized sensory cells of the nasal cavity of vertebrates, and, by analogy, sensory cells of the antennae of invertebrates...

 - olfactory association cortex - olfactory bulb
Olfactory bulb
The olfactory bulb is a structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the perception of odors.-Anatomy:In most vertebrates, the olfactory bulb is the most rostral part of the brain. In humans, however, the olfactory bulb is on the inferior side of the brain...

 - olfactory cortex - olfactory epithelium
Olfactory epithelium
The olfactory epithelium is a specialized epithelial tissue inside the nasal cavity that is involved in smell. In humans, it measures about 1 square centimetre and lies on the roof of the nasal cavity about 7 cm above and behind the nostrils...

 - olfactory mucosa
Olfactory mucosa
The olfactory mucosa is located in the upper region of the nasal cavity and is made up of the olfactory epithelium and the underlying lamina propria, connective tissue containing fibroblasts, blood vessels, Bowman's glands and bundles of fine axons from the olfactory neurons.The mucus protects the...

 - olfactory nerve
Olfactory nerve
The olfactory nerve, or cranial nerve I, is the first of twelve cranial nerves. It is instrumental in the sense of smell. Derived from the embryonic nasal placode, the olfactory nerve is capable of regeneration.-Anatomy:...

 - olfactory striae - olfactory system
Olfactory system
The olfactory system is the sensory system used for olfaction, or the sense of smell. Most mammals and reptiles have two distinct parts to their olfactory system: a main olfactory system and an accessory olfactory system. The main olfactory system detects volatile, airborne substances, while the...

 - olfactory tract
Olfactory tract
The olfactory tract is a bundle of axons connecting the mitral and tufted cells of the olfactory bulb to several target regions in the brain, including piriform cortex, amygdala, and entorhinal cortex...

 - olfactory trigone
Olfactory trigone
The olfactory trigone is a small triangular area in front of the anterior perforated substance.Its apex, directed forward, occupies the posterior part of the olfactory sulcus, and is brought into view by throwing back the olfactory tract....

 - oligodendroglia - oligodendroglial cells - olive
Olivary body
In anatomy, the olivary bodies or simply olives are a pair of prominent oval structures in the medulla oblongata, the lower portion of the brainstem...

 - olivocerebellar axon - olivopontocerebellar degeneration - omental bursa - omentum - omohyoid - omohyoid fascia - omohyoid muscle
Omohyoid muscle
The omohyoid muscle is a muscle at the front of the neck that consists of two bellies separated by an intermediate tendon. It belongs to the group of infrahyoid muscles...

 - ontogeny
Ontogeny
Ontogeny is the origin and the development of an organism – for example: from the fertilized egg to mature form. It covers in essence, the study of an organism's lifespan...

 - operculum
Operculum (brain)
Operculum, derived from Latin, meaning "little lid", refers to the cerebral cortex on the outside surface of the brain bordering the lateral sulcus, and the roof and floor of the lateral sulcus. Neuroscience divides the operculum into orbital, frontal, parietal and temporal regions, after the...

 - ophthalmology
Ophthalmology
Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye. An ophthalmologist is a specialist in medical and surgical eye problems...

 - ophthalmic artery
Ophthalmic artery
The ophthalmic artery is the first branch of the internal carotid artery distal to the cavernous sinus. Branches of the OA supply all the structures in the orbit as well as some structures in the nose, face and meninges...

 - optic canal - optic chiasm
Optic chiasm
The optic chiasm or optic chiasma is the part of the brain where the optic nerves partially cross...

 - optic disc
Optic disc
The optic disc or optic nerve head is the location where ganglion cell axons exit the eye to form the optic nerve. There are no light sensitive rods or cones to respond to a light stimulus at this point. This causes a break in the visual field called "the blind spot" or the "physiological blind spot"...

 - optic foramen
Optic foramen
The optic foramen is the opening to the optic canal.The superior surface of the sphenoid bone is bounded behind by a ridge, which forms the anterior border of a narrow, transverse groove, the chiasmatic groove , above and behind which lies the optic chiasma; the groove ends on either side in the...

 - optic nerve
Optic nerve
The optic nerve, also called cranial nerve 2, transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. Derived from the embryonic retinal ganglion cell, a diverticulum located in the diencephalon, the optic nerve doesn't regenerate after transection.-Anatomy:The optic nerve is the second of...

 - optic papilla - optic radiation
Optic radiation
The optic radiation is a collection of axons from relay neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus carrying visual information to the visual cortex along the calcarine fissure.There is one such tract on each side of the brain.-Parts:A distinctive...

 - optic recess
Optic recess
At the junction of the floor and anterior wall of the third ventricle, immediately above the optic chiasma, the ventricle presents a small angular recess or diverticulum, the optic recess ....

 - optic tract
Optic tract
The optic tract is a part of the visual system in the brain.It is a continuation of the optic nerve and runs from the optic chiasm to the lateral geniculate nucleus....

 - ora serrata
Ora serrata
The ora serrata is the serrated junction between the retina and the ciliary body. This junction marks the transition from the simple non-photosensitive area of the retina to the complex, multi-layered photosensitive region. In animals in which the region does not have a serrated appearance, it is...

 - oral cavity - orbicularis oculi muscle
Orbicularis oculi muscle
The orbicularis oculi is a muscle in the face that closes the eyelids. It arises from the nasal part of the frontal bone, from the frontal process of the maxilla in front of the lacrimal groove, and from the anterior surface and borders of a short fibrous band, the medial palpebral ligament.From...

 - orbicularis oris muscle
Orbicularis oris muscle
In human anatomy, the orbicularis oris muscle is the sphincter muscle around the mouth."Orbicularis Oris is a complex of muscles in the lips that encircle the mouth; until recently it was misinterpreted as a sphincter, or circular muscle, but it is actually composed of four independent quadrants...

 - orbit
Orbit (anatomy)
In anatomy, the orbit is the cavity or socket of the skull in which the eye and its appendages are situated. "Orbit" can refer to the bony socket, or it can also be used to imply the contents...

 - orbitofrontal cortex
Orbitofrontal cortex
The orbitofrontal cortex is a prefrontal cortex region in the frontal lobes in the brain which is involved in the cognitive processing of decision-making...

 - organ
Organ (anatomy)
In biology, an organ is a collection of tissues joined in structural unit to serve a common function. Usually there is a main tissue and sporadic tissues . The main tissue is the one that is unique for the specific organ. For example, main tissue in the heart is the myocardium, while sporadic are...

 - organ of Corti
Organ of Corti
The organ of Corti is the organ in the inner ear of mammals that contains auditory sensory cells, or "hair cells."The organ was named after the Italian anatomist Marquis Alfonso Giacomo Gaspare Corti , who conducted microscopic research of the mammaliean auditory system.-Structure and function:The...

 - organelle
Organelle
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, and is usually separately enclosed within its own lipid bilayer....

 - orifice
Body orifice
-External orifices:In a typical mammalian body such as the human body, the external body orifices are:* The nostrils, for breathing and the associated sense of smell.* The eyes, for the sense of sight and crying....

 - oropharynx
Oropharynx
The Oropharynx reaches from the Uvula to the level of the hyoid bone.It opens anteriorly, through the isthmus faucium, into the mouth, while in its lateral wall, between the two palatine arches, is the palatine tonsil....

 - os multangulum minus
Trapezoid bone
The trapezoid bone is a carpal bone in tetrapods, including humans. It is the smallest bone in the distal row. It may be known by its wedge-shaped form, the broad end of the wedge constituting the dorsal, the narrow end the palmar surface; and by its having four articular facets touching each...

 - os penis
Baculum
The baculum is a bone found in the penis of most mammals. It is absent in humans, but present in other primates, such as the gorilla and chimpanzee.The bone aids in sexual intercourse.-Purpose:...

 - ossicles
Ossicles
The ossicles are the three smallest bones in the human body. They are contained within the middle ear space and serve to transmit sounds from the air to the fluid-filled labyrinth . The absence of the auditory ossicles would constitute a moderate-to-severe hearing loss...

 - ossification
Ossification
Ossification is the process of laying down new bone material by cells called osteoblasts. It is synonymous with bone tissue formation...

 - osteology
Osteology
Osteology is the scientific study of bones. A subdiscipline of anatomy, anthropology, and archeology, osteology is a detailed study of the structure of bones, skeletal elements, teeth, morphology, function, disease, pathology, the process of ossification , the resistance and hardness of bones , etc...

 - osteon
Osteon
The osteon, or Haversian system, is the fundamental functional unit of much compact bone. Osteons, roughly cylindrical structures that are typically several millimeters long and around 0.2mm in diameter, are present in many of the bones of most mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians.Each osteon...

- ostium - otic - otic capsule - otic ganglion
Otic ganglion
The otic ganglion is a small, oval shaped, flattened parasympathetic ganglion of a reddish-gray color, located immediately below the foramen ovale in the infratemporal fossa. It gives innervation to the parotid gland for salivation....

 - otolith
Otolith
An otolith, , also called statoconium or otoconium is a structure in the saccule or utricle of the inner ear, specifically in the vestibular labyrinth of vertebrates. The saccule and utricle, in turn, together make the otolith organs. They are sensitive to gravity and linear acceleration...

 - outer table of skull - oval window
Oval window
The oval window is a membrane-covered opening which leads from the middle ear to the vestibule of the inner ear.Vibrations that come into contact with the tympanic membrane travel through the three ossicles and into the inner ear...

 - ovarian follicle
Ovarian follicle
Ovarian follicles are the basic units of female reproductive biology, each of which is composed of roughly spherical aggregations of cells found in the ovary. They contain a single oocyte . These structures are periodically initiated to grow and develop, culminating in ovulation of usually a single...

 - ovary
Ovary
The ovary is an ovum-producing reproductive organ, often found in pairs as part of the vertebrate female reproductive system. Ovaries in anatomically female individuals are analogous to testes in anatomically male individuals, in that they are both gonads and endocrine glands.-Human anatomy:Ovaries...

 - ovum
Ovum
An ovum is a haploid female reproductive cell or gamete. Both animals and embryophytes have ova. The term ovule is used for the young ovum of an animal, as well as the plant structure that carries the female gametophyte and egg cell and develops into a seed after fertilization...


P


pachymeninx - pacinian corpuscle
Pacinian corpuscle
Lamellar corpuscles or Pacinian corpuscles are one of the four major types of mechanoreceptor. They are nerve endings in the skin, responsible for sensitivity to vibration and pressure. Vibrational role may be used to detect surface, e.g., rough vs...

 - palate
Palate
The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and other mammals. It separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity. A similar structure is found in crocodilians, but, in most other tetrapods, the oral and nasal cavities are not truly separate. The palate is divided into two parts, the anterior...

 - palatine bone
Palatine bone
The palatine bone is a bone in many species of the animal kingdom, commonly termed the palatum .-Human anatomy:...

 - palatine glands
Palatine glands
The palatine glands form a continuous layer on the posterior surface of the mucous membrane of the soft palate and around the uvula.They are pure mucous glands....

 - palatine process - palatine tonsils - palatoglossal arch
Palatoglossal arch
The palatoglossal arch on either side runs downward, lateralward, and forward to the side of the base of the tongue, and is formed by the projection of the glossopalatine muscle with its covering mucous membrane. It is the anterior border of isthmus faucium and marks the border between the mouth...

 - palatoglossus muscle
Palatoglossus muscle
The palatoglossus, glossopalatinus, or palatoglossal muscle is a small fleshy fasciculus, narrower in the middle than at either end, forming, with the mucous membrane covering its surface, the glossopalatine arch....

 - palatopharyngeal arch
Palatopharyngeal arch
The palatopharyngeal arch is larger and projects farther toward the middle line than the anterior; it runs downward, lateralward, and backward to the side of the pharynx, and is formed by the projection of the Pharyngopalatinus, covered by mucous membrane....

 - palatopharyngeus muscle
Palatopharyngeus muscle
The palatopharyngeus or palatopharyngeal or pharyngopalatinus muscle is a long, fleshy fasciculus, narrower in the middle than at either end, forming, with the mucous membrane covering its surface, the palatopharyngeal arch.-Origin and insertion:...

 - paleocerebellum - paleopallium
Paleopallium
In anatomy of animals, the paleopallium is a region within the telencephalon in the brain.It is a primitive and evolutionarily ancient region of the brain, first appearing in amphibians....

 - paleospinothalamic axon - paleostriatum - pallidothalamic fiber - palmar aponeurosis
Palmar aponeurosis
The palmar aponeurosis invests the muscles of the palm, and consists of central, lateral, and medial portions.-Central portion:The central portion occupies the middle of the palm, is triangular in shape, and of great strength and thickness....

 - palmomental reflex
Palmomental reflex
The palmomental reflex is a primitive reflex consisting of a twitch of the chin muscle elicited by stroking a specific part of the palm. It is present in infancy and disappears as the brain matures during childhood but may reappear due to processes that disrupt the normal cortical inhibitory...

 - palpation
Palpation
Palpation is used as part of a physical examination in which an object is felt to determine its size, shape, firmness, or location...

 - palpebral commissures - palsy
Palsy
In medicine, palsy is the paralysis of a body part, often accompanied by loss of sensation and by uncontrolled body movements, such as shaking. Medical conditions involving palsy include cerebral palsy , brachial palsy , and Bell's palsy ....

 - pampiniform plexus
Pampiniform plexus
The pampiniform plexus is a network of many small veins found in the human male spermatic cord. It is formed by the union of multiple spermatic veins from the back of the testis and tributaries from the epididymis....

 - pancreas
Pancreas
The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine system of vertebrates. It is both an endocrine gland producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin, as well as a digestive organ, secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that assist...

 - pancreatic duct
Pancreatic duct
The pancreatic duct, or duct of Wirsung , is a duct joining the pancreas to the common bile duct to supply pancreatic juices which aid in digestion provided by the "exocrine pancreas"...

 - pancreaticoduodenal branches - panniculus
Panniculus
Panniculus is a medical term describing a dense layer of fatty tissue growth, consisting of subcutaneous fat in the lower abdominal area. It can be a result of obesity and can be mistaken for a tumor or hernia. Abdominal panniculus can be removed during abdominal panniculectomy, a type of...

 - papilla - papillary muscles - paraaortic lymph node
Paraaortic lymph node
The paraaortic lymph nodes are a group of lymph nodes that lie in front of the lumbar vertebral bodies near the aorta...

s - paracentral lobule
Paracentral lobule
The more medial part of the superior frontal gyrus is distinguished as the paracentral lobule . It is continuous with the precentral and postcentral gyri of the lateral surface....

 - paracolic gutters
Paracolic gutters
The paracolic gutters are spaces between the colon and the abdominal wall.There are two paracolic gutters:* The right lateral paracolic gutter.* The left lateral paracolic gutter....

 - paradidymis
Paradidymis
The term paradidymis is applied to a small collection of convoluted tubules, situated in front of the lower part of the spermatic cord, above the head of the epididymis....

 - paraesthesia - parafascicular nucleus - parahippocampal gyrus
Parahippocampal gyrus
The parahippocampal gyrus is a grey matter cortical region of the brain that surrounds the hippocampus. This region plays an important role in memory encoding and retrieval....

 - parailiac lymph nodes - parallel fiber
Parallel fiber
Parallel fibers arise from granule cells in the cerebellar cortex. They form excitatory synapses onto the dendrites of Purkinje cells ....

s - paralysis
Paralysis
Paralysis is loss of muscle function for one or more muscles. Paralysis can be accompanied by a loss of feeling in the affected area if there is sensory damage as well as motor. A study conducted by the Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation, suggests that about 1 in 50 people have been diagnosed...

 - paramedian pontine reticular formation
Paramedian pontine reticular formation
The paramedian pontine reticular formation, or PPRF, is part of the pontine reticular formation, a brain region without clearly defined borders in the center of the pons. It is involved in the coordination of eye movements, particularly horizontal gaze and saccades.- Input, Output, and Function...

 - parametrium
Parametrium
In women, the supravaginal portion of the cervix is separated in front from the bladder by fibrous tissue, the parametrium , which extends also on to its sides and laterally between the layers of the broad ligaments....

 - paraphasia
Paraphasia
Paraphasia is a feature of aphasia in which one loses the ability of speaking correctly, substitutes one word for another, and changes words and sentences in an inappropriate way. It often develops after a stroke or brain injury. The patient's speech is fluent but is error-prone, e.g...

 - pararenal - parasagittal - parasternal - parasympathetic - paraterminal gyrus
Paraterminal gyrus
The paraterminal gyrus is a narrow lamina on the medial surface of the hemisphere in front of the lamina terminalis, behind the parolfactory area, and below the rostrum of the corpus callosum. It is continuous around the genu of the corpus callosum with the supracallosal gyrus....

 - parathyroid glands - paraventricular nucleus
Paraventricular nucleus
The paraventricular nucleus is a neuronal nucleus in the hypothalamus. It contains multiple subpopulations of neurons that are activated by a variety of stressful and/or physiological changes. Many PVN neurons project directly to the posterior pituitary where they release oxytocin or vasopressin...

 - parenchyma
Parenchyma
Parenchyma is a term used to describe a bulk of a substance. It is used in different ways in animals and in plants.The term is New Latin, f. Greek παρέγχυμα - parenkhuma, "visceral flesh", f. παρεγχεῖν - parenkhein, "to pour in" f. para-, "beside" + en-, "in" + khein, "to pour"...

 - paresis
Paresis
Paresis is a condition typified by partial loss of voluntary movement or by impaired movement. When used without qualifiers, it usually refers to the limbs, but it also can be used to describe the muscles of the eyes , the stomach , and also the vocal cords...

 - paresthesia
Paresthesia
Paresthesia , spelled "paraesthesia" in British English, is a sensation of tingling, burning, pricking, or numbness of a person's skin with no apparent long-term physical effect. It is more generally known as the feeling of "pins and needles" or of a limb "falling asleep"...

 - parietal bones - parietal cell
Parietal cell
Parietal cells, or oxyntic cells, are the stomach epithelium cells that secrete gastric acid and intrinsic factor.Acetylcholine and gastrin . The histamine receptors act by increasing intracellular cAMP, whereas the muscarinic and gastrin receptors increase intracellular Ca2+ levels...

 - parietal lobe
Parietal lobe
The parietal lobe is a part of the Brain positioned above the occipital lobe and behind the frontal lobe.The parietal lobe integrates sensory information from different modalities, particularly determining spatial sense and navigation. For example, it comprises somatosensory cortex and the...

 - parotid bed - parotid duct
Parotid duct
The parotid duct, also known as Stensen's duct, is the route that saliva takes from the parotid gland into the mouth.It passes through the buccal fat, buccopharyngeal fascia, and buccinator muscle then opens into the vestibule of the mouth next to the maxillary second molar tooth. The buccinator...

 - parotid gland
Parotid gland
The paired parotid glands are the largest of the salivary glands. They are each found wrapped around the mandibular ramus, and secrete saliva through Stensen's ducts into the oral cavity, to facilitate mastication and swallowing and to begin the digestion of starches.-Location:The parotid glands...

 - parturition - parotid papilla - parotid sheath - pars flaccida - pars opercularis
Pars opercularis
In the human brain the Pars opercularis is the part of the inferior frontal gyrus that lies between the inferior precentral sulcus and the ascending ramus of the lateral sulcus. It is called opercularis because it covers part of the insula. The pars opercularis together with the pars triangularis...

 - pars tensa - parvicellular neurosecretory nuclei - patella - patellar reflex
Patellar reflex
The patellar reflex or knee-jerk is a deep tendon reflex and is a myotatic reflex.-Mechanism:Striking the patellar tendon with a tendon hammer just below the patella stretches the sensory nerve fiber of the femoral nerve which synapses at the level of L4 in the spinal cord, completely independent...

 - pecten pubis - pectinate - pectineal - pectineus - pectoral - pectoral girdle - pectoralis - pectoralis major - pectoralis minor - pedicle - peduncle - pellucidum - pelvic diaphragm - pelvic floor
Pelvic floor
The pelvic floor or pelvic diaphragm is composed of muscle fibers of the levator ani, the coccygeus, and associated connective tissue which span the area underneath the pelvis. The pelvic diaphragm is a muscular partition formed by the levatores ani and coccygei, with which may be included the...

 - pelvic inlet
Pelvic inlet
The pelvic inlet or superior aperture of the pelvis is a planar surface which is typically used to define the boundary between the pelvic cavity and the abdominal cavity .Its position and orientation relative to the skeleton of the pelvis is anatomically defined by its...

 - pelvic outlet
Pelvic outlet
The lower circumference of the lesser pelvis is very irregular; the space enclosed by it is named the inferior aperture or pelvic outlet.-Boundaries:It has the following boundaries:* anteriorly: the pubic arch* laterally: the ischial tuberosities...

 - pelvis
Pelvis
In human anatomy, the pelvis is the lower part of the trunk, between the abdomen and the lower limbs .The pelvis includes several structures:...

 - penis
Penis
The penis is a biological feature of male animals including both vertebrates and invertebrates...

 - pennate
Pennate
Pennate is used to mean "winged", "feathered" or simply "shaped like a wing". The latter definition is sometimes used to describe plant leaf morphology .Pennate diatoms are bilaterally symmetrical, and belong to the order Pennales....

 - pennatus - periamygdaloid area - periamygdaloid cortex
Periamygdaloid cortex
Periamygdaloid cortex is a portion of the rhinencephalon consisting of paleocortex.The periamygdaloid cortex plays a role in olfaction.It has been suggested that the left periamygdalar region may play a role in yawning....

 - perianal - periaqueductal gray
Periaqueductal gray
Periaqueductal gray is the gray matter located around the cerebral aqueduct within the tegmentum of the midbrain. It plays a role in the descending modulation of pain and in defensive behaviour...

 - pericardium
Pericardium
The pericardium is a double-walled sac that contains the heart and the roots of the great vessels.-Layers:...

 - perichondrium
Perichondrium
The perichondrium is a layer of dense irregular connective tissue which surrounds the cartilage of developing bone. It consists of two separate layers: an outer fibrous layer and inner chondrogenic layer. The fibrous layer contains fibroblasts, which produce collagenous fibers. The chondrogenic...

 - pericranium - perikaryon - perilymph
Perilymph
Perilymph is an extracellular fluid located within the cochlea in two of its three compartments: the scala tympani and scala vestibuli. The ionic composition of perilymph is comparable to that of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid...

 - perineum
Perineum
In human anatomy, the perineum is a region of the body including the perineal body and surrounding structures...

 - perineurium
Perineurium
In the peripheral nervous system, nerve fibers are each wrapped in a protective sheath known as the endoneurium. These are bundled together into groups known as fascicles, each surrounded by a protective sheath known as the perineurium. Several fascicles may be in turn bundled together with a blood...

 - periodontal ligament
Periodontal ligament
The periodontal fiber or periodontal ligament, commonly abbreviated as the PDL, is a group of specialized connective tissue fibers that essentially attach a tooth to the alveolar bone within which it sits...

 - periosteum
Periosteum
Periosteum is a membrane that lines the outer surface of all bones, except at the joints of long bones. Endosteum lines the inner surface of all bones....

 - peripheral
Peripheral
A peripheral is a device attached to a host computer, but not part of it, and is more or less dependent on the host. It expands the host's capabilities, but does not form part of the core computer architecture....

 - peripheral nervous system
Peripheral nervous system
The peripheral nervous system consists of the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord. The main function of the PNS is to connect the central nervous system to the limbs and organs. Unlike the CNS, the PNS is not protected by the bone of spine and skull, or by the blood–brain...

 - perirhinal cortex
Perirhinal cortex
Perirhinal cortex is a cortical region in the medial temporal lobe that is made up of Brodmann areas 35 and 36. In rats, it is located along and dorsal to the rhinal sulcus. It receives highly-processed sensory information from all sensory regions, and is generally accepted to be an important...

 - peristalsis
Peristalsis
Peristalsis is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles which propagates in a wave down the muscular tube, in an anterograde fashion. In humans, peristalsis is found in the contraction of smooth muscles to propel contents through the digestive tract. Earthworms use a similar...

 - peritoneal cavity
Peritoneal cavity
The peritoneal cavity is a potential space between the parietal peritoneum and visceral peritoneum, that is, the two membranes that separate the organs in the abdominal cavity from the abdominal wall...

 - peritoneum
Peritoneum
The peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity or the coelom — it covers most of the intra-abdominal organs — in amniotes and some invertebrates...

 - periventricular nucleus
Periventricular nucleus
The Periventricular nucleus is a thin sheet of small neurons located in the wall of the third ventricle, a composite structure of the hypothalamus. Functions in analgesia....

 - peroneal artery - Persistent truncus arteriosus
Persistent truncus arteriosus
Persistent truncus arteriosus , also known as Common arterial trunk, is a rare form of congenital heart disease that presents at birth...

 - pes anserinus - pes hippocampi
Pes hippocampi
The lower end of the hippocampus is enlarged, and presents two or three rounded elevations or digitations which give it a paw-like appearance, and hence it is named the pes hippocampi.-External links:...

 - petrosal ganglion - petrosal ridge - petrous bone - petrous pyramid - Peyer's patches - phalanges - phalanges of the foot
Toe
Toes are the digits of the foot of a tetrapod. Animal species such as cats that walk on their toes are described as being digitigrade. Humans, and other animals that walk on the soles of their feet, are described as being plantigrade; unguligrade animals are those that walk on hooves at the tips of...

 - phalanges of the hand
Finger
A finger is a limb of the human body and a type of digit, an organ of manipulation and sensation found in the hands of humans and other primates....

 - phallus
Phallus
A phallus is an erect penis, a penis-shaped object such as a dildo, or a mimetic image of an erect penis. Any object that symbolically resembles a penis may also be referred to as a phallus; however, such objects are more often referred to as being phallic...

 - pharyngeal constrictor muscles - pharyngeal plexus - pharyngeal recess
Pharyngeal recess
Behind the ostium of the eustacian tube is a deep recess, the pharyngeal recess .-Clinical significance:At the base of this recess is the retropharyngeal lymph node This is clinically significant in that it may be involved in certain head and neck cancers, notably Nasopharyngeal cancer....

 - pharyngeal tonsil - pharyngobasilar fascia
Pharyngobasilar fascia
The pharyngeal aponeurosis , is situated between the mucous and muscular layers.It is thick above where the muscular fibers are wanting, and is firmly connected to the basilar portion of the occipital and the petrous portions of the temporal bones.As it descends it diminishes in thickness, and is...

 - pharyngotympanic tube - pharynx
Pharynx
The human pharynx is the part of the throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and anterior to the esophagus and larynx. The human pharynx is conventionally divided into three sections: the nasopharynx , the oropharynx , and the laryngopharynx...

 - philtrum
Philtrum
The philtrum , is a medial cleft common to many mammals, extending from the nose to the upper lip, and, together with a glandular rhinarium and slit-like nostrils, is believed to constitute the primitive condition for mammals in general...

 - phonation
Phonation
Phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics. Among some phoneticians, phonation is the process by which the vocal folds produce certain sounds through quasi-periodic vibration. This is the definition used among those who study laryngeal anatomy and physiology...

 - photoreceptors - phrenic nerve
Phrenic nerve
The phrenic nerve originates mainly from the 4th cervical nerve, but also receives contributions from the 5th and 3rd cervical nerves in humans....

 - phylogeny - pia mater
Pia mater
Pia mater often referred to as simply the pia, is the delicate innermost layer of the meninges, the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. The word finds its roots in Latin, meaning literally "tender mother." The other two meningeal membranes are the dura mater and the arachnoid mater....

 - pilar cell - pillar of fauces - pilomotor - pilus
Pilus
right|thumb|350px|Schematic drawing of bacterial conjugation. 1- Donor cell produces pilus. 2- Pilus attaches to recipient cell, brings the two cells together. 3- The mobile plasmid is nicked and a single strand of DNA is then transferred to the recipient cell...

 - pineal body - pineal gland
Pineal gland
The pineal gland is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain. It produces the serotonin derivative melatonin, a hormone that affects the modulation of wake/sleep patterns and seasonal functions...

 - pinna - piriformis - piriform sinus
Piriform sinus
On either side of the laryngeal orifice is a recess, termed the piriform sinus , which is bounded medially by the aryepiglottic fold, laterally by the thyroid cartilage and hyothyroid membrane...

 - pisiform - pituitary gland
Pituitary gland
In vertebrate anatomy the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 g , in humans. It is a protrusion off the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain, and rests in a small, bony cavity covered by a dural fold...

 - placenta
Placenta
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply. "True" placentas are a defining characteristic of eutherian or "placental" mammals, but are also found in some snakes and...

 - plantar aponeurosis - platysma muscle
Platysma muscle
The platysma is a superficial muscle that overlaps the sternocleidomastoid.It is a broad sheet arising from the fascia covering the upper parts of the pectoralis major and deltoid; its fibers cross the clavicle, and proceed obliquely upward and medially along the side of the neck.The anterior...

 - pleura - plexus
Plexus
A plexus is a part of nervous system. Plexus has a slightly different definition in vertebrates and in invertebrates.- In vertebrates :In vertebrates, a plexus is an area where nerves branch and rejoin. The electrical signals do not mix; rather, the fibres travel together with their electrical...

 - plica semilunaris - pollex
Thumb
The thumb is the first digit of the hand. When a person is standing in the medical anatomical position , the thumb is the lateral-most digit...

 - pollicis - pollux
Thumb
The thumb is the first digit of the hand. When a person is standing in the medical anatomical position , the thumb is the lateral-most digit...

 - pons
Pons
The pons is a structure located on the brain stem, named after the Latin word for "bridge" or the 16th-century Italian anatomist and surgeon Costanzo Varolio . It is superior to the medulla oblongata, inferior to the midbrain, and ventral to the cerebellum. In humans and other bipeds this means it...

 - pontine nuclei
Pontine nuclei
The pontine nuclei are a part of the pons involved in motor activity. Corticopontine fibres carry information from the primary motor cortex to the ipsilateral pontine nucleus in the ventral pons, and the pontocerebellar projection then carries that information to the contralateral cerebellum via...

 - pontocerebellum - popliteal artery
Popliteal artery
In human anatomy, the popliteal artery is defined as the extension of the "superficial" femoral artery after passing through the adductor canal and adductor hiatus above the knee...

 - popliteal bursa - popliteal fossa
Popliteal fossa
The popliteal fossa is a shallow depression located at the back of the knee joint. The bones of the popliteal fossa are the femur and the tibia.-Boundaries:The boundaries of the fossa are:-Roof:...

 - popliteal vein
Popliteal vein
The popliteal vein course runs alongside the popliteal artery but carries the blood from the knee joint and muscles in the thigh and calf back to the heart.Its origin is defined by the junction of the posterior tibial vein and anterior tibial vein....

 - popliteus - portal vein - postcentral gyrus
Postcentral gyrus
The lateral postcentral gyrus is a prominent structure in the parietal lobe of the human brain and an important landmark. It is the location of primary somatosensory cortex, the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch...

 - posterior atlantooccipital membrane
Posterior atlantoöccipital membrane
The posterior atlantoöccipital membrane , broad but thin, is connected above, to the posterior margin of the foramen magnum; below, to the upper border of the posterior arch of the atlas....

 - posterior auricular artery
Posterior auricular artery
The posterior auricular artery is a small artery and arises from the external carotid artery, above the Digastric muscle and Stylohyoid muscle, opposite the apex of the styloid process....

 - posterior cerebral artery
Posterior cerebral artery
-External links: - Posterior Cerebral Artery Stroke* at strokecenter.org* at State University of New York Upstate Medical University* at psyweb.com* at neuropat.dote.hu...

 - posterior clinoid - posterior column-medial lemniscus tract - posterior commissure
Posterior commissure
The posterior commissure is a rounded band of white fibers crossing the middle line on the dorsal aspect of the upper end of the cerebral aqueduct. It is important in the bilateral pupillary light reflex....

 - posterior communicating artery
Posterior communicating artery
In human anatomy, the posterior communicating artery is one of a pair of right-sided and left-sided blood vessels in the circle of Willis. It connects the three cerebral arteries of the same side. Anteriorly, it connects to the internal carotid artery prior the terminal bifurcation of the ICA...

 - posterior cranial fossa
Posterior cranial fossa
The posterior cranial fossa is part of the intracranial cavity, located between the foramen magnum and tentorium cerebelli. It contains the brainstem and cerebellum.This is the most inferior of the fossae. It houses the cerebellum, medulla and pons....

 - posterior cricoarytenoid muscle
Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle
The posterior cricoarytenoid muscles are extremely small, paired muscles that extend from the posterior cricoid cartilage to the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx. By rotating the arytenoid cartilages laterally, these muscles abduct the vocal cords and thereby open the rima glottidis. Their action...

 - posterior cruciate ligament
Posterior cruciate ligament
The posterior cruciate ligament is one of the four major ligaments of the knee. It connects the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia to the medial condyle of the femur...

 - posterior ethmoidal foramina - posterior funiculus
Posterior funiculus
The portion of the medulla spinalis which lies between the posterolateral sulcus and the posterior median sulcus is named the posterior funiculus. This area includes the dorsal columns which contains the fasciculus gracilis and, higher in the body, the fasciculus cuneatus, which are separated by a...

 - posterior hypothalamus - posterior inferior cerebellar artery
Posterior inferior cerebellar artery
The posterior inferior cerebellar artery , the largest branch of the vertebral artery, is one of the three main arterial blood supplies for the cerebellum, part of the brain...

 - posterior lobe of the cerebellum - posterior nasal artery - posterior septal artery - posterior spinal arteries - posterior spinocerebellar tract - posterior superior alveolar artery
Posterior superior alveolar artery
The posterior superior alveolar artery is given off from the maxillary, frequently in conjunction with the infraorbital artery just as the trunk of the vessel is passing into the pterygopalatine fossa.-Branches:...

 - posterior tibial artery
Posterior tibial artery
The posterior tibial artery of the lower limb carries blood to the posterior compartment of the leg and plantar surface of the foot, from the popliteal artery...

 - posterior triangle of the neck
Posterior triangle of the neck
-Boundaries:It has the following boundaries:Apex: Union of the sternocleidomastoid and the trapezius muscles at the superior nuchal line of the occipital boneAnterior: Posterior border of the sternocleidomastoideus...

 - posterolateral fissure - Postganglionic neuron - posture
Neutral spine
A neutral spine or good posture refers to the "three natural curves [that] are present in a healthy spine."- Posture :The word "posture" comes from the Latin verb "ponere" which is defined as "to put or place." The general concept of human posture refers to "the carriage of the body as a whole, the...

 - precentral gyrus - precuneus
Precuneus
The precuneus is a part of the superior parietal lobule hidden in the medial longitudinal fissure between the two cerebral hemispheres. It is sometimes described as the medial area of the superior parietal cortex. It is involved with episodic memory, visuospatial processing, reflections upon self,...

 - prefrontal cortex
Prefrontal cortex
The prefrontal cortex is the anterior part of the frontal lobes of the brain, lying in front of the motor and premotor areas.This brain region has been implicated in planning complex cognitive behaviors, personality expression, decision making and moderating correct social behavior...

 - preganglionic - preganglionic neurons - preganglionic parasympathetic neurons - preganglionic sympathetic neurons - premolar
Premolar
The premolar teeth or bicuspids are transitional teeth located between the canine and molar teeth. In humans, there are two premolars per quadrant, making eight premolars total in the mouth. They have at least two cusps. Premolars can be considered as a 'transitional tooth' during chewing, or...

 - premotor cortex
Premotor cortex
The premotor cortex is an area of motor cortex lying within the frontal lobe of the brain. It extends 3 mm anterior to the primary motor cortex, near the Sylvian fissure, before narrowing to approximately 1 mm near the medial longitudinal fissure, which serves as the posterior border for...

 - preoccipital notch
Preoccipital notch
About 5 cm. in front of the occipital pole on the infero-lateral border is an indentation or notch, named the preoccipital notch....

 - preoptic recess - preoptic region - prepuce - prepyriform cortex - presacral space
Presacral space
In human anatomy, the presacral space is inside the pelvis, behind the rectum and in front of the coccyx and sacrum. Normally it is empty, or it contains a pocket of fat.It is usually covered by sigmoid colon.-Clinical significance:...

 - prevertebral fascia
Prevertebral fascia
The prevertebral fascia is a fascia in the neck.-Variations:In some literature, the prevertebral fascia also includes the rest of the fascia extending around the vertebral column and enclosing all muscles laterally and posteriorly to it...

 - primary fissure - primary olfactory cortex
Primary olfactory cortex
The Primary olfactory cortex is a portion of the cortex involved in olfaction.Some sources state that it includes the prepyriform area and entorhinal area.Other sources state that it consists of the prepiriform cortex and periamygdaloid cortex....

 - primary sensory neuron - primary somatosensory cortex - proboscis
Proboscis
A proboscis is an elongated appendage from the head of an animal, either a vertebrate or an invertebrate. In simpler terms, a proboscis is the straw-like mouth found in several varieties of species.-Etymology:...

 - procerus
Procerus muscle
The Procerus is a small pyramidal slip of muscle deep to the superior orbital nerve, artery and vein.-Origin and insertion:It arises by tendinous fibers from the fascia covering the lower part of the nasal bone and upper part of the lateral nasal cartilage....

 - process
Process (anatomy)
In anatomy, a process is a projection or outgrowth of tissue from a larger body. The vertebra has several kinds of processes,such as: transverse process, prezygapophysis, postzygapophysis.-Examples:Examples of processes include:...

 - processus
Process (anatomy)
In anatomy, a process is a projection or outgrowth of tissue from a larger body. The vertebra has several kinds of processes,such as: transverse process, prezygapophysis, postzygapophysis.-Examples:Examples of processes include:...

 - profunda femoris artery
Profunda femoris artery
The profunda femoris artery is a branch of the femoral artery that, as its name suggests, travels more deeply than the rest of the femoral artery.-Structure:...

 - profundus - projection fibers
Projection fibers
The projection fibers consist of efferent and afferent fibers uniting the cortex with the lower parts of the brain and with the spinal cord.-Efferent:The principal efferent strands are:...

 - prominens - promontory
Promontory
Promontory may refer to:*Promontory, a prominent mass of land which overlooks lower lying land or a body of water*Promontory, Utah, the location where the United States first Transcontinental Railroad was completed...

 - pronate - prone - proprioception
Proprioception
Proprioception , from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own" and perception, is the sense of the relative position of neighbouring parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement...

 - proprioceptive - proprius - prosection
Prosection
A prosection is the dissection of a cadaver or part of a cadaver by an experienced anatomist in order to demonstrate for students anatomic structure...

 - prosector
Prosector
A prosector is a person with the special task of preparing a dissection for demonstration, usually in medical schools or hospitals. Many important anatomists began their careers as prosectors working for lecturers and demonstrators in anatomy and pathology....

 - prosencephalon
Prosencephalon
In the anatomy of the brain of vertebrates, the prosencephalon is the rostral-most portion of the brain. The prosencephalon, the mesencephalon , and rhombencephalon are the three primary portions of the brain during early development of the central nervous system...

 - forebrain
Prosencephalon
In the anatomy of the brain of vertebrates, the prosencephalon is the rostral-most portion of the brain. The prosencephalon, the mesencephalon , and rhombencephalon are the three primary portions of the brain during early development of the central nervous system...

 - prosopagnosia
Prosopagnosia
Prosopagnosia is a disorder of face perception where the ability to recognize faces is impaired, while the ability to recognize other objects may be relatively intact...

 - prostate
Prostate
The prostate is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals....

 - prostatic urethra
Prostatic urethra
The prostatic urethra, the widest and most dilatable part of the urethra canal, is about 3 cm. long.It runs almost vertically through the prostate from its base to its apex, lying nearer its anterior than its posterior surface; the form of the canal is spindle-shaped, being wider in the middle...

 - protract - protrude - protuberance - proximal - psoas muscle - pterion
Pterion
The pterion is the point corresponding with the posterior end of the sphenoparietal suture.-Location:It is situated about 3 cm. behind, and a little above the level of the zygomatic process of the temporal bone.It marks the junction between four bones:...

 - pterygoid plate - pterygoid process - pterygomandibular ligament - pterygopalatine foramen - pterygopalatine fossa
Pterygopalatine fossa
The pterygopalatine fossa is a fossa in the skull. It is the indented area medial to the pterygomaxillary fissure leading into the sphenopalatine foramen.-Boundaries:It has the following boundaries:...

 - pterygopalatine ganglion
Pterygopalatine ganglion
The pterygopalatine ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion found in the pterygopalatine fossa. It is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck....

 - ptosis - puberty
Puberty
Puberty is the process of physical changes by which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of reproduction, as initiated by hormonal signals from the brain to the gonads; the ovaries in a girl, the testes in a boy...

 - pubic hair
Pubic hair
Pubic hair is hair in the frontal genital area, the crotch, and sometimes at the top of the inside of the legs; these areas form the pubic region....

 - pubic symphysis
Pubic symphysis
The pubic symphysis or symphysis pubis is the midline cartilaginous joint uniting the superior rami of the left and right pubic bones. It is located anterior to the urinary bladder and superior to the external genitalia; for females it is above the vulva and for males it is above the penis...

 - pubis
Pubis (bone)
In vertebrates, the pubic bone is the ventral and anterior of the three principal bones composing either half of the pelvis.It is covered by a layer of fat, which is covered by the mons pubis....

 - pudendal nerve
Pudendal nerve
The pudendal nerve is a sensory and somatic nerve in the pelvic region which is a large branch of the sacral plexus that innervates the external genitalia of both sexes, as well as sphincters for the bladder and the rectum...

 - pulmonary - pulmonary alveolus
Pulmonary alveolus
An alveolus is an anatomical structure that has the form of a hollow cavity. Found in the lung parenchyma, the pulmonary alveoli are the dead ends of the respiratory tree, which outcrop from either alveolar sacs or alveolar ducts, which are both sites of gas exchange with the blood as well...

 - pulmonary trunk - pulmonary vein
Pulmonary vein
The pulmonary veins are large blood vessels that carry blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. In humans there are four pulmonary veins, two from each lung...

 - pulp - pulvinar
Pulvinar
The pulvinar nuclei are a collection of nuclei located in the pulvinar thalamus. The pulvinar part is the most posterior region of the thalamus....

 - punctum
Lacrimal punctum
The lacrimal canaliculi, one in each eyelid, commence at minute orifices, termed puncta lacrimalia , on the summits of the papillae lacrimales, seen on the margins of the lids at the lateral extremity of the lacus lacrimalis...

 - pupil
Pupil
The pupil is a hole located in the center of the iris of the eye that allows light to enter the retina. It appears black because most of the light entering the pupil is absorbed by the tissues inside the eye. In humans the pupil is round, but other species, such as some cats, have slit pupils. In...

 - pupillary dilatation - pupillary light reflex - purkinje cells - putamen
Putamen
The putamen is a round structure located at the base of the forebrain . The putamen and caudate nucleus together form the dorsal striatum. It is also one of the structures that comprises the basal ganglia. Through various pathways, the putamen is connected to the substantia nigra and globus pallidus...

 - pyloric antrum
Pyloric antrum
Pyloric antrum is the initial portion of the pyloric part of the stomach. It is near the bottom of the stomach, proximal to the pyloric sphincter, which separates the stomach and the duodenum....

 - pyloric valve - pylorus
Pylorus
The pylorus is the region of the stomach that connects to the duodenum . It is divided into two parts:* the pyloric antrum, which connects to the body of the stomach.* the pyloric canal, which connects to the duodenum....

 - pyramid
Renal pyramids
Renal pyramids are cone-shaped tissues of the kidney. The renal medulla is made up of 7 to 18 of these conical subdivisions . The broad base of each pyramid faces the renal cortex, and its apex, or papilla, points internally...

 - pyramidal cell
Pyramidal cell
Pyramidal neurons are a type of neuron found in areas of the brain including cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, and in the amygdala. Pyramidal neurons are the primary excitation units of the mammalian prefrontal cortex and the corticospinal tract. Pyramidal neurons were first discovered and...

 - pyramidal system - pyramidal tract - pyriform cortex - pyriform lobe

Q


quadrangular membrane
Quadrangular membrane
The quadrangular membrane is a layer of submucosa. It contains the cuneiform cartilages. The membrane runs between the lateral aspects of the epiglottis and arytenoid cartilages on each side. The free inferior border of the quadrangular membrane is the vestibular ligament which is the vestibular...

 - quadrangular space
Quadrangular space
The quadrangular space is an axillary space in the arm. This is a clinically important anatomic space in the arm. In the quadrangular space, the axillary nerve and posterior circumflex humeral artery can be compressed or damaged in the space due to space occupying lesions or disruption in the...

 - quadrate
Quadrate bone
The quadrate bone is part of a skull in most tetrapods, including amphibians, sauropsids , and early synapsids. In these animals it connects to the quadratojugal and squamosal in the skull, and forms part of the jaw joint .- Evolutionary variation :In snakes, the quadrate bone has become elongated...

 - quadratojugal
Quadratojugal
The quadratojugal is a small jaw bone that is present in most amphibians, reptiles, and birds, but has been lost in mammals. It is connected to the jugal as well as other bones, though these may vary with species....

 - quadriceps - quadrigeminal body - quadrigeminal plate - quadrigeminal plate cistern - quadrigeminus - quadriplegia
Quadriplegia
Tetraplegia, also known as quadriplegia, is paralysis caused by illness or injury to a human that results in the partial or total loss of use of all their limbs and torso; paraplegia is similar but does not affect the arms...


R


radial artery
Radial artery
In human anatomy, the radial artery is the main blood vessel, with oxygenated blood, of the lateral aspect of the forearm.-Course:The radial artery arises from the bifurcation of the brachial artery in the cubital fossa. It runs distally on the anterior part of the forearm...

 - radius
Radius (bone)
The radius is one of the two large bones of the forearm, the other being the ulna. It extends from the lateral side of the elbow to the thumb side of the wrist and runs parallel to the ulna, which exceeds it in length and size. It is a long bone, prism-shaped and slightly curved longitudinally...

 - radula
Radula
The radula is an anatomical structure that is used by molluscs for feeding, sometimes compared rather inaccurately to a tongue. It is a minutely toothed, chitinous ribbon, which is typically used for scraping or cutting food before the food enters the esophagus...

 - rami communicantes - ramus - raphe
Raphe
Raphe has several different meanings in science. Pronounced .In botany and planktology it is commonly used when describing a seam or ridge on diatoms or seeds....

 - raphe nuclei
Raphe nuclei
The raphe nuclei are a moderate-size cluster of nuclei found in the brain stem. Their main function is to release serotonin to the rest of the brain...

 - receptor layer of retina - rectum
Rectum
The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. The human rectum is about 12 cm long...

 - rectus abdominis muscle
Rectus abdominis muscle
The rectus abdominis muscle, also known as the "six pack", is a paired muscle running vertically on each side of the anterior wall of the human abdomen . There are two parallel muscles, separated by a midline band of connective tissue called the linea alba...

 - rectus capitis anterior muscle
Rectus capitis anterior muscle
The rectus capitis anterior is a short, flat muscle, situated immediately behind the upper part of the Longus capitis....

 - rectus capitis lateralis muscle
Rectus capitis lateralis muscle
The Rectus capitis lateralis, a short, flat muscle, arises from the upper surface of the transverse process of the atlas, and is inserted into the under surface of the jugular process of the occipital bone.-See also:* atlanto-occipital joint...

 - rectus femoris muscle
Rectus femoris muscle
The rectus femoris muscle is one of the four quadriceps muscles of the human body. The others are the vastus medialis, the vastus intermedius , and the vastus lateralis...

 - rectus sheath
Rectus sheath
The Rectus sheath is formed by the aponeuroses of the Obliqui and Transversus. It contains the Rectus abdominis and Pyramidalis muscles.It can be divided into anterior and posterior laminae....

 - recurrent laryngeal nerve
Recurrent laryngeal nerve
The recurrent laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve that supplies motor function and sensation to the larynx . It travels within the endoneurium...

 - red nucleus
Red nucleus
The red nucleus is a structure in the rostral midbrain involved in motor coordination. It comprises a caudal magnocellular and a rostral parvocellular part.-Function:...

 - reflex
Reflex
A reflex action, also known as a reflex, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus. A true reflex is a behavior which is mediated via the reflex arc; this does not apply to casual uses of the term 'reflex'.-See also:...

 - Reissner's membrane
Reissner's membrane
Reissner's membrane is a membrane inside the cochlea of the inner ear. It separates scala media from scala vestibuli. Together with the basilar membrane it creates a compartment in the cochlea filled with endolymph, which is important for the function of the organ of Corti...

 - Reissner's fibre - renal artery
Renal artery
The renal arteries normally arise off the side of the abdominal aorta, immediately below the superior mesenteric artery, and supply the kidneys with blood. Each is directed across the crus of the diaphragm, so as to form nearly a right angle with the aorta....

 - renal calices - renal capsule
Renal capsule
The renal capsule is a tough fibrous layer surrounding the kidney and covered in a thick layer of perinephric adipose tissue. It provides some protection from trauma and damage....

 - renal cortex
Renal cortex
The renal cortex is the outer portion of the kidney between the renal capsule and the renal medulla. In the adult, it forms a continuous smooth outer zone with a number of projections that extend down between the pyramids. It contains the renal corpuscles and the renal tubules except for parts of...

 - renal hilus - renal pyramids
Renal pyramids
Renal pyramids are cone-shaped tissues of the kidney. The renal medulla is made up of 7 to 18 of these conical subdivisions . The broad base of each pyramid faces the renal cortex, and its apex, or papilla, points internally...

 - renal system
Kidney
The kidneys, organs with several functions, serve essential regulatory roles in most animals, including vertebrates and some invertebrates. They are essential in the urinary system and also serve homeostatic functions such as the regulation of electrolytes, maintenance of acid–base balance, and...

 - reproductive system
Reproductive system
The reproductive system or genital system is a system of organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of reproduction. Many non-living substances such as fluids, hormones, and pheromones are also important accessories to the reproductive system. Unlike most organ systems, the sexes...

 - respiratory system
Respiratory system
The respiratory system is the anatomical system of an organism that introduces respiratory gases to the interior and performs gas exchange. In humans and other mammals, the anatomical features of the respiratory system include airways, lungs, and the respiratory muscles...

 - restiform body - rete - rete testis
Rete testis
Rete testis is an anastomosing network of delicate tubules located in the hilum of the testicle that carries sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the vasa efferentia....

 - reticular formation
Reticular formation
The reticular formation is a part of the brain that is involved in actions such as awaking/sleeping cycle, and filtering incoming stimuli to discriminate irrelevant background stimuli...

 - reticular nucleus of thalamus - reticulospinal tract
Reticulospinal tract
The reticulospinal tract is an extrapyramidal motor tract which travels from the reticular formation.-Functions:...

 - reticulum (anatomy)
Reticulum (anatomy)
The reticulum is the second chamber in the alimentary canal of a ruminant animal. Anatomically it is considered the smaller half of the reticulorumen along with the rumen. Together these two compartments make up 84% of the volume of the total stomach. The reticulum is located between the rumen and...

 - retina
Retina
The vertebrate retina is a light-sensitive tissue lining the inner surface of the eye. The optics of the eye create an image of the visual world on the retina, which serves much the same function as the film in a camera. Light striking the retina initiates a cascade of chemical and electrical...

 - retinaculum - retinal artery - retinotopic - retrobulbar neuritis - retrogastric area - retromandibular vein - Retromolar space
Retromolar space
The retromolar space or retromolar gap is a space at the rear of a mandible, between the back of the last molar and the anterior edge of the ascending ramus where it crosses the alveolar margin....

 - retroperitoneal - retropharyngeal space
Retropharyngeal space
The retropharyngeal space is a space bounded by the buccopharyngeal fascia anteriorly and the alar fascia posteriorly.It includes the retropharyngeal lymph nodes....

 - retroversion - retrovisceral space
Retrovisceral space
The retrovisceral space is divided into the retropharyngeal space and the danger space by the alar fascia. It is of particular clinical importance because it is a main route by which oropharyngeal infections can spread into the mediastinum....

 - Rexed's laminae - rhinencephalon
Rhinencephalon
In animal anatomy, the rhinencephalon is a part of the brain involved with olfaction.-Components:The term rhinencephalon has been used to describe different structures at different points in time....

 - rhombencephalon
Rhombencephalon
The rhombencephalon is a developmental categorization of portions of the central nervous system in vertebrates.The rhombencephalon can be subdivided in a variable number of transversal swellings called rhombomeres...

 - rhomboid fossa
Rhomboid fossa
The anterior part of the fourth ventricle is named, from its shape, the rhomboid fossa, and its anterior wall, formed by the back of the pons and medulla oblongata, constitutes the floor of the fourth ventricle....

 - rib
Rib
In vertebrate anatomy, ribs are the long curved bones which form the rib cage. In most vertebrates, ribs surround the chest, enabling the lungs to expand and thus facilitate breathing by expanding the chest cavity. They serve to protect the lungs, heart, and other internal organs of the thorax...

 - right atrium
Right atrium
The right atrium is one of four chambers in the hearts of mammals and archosaurs...

 - right colic artery
Right colic artery
The Right Colic Artery arises from about the middle of the concavity of the superior mesenteric artery, or from a stem common to it and the ileocolic....

 - right common carotid artery - right gastroepiploic artery - right mainstem bronchi - right marginal artery - right pulmonary artery
Right pulmonary artery
The right pulmonary artery or right branch of the pulmonary artery, longer and larger than the left, runs horizontally to the right, behind the ascending aorta and superior vena cava and in front of the right bronchus, to the root of the right lung, where it divides into two branches...

 - right ventricle
Right ventricle
The right ventricle is one of four chambers in the human heart. It receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium via the tricuspid valve, and pumps it into the pulmonary artery via the pulmonary valve and pulmonary trunk....

 - rima glottidis
Rima glottidis
The rima glottidis is the opening between the true vocal cords and the arytenoid cartilages.It is normally subdivided into two parts, that between the arytenoid cartilages is called the intercartilaginous part , and that between the vocal folds the intermembranous part or glottis vocalis.It is...

 - risorius
Risorius
The risorius is a muscle of facial expression which arises in the fascia over the parotid gland and, passing horizontally forward, superficial to the platysma, inserts onto the skin at the angle of the mouth...

 - rod cells - rostrum of corpus callosum
Rostrum of corpus callosum
The anterior end of the corpus callosum is named the genu, and is bent downward and backward in front of the septum pellucidum; diminishing rapidly in thickness, it is prolonged backward under the name of the rostrum, and is connected below with the lamina terminalis, which stretches from the...

 - rotator cuff
Rotator cuff
In anatomy, the rotator cuff is the group of muscles and their tendons that act to stabilize the shoulder. The four muscles of the rotator cuff, along with the teres major muscle, the coracobrachialis muscle and the deltoid, make up the seven scapulohumeral muscles of the human body.-Function:The...

 - round ligament of the uterus - round window
Round window
The round window is one of the two openings into the inner ear. It is closed off from the middle ear by the round window membrane, which vibrates with opposite phase to vibrations entering the inner ear through the oval window...

 - rubrospinal tract
Rubrospinal tract
The rubrospinal tract is a part of the nervous system. It is a part of the lateral indirect extra-pyramidal tract.-Function:In humans, the rubrospinal tract is one of several major motor control pathways. It is smaller and has fewer axons than the corticospinal tract, suggesting that it is less...

 - rugae
Rugae
Rugae is a term used in anatomy that refers to a series of ridges produced by folding of the wall of an organ. Most commonly the term is applied to the internal surface of the stomach...


S


saccade
Saccade
A saccade is a fast movement of an eye, head or other part of an animal's body or device. It can also be a fast shift in frequency of an emitted signal or other quick change. Saccades are quick, simultaneous movements of both eyes in the same direction...

 - saccule
Saccule
The saccule is a bed of sensory cells situated in the inner ear. The saccule translates head movements into neural impulses which the brain can interpret. The saccule is sensitive to linear translations of the head, specifically movements up and down...

 - sacral ala - sacral vertebrae - sacral promontory
Sacral promontory
The sacral promontory is the anatomical term for the superiormost portion of the sacrum. It marks part of the border of the pelvic inlet. The rectosigmoid junction is at the level of the sacral promontory....

 - sacroiliac joint
Sacroiliac joint
The sacroiliac joint or SI joint is the joint in the bony pelvis between the sacrum and the ilium of the pelvis, which are joined together by strong ligaments. In humans, the sacrum supports the spine and is supported in turn by an ilium on each side...

 - sacrum
Sacrum
In vertebrate anatomy the sacrum is a large, triangular bone at the base of the spine and at the upper and back part of the pelvic cavity, where it is inserted like a wedge between the two hip bones. Its upper part connects with the last lumbar vertebra, and bottom part with the coccyx...

 - sagittal crest
Sagittal crest
A sagittal crest is a ridge of bone running lengthwise along the midline of the top of the skull of many mammalian and reptilian skulls, among others....

 - sagittal suture
Sagittal suture
The sagittal suture is a dense, fibrous connective tissue joint between the two parietal bones of the skull. The term is derived from the Latin word Sagitta, meaning "arrow". The derivation of this term may be demonstrated by observing how the sagittal suture is notched posteriorly, like an arrow,...

 - saliva
Saliva
Saliva , referred to in various contexts as spit, spittle, drivel, drool, or slobber, is the watery substance produced in the mouths of humans and most other animals. Saliva is a component of oral fluid. In mammals, saliva is produced in and secreted from the three pairs of major salivary glands,...

 - salivary gland
Salivary gland
The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands, glands with ducts, that produce saliva. They also secrete amylase, an enzyme that breaks down starch into maltose...

 - salpinx
Salpinx
A salpinx was a trumpet-like instrument of the ancient Greeks. -Construction:The salpinx consisted of a straight, narrow bronze tube with a mouthpiece of bone and a bell of variable shape and size; extant descriptions describe conical, bulb-like, and spherical structures...

 - saphenous vein - sartorius
Sartorius muscle
The Sartorius muscle – the longest muscle in the human body – is a long thin muscle that runs down the length of the thigh. Its upper portion forms the lateral border of the femoral triangle.-Origin and insertion:...

 - satellite cells
Satellite cells
Myosatellite cells or satellite cells are small mononuclear progenitor cells with virtually no cytoplasm found in mature muscle. They are found sandwiched between the basement membrane and sarcolemma of individual muscle fibers, and can be difficult to distinguish from the sub-sarcolemmal nuclei...

 - scala media
Scala media
The cochlear duct is an endolymph filled cavity inside the cochlea, located in between the scala tympani and the scala vestibuli, separated by the basilar membrane and Reissner's membrane respectively....

 - scala tympani
Scala tympani
Scala tympani is one of the perilymph-filled cavities in the cochlear labyrinth of the human ear. It is separated from the scala media by the basilar membrane, and it extends from the round window to the helicotrema, where it continues as scala vestibuli....

 - scala vestibuli
Scala vestibuli
Scala vestibuli is a perilymph-filled cavity inside the cochlea of the inner ear that conducts sound vibrations to the scala media.It is separated from the scala media by Reissner's membrane and extends from the vestibule of the ear to the helicotrema where it joins scala tympani.-External links:* ...

 - scalp
Scalp
The scalp is the anatomical area bordered by the face anteriorly and the neck to the sides and posteriorly.-Layers:It is usually described as having five layers, which can conveniently be remembered as a mnemonic:...

 - scaphoid - scaphoid fossa
Scaphoid fossa
In the pterygoid processes of the sphenoid, above the pterygoid fossa is a small, oval, shallow depression, the scaphoid fossa, which gives origin to the Tensor veli palatini.-External links:*...

 - scapula
Scapula
In anatomy, the scapula , omo, or shoulder blade, is the bone that connects the humerus with the clavicle ....

 - scar
Scar
Scars are areas of fibrous tissue that replace normal skin after injury. A scar results from the biological process of wound repair in the skin and other tissues of the body. Thus, scarring is a natural part of the healing process. With the exception of very minor lesions, every wound results in...

 - Schwann cell
Schwann cell
Schwann cells or neurolemmocytes are the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system . Glial cells function to support neurons and in the PNS, also include satellite cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, enteric glia and glia that reside at sensory nerve endings, such as the Pacinian corpuscle...

 - sciatic nerve
Sciatic nerve
The sciatic nerve is a large nerve fiber in humans and other animals. It begins in the lower back and runs through the buttock and down the lower limb...

 - sclera
Sclera
The sclera , also known as the white or white of the eye, is the opaque , fibrous, protective, outer layer of the eye containing collagen and elastic fiber. In the development of the embryo, the sclera is derived from the neural crest...

 - scleral venous sinus - sclerotome
Sclerotome
A sclerotome is part of a somite, a structure in vertebrate embryonic development. Sclerotomes eventually differentiate into the vertebrae and most of the skull...

 - scoliosis
Scoliosis
Scoliosis is a medical condition in which a person's spine is curved from side to side. Although it is a complex three-dimensional deformity, on an X-ray, viewed from the rear, the spine of an individual with scoliosis may look more like an "S" or a "C" than a straight line...

 - scotoma
Scotoma
A scotoma is an area of partial alteration in one's field of vision consisting of a partially diminished or entirely degenerated visual acuity which is surrounded by a field of normal - or relatively well-preserved - vision.Every normal mammalian eye has a scotoma in its field of vision, usually...

 - scrotum
Scrotum
In some male mammals the scrotum is a dual-chambered protuberance of skin and muscle containing the testicles and divided by a septum. It is an extension of the perineum, and is located between the penis and anus. In humans and some other mammals, the base of the scrotum becomes covered with curly...

 - scutum
Scutum
Scutum is a small constellation introduced in the seventeenth century. Its name is Latin for shield.-History:Scutum is the only constellation that owes its name to a non-classical historical figure...

 - sebaceous glands - secondary oocyte - secondary sensory neuron relay - secretion
Secretion
Secretion is the process of elaborating, releasing, and oozing chemicals, or a secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland. In contrast to excretion, the substance may have a certain function, rather than being a waste product...

 - sella turcica
Sella turcica
-External links:*...

 - semen
Semen
Semen is an organic fluid, also known as seminal fluid, that may contain spermatozoa. It is secreted by the gonads and other sexual organs of male or hermaphroditic animals and can fertilize female ova...

 - semicircular canal - semilunaris - semimembranosus - seminal vesicles - seminiferous tubules
Seminiferous tubules
Seminiferous tubules are located in the testes, and are the specific location of meiosis, and the subsequent creation of gametes, namely spermatozoa....

 - semitendinosus - sensorimotor cortex - sensory decussation
Sensory decussation
The sensory decussation or decussation of the lemniscus is a decussation or cross over of axons from the gracile nucleus and cuneate nucleus. The fibres of this decussation are called the internal arcuate fibres and are found at the superior aspect of the closed medulla superior to the motor...

 - sensory system
Sensory system
A sensory system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information. A sensory system consists of sensory receptors, neural pathways, and parts of the brain involved in sensory perception. Commonly recognized sensory systems are those for vision, hearing, somatic...

 - septal cartilage - septal nuclei
Septal nuclei
The septal area are structures that lie below the rostrum of corpus callosum in front of lamina terminalis , composed of medium-size neurons grouped into medial, lateral, and posterior groups...

 - septal vein - septum
Septum
In anatomy, a septum is a wall, dividing a cavity or structure into smaller ones.-In human anatomy:...

 - septum pellucidum
Septum pellucidum
The septum pellucidum , and not to be confused with the medial septum, is a thin, triangular, vertical membrane separating the anterior horns of the left and right lateral ventricles of the brain...

 - septum primum
Septum primum
In the developing heart, the cavity of the primitive atrium becomes subdivided into right and left chambers by a septum, the septum primum, which grows downward into the cavity. The increasingly smaller gap below it is known as the ostium primum...

 - septum secundum
Septum secundum
The septum secundum, semilunar in shape, grows downward from the upper wall of the atrium immediately to the right of the primary septum and ostium secundum....

 - serous - serous membrane
Serous membrane
In anatomy, serous membrane is a smooth membrane consisting of a thin layer of cells which secrete serous fluid. Serous membranes line and enclose several body cavities, known as serous cavities, where they secrete a lubricating fluid which reduces friction from muscle movement...

 - serous pericardium
Serous pericardium
The serous pericardium is deeper than the fibrous pericardium. It contains two layers, both of which function in lubricating the heart to prevent friction from occurring during heart activity:...

 - sesamoid bone
Sesamoid bone
In anatomy, a sesamoid bone is a bone embedded within a tendon.Sesamoids are found in locations where a tendon passes over a joint, such as the hand, knee, and foot. Functionally, they act to protect the tendon and to increase its mechanical effect. The presence of the sesamoid bone holds the...

 - sex organ
Sex organ
A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, as narrowly defined, is any of the anatomical parts of the body which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in a complex organism; flowers are the reproductive organs of flowering plants, cones are the reproductive...

 - Sharpey's fibres
Sharpey's fibres
Sharpey's fibres are a matrix of connective tissue consisting of bundles of strong collagenous fibres connecting periosteum to bone...

 - short ciliary nerves
Short ciliary nerves
The branches of the ciliary ganglion are the short ciliary nerves.These are delicate filaments, from six to ten in number, which arise from the forepart of the ganglion in two bundles connected with its superior and inferior angles; the lower bundle is the larger.They run forward with the ciliary...

 - shoulder
Shoulder
The human shoulder is made up of three bones: the clavicle , the scapula , and the humerus as well as associated muscles, ligaments and tendons. The articulations between the bones of the shoulder make up the shoulder joints. The major joint of the shoulder is the glenohumeral joint, which...

 - shoulder blade
Scapula
In anatomy, the scapula , omo, or shoulder blade, is the bone that connects the humerus with the clavicle ....

 - shin
Tibia
The tibia , shinbone, or shankbone is the larger and stronger of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertebrates , and connects the knee with the ankle bones....

 - sight
Visual perception
Visual perception is the ability to interpret information and surroundings from the effects of visible light reaching the eye. The resulting perception is also known as eyesight, sight, or vision...

 - sigmoid colon
Sigmoid colon
The sigmoid colon is the part of the large intestine that is closest to the rectum and anus. It forms a loop that averages about 40 cm...

 - sigmoid sinus
Sigmoid sinus
The sigmoid sinuses , within the human head, are two areas beneath the brain which allow blood to drain inferiorly from the posterior center of the head. They drain from the transverse sinuses and converge with the inferior petrosal sinuses to form the internal jugular vein...

 - Simian crease
Simian crease
In humans, a single transverse palmar crease is a single crease that extends across the palm of the hand, formed by the fusion of the two palmar creases that people typically have...

 - simian shelf
Simian shelf
The simian shelf is a bony thickening on the front of the ape mandible. Its function is to reinforce the jaw, though it also has the effect of considerably reducing the movement of the tongue by restricting the area available for muscles....

 - sinoatrial node
Sinoatrial node
The sinoatrial node is the impulse-generating tissue located in the right atrium of the heart, and thus the generator of normal sinus rhythm. It is a group of cells positioned on the wall of the right atrium, near the entrance of the superior vena cava...

 - sinus
Sinus (anatomy)
Sinus is Latin for "bay", "pocket", "curve", or "bosom". In anatomy, the term is used in various contexts.A sinus is a sack or cavity in any organ or tissue, or an abnormal cavity or passage caused by the destruction of tissue...

 - skeletal system - skeleton
Skeleton
The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism. There are two different skeletal types: the exoskeleton, which is the stable outer shell of an organism, and the endoskeleton, which forms the support structure inside the body.In a figurative sense, skeleton can...

 - skin
Skin
-Dermis:The dermis is the layer of skin beneath the epidermis that consists of connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain. The dermis is tightly connected to the epidermis by a basement membrane. It also harbors many Mechanoreceptors that provide the sense of touch and heat...

 - skull
Human skull
The human skull is a bony structure, skeleton, that is in the human head and which supports the structures of the face and forms a cavity for the brain.In humans, the adult skull is normally made up of 22 bones...

 - small intestine
Small intestine
The small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract following the stomach and followed by the large intestine, and is where much of the digestion and absorption of food takes place. In invertebrates such as worms, the terms "gastrointestinal tract" and "large intestine" are often used to...

 - SMAS
SMAS
SMAS is an acronym for Superficial Muscular Aponeurotic System. It refers to an area of musculature of the face. This muscular system is manipulated during facial cosmetic surgery, especially rhytidectomy. The SMAS extends from the Platysma to the Galea Aponeurotica and is continuous with...

 - smegma
Smegma
Smegma is a combination of exfoliated epithelial cells, transudated skin oils, and moisture. It occurs in both female and male mammalian genitalia.-Human smegma:Both females and males produce smegma...

 - soft palate
Soft palate
The soft palate is the soft tissue constituting the back of the roof of the mouth. The soft palate is distinguished from the hard palate at the front of the mouth in that it does not contain bone....

 - sole (foot)
Sole (foot)
The sole is the bottom of the foot.In humans the sole of the foot is anatomically referred to as the plantar aspect. The equivalent surface in ungulates is the hoof.- Human sole :...

 - soleus - solitary nucleus
Solitary nucleus
The solitary tract and nucleus are structures in the brainstem that carry and receive visceral sensation and taste from the facial , glossopharyngeal and vagus cranial nerves.-Anatomy:...

 - solitary tract - somatic
Somatic
The term somatic means 'of the body',, relating to the body. In medicine, somatic illness is bodily, not mental, illness. The term is often used in biology to refer to the cells of the body in contrast to the germ line cells which usually give rise to the gametes...

 - somatic motor nuclei - somite
Somite
A somite is a division of the body of an animal. In vertebrates this is mainly discernible in the embryo stage; in arthropods it is a characteristic of a hypothetical ancestor.- In vertebrates :...

 - spasm
Spasm
In medicine a spasm is a sudden, involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ, or a similarly sudden contraction of an orifice. It is sometimes accompanied by a sudden burst of pain, but is usually harmless and ceases after a few minutes...

 - spasticity
Spasticity
Spasticity is a feature of altered skeletal muscle performance in muscle tone involving hypertonia, which is also referred to as an unusual "tightness" of muscles...

 - specific sensory nucleus of thalamus - spermatheca
Spermatheca
The spermatheca , also called receptaculum seminis , is an organ of the female reproductive tract in insects, some molluscs, oligochaeta worms and certain other invertebrates and vertebrates...

 - spermatic cord
Spermatic cord
The spermatic cord is the name given to the cord-like structure in males formed by the ductus deferens and surrounding tissue that run from the abdomen down to each testicle.-Contents of spermatic cord:...

 - sphenoethmoidal recess
Sphenoethmoidal recess
The sphenoethmoidal recessis a small space posterior and superior to the superior concha into which the sphenoidal sinus opens.-External links: - "The turbinates have been cut and removed to illustrate the meatus and openings into them."...

 - sphenoid bone
Sphenoid bone
The sphenoid bone is an unpaired bone situated at the base of the skull in front of the temporal bone and basilar part of the occipital bone.The sphenoid bone is one of the seven bones that articulate to form the orbit...

 - sphenoidal sinus - sphenopalatine artery
Sphenopalatine artery
The sphenopalatine artery is an artery of the head, commonly known as the artery of epistaxis.-Course:The sphenopalatine artery is a branch of the maxillary artery which passes through the sphenopalatine foramen into the cavity of the nose, at the back part of the superior meatus...

 - sphenopalatine foramen
Sphenopalatine foramen
The sphenopalatine foramen is a foramen in the skull that connects the nasal cavity with the pterygopalatine fossa.-Structure:The processes of the superior border of the palatine bone are separated by the sphenopalatine notch, which is converted into the sphenopalatine foramen by the under surface...

 - sphincter
Sphincter
A sphincter is an anatomical structure, or a circular muscle, that normally maintains constriction of a natural body passage or orifice and which relaxes as required by normal physiological functioning...

 - sphincter of the bile duct - sphincter of the pancreatic duct - spicule
Spicule
Spicules are tiny spike-like structures of diverse origin and function found in many organisms, such as the copulatory spicules of certain nematodes or the grains on the skin of some frogs.In sponges, spicules perform a structural function....

 - spina bifida
Spina bifida
Spina bifida is a developmental congenital disorder caused by the incomplete closing of the embryonic neural tube. Some vertebrae overlying the spinal cord are not fully formed and remain unfused and open. If the opening is large enough, this allows a portion of the spinal cord to protrude through...

 - spinal accessory nucleus
Spinal accessory nucleus
The spinal accessory nucleus lies within the cervical spinal cord in the ventral horn. The nucleus ambiguus is classically said to provide the "cranial component" of the accessory nerve....

 - spinal cord
Spinal cord
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the brain . The brain and spinal cord together make up the central nervous system...

 - spinal lemniscus - spinal nerve
Spinal nerve
The term spinal nerve generally refers to a mixed spinal nerve, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body...

 - spine
Vertebral column
In human anatomy, the vertebral column is a column usually consisting of 24 articulating vertebrae, and 9 fused vertebrae in the sacrum and the coccyx. It is situated in the dorsal aspect of the torso, separated by intervertebral discs...

 - spine of the scapula - spinocerebellar tract
Spinocerebellar tract
The spinocerebellar tract is a set of axonal fibers originating in the spinal cord and terminating in the ipsilateral cerebellum. This tract conveys information to the cerebellum about limb and joint position ....

 - spinocerebellum - spinocervical pathway
Spinocervical pathway
The spinocervical pathway is "a four-neuron, fast-conducting, tactile/pressure pathway from the spinal cord to sensory cortex. It involves the primary sensory neuron in the dorsal root ganglion, second order cell in the dorsal horn, third order cell in the lateral cervical nucleus near C1 and C2,...

 - spinothalamic tract
Spinothalamic tract
The spinothalamic tract is a sensory pathway originating in the spinal cord. It transmits information to the thalamus about pain, temperature, itch and crude touch...

 - spinous process
Spinous process
The spinous process of a vertebra is directed backward and downward from the junction of the laminae , and serves for the attachment of muscles and ligaments. In animals without an erect stance, the process points upward and may slant forward or backward...

 - spiral ganglion
Spiral ganglion
The spiral ganglion is the group of nerve cells that serve the sense of hearing by sending a representation of sound from the cochlea to the brain...

 - splanchnic nerves
Splanchnic nerves
The splanchnic nerves are paired nerves that contribute to the innervation of the viscera, carrying fibers of the autonomic nervous system as well as sensory fibers from the organs...

 - spleen
Spleen
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrate animals with important roles in regard to red blood cells and the immune system. In humans, it is located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. It removes old red blood cells and holds a reserve of blood in case of hemorrhagic shock...

 - splenic artery
Splenic artery
In anatomy, the splenic artery is the blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the spleen. It branches from the celiac artery, and follows a course superior to the pancreas.-Branches:...

 - splenic flexure
Splenic flexure
The splenic flexure is a sharp bend between the transverse and the descending colon in the left upper quadrant of humans. The left colic flexure is near the spleen, and hence called the splenic flexure. There are two colic flexures in the transverse colon — the other being the hepatic...

 - splenic vein
Splenic vein
In anatomy, the splenic vein is the blood vessel that drains blood from the spleen.It joins with the superior mesenteric vein, to form the hepatic portal vein and follows a course superior to the pancreas, alongside of the similarly named artery, the splenic artery.It collects branches from the...

 - splenium of the corpus callosum - splenius capitis muscle
Splenius capitis muscle
The splenius capitis is a broad, straplike muscle in the back of the neck. It pulls on the base of the skull from vertebrae in the neck and upper thorax.-Origin, insertion, and Innervation:...

 - squamous - stapedius
Stapedius
The stapedius is the smallest skeletal muscle in the human body. At just over one millimeter in length, its purpose is to stabilize the smallest bone in the body, the stapes....

 - stapes - stellate cell
Stellate cell
In neuroscience, stellate cells are neurons with several dendrites radiating from the cell body giving them a star shaped appearance. The three most common stellate cells are the inhibitory interneurons found within the molecular layer of the cerebellum, excitatory spiny stellate interneurons and...

 - stellate ganglion
Stellate ganglion
The stellate ganglion is a sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical ganglion and the first thoracic ganglion...

 - stereocilia
Stereocilia
In the inner ear, stereocilia are the mechanosensing organelles of hair cells, which respond to fluid motion in numerous types of animals for various functions, including hearing and balance. They are about 10–50 micrometers in length and share some similar features of microvilli...

 - stereognosis
Stereognosis
Stereognosis is the ability to perceive and recognize the form of an object using cues from texture, size, spatial properties, and temperature...

 - sternoclavicular articulation
Sternoclavicular articulation
The sternoclavicular articulation is a synovial double-plane joint composed of two portions separated by an articular disc. The parts entering into its formation are the sternal end of the clavicle, the upper and lateral part of the manubrium sterni , and the cartilage of the first rib, visible...

 - sternocleidomastoid muscle
Sternocleidomastoid muscle
In human anatomy, the sternocleidomastoid muscle , also known as sternomastoid and commonly abbreviated as SCM, is a paired muscle in the superficial layers of the anterior portion of the neck...

 - sternohyoid muscle
Sternohyoid muscle
The sternohyoid muscle is a thin, narrow muscle attaching the hyoid bone to the sternum, one of the paired strap muscles of the infrahyoid muscles serving to depress the hyoid bone...

 - sternothyroid muscle
Sternothyroid muscle
The Sternothyreoideus is shorter and wider than the Sternohyoideus, beneath which it is situated.It arises from the posterior surface of the manubrium sterni, below the origin of the Sternohyoideus, and from the edge of the cartilage of the first rib, and sometimes that of the second rib, it is...

 - sternum - stoma
Stoma (medicine)
A stoma is an opening , either natural or surgically created, which connects a portion of the body cavity to the outside environment...

 - stomach
Stomach
The stomach is a muscular, hollow, dilated part of the alimentary canal which functions as an important organ of the digestive tract in some animals, including vertebrates, echinoderms, insects , and molluscs. It is involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication .The stomach is...

 - straight sinus
Straight sinus
The straight sinus , within the human head, is an unpaired area beneath the brain which allows blood to drain from the inferior center of the head outwards posteriorly...

 - strap muscles - stratum zonale
Stratum zonale
The thalamus consists chiefly of gray substance, but its upper surface is covered by a layer of white substance, named the stratum zonale....

 - stretch reflex
Stretch reflex
The stretch reflex is a muscle contraction in response to stretching within the muscle. It is a monosynaptic reflex which provides automatic regulation of skeletal muscle length....

 - striae gravidarum
Striae gravidarum
Often referred to as pregnancy stretch marks, striae gravidarum is a form of scarring of the skin of the abdominal due to sudden weight gain during pregnancy. These off-color blemishes are caused by the tearing of the dermis, resulting in atrophy and loss of rete ridges. These scars often appear as...

 - stria medularis thalami - stria terminalis - striate cortex - striate nucleus - striatum
Striatum
The striatum, also known as the neostriatum or striate nucleus, is a subcortical part of the forebrain. It is the major input station of the basal ganglia system. The striatum, in turn, gets input from the cerebral cortex...

 - stroma
Stroma (animal tissue)
In animal tissue, stroma refers to the connective, supportive framework of a biological cell, tissue, or organ.The stroma in animal tissue is contrasted with the parenchyma.Examples include:* Stroma of iris...

 - stylet - styloglossus muscle - stylohyoid muscle
Stylohyoid muscle
The stylohyoid muscle is a slender muscle, lying anterior, and superior of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle. It shares this muscle's innervation by the facial nerve, and functions to draw the hyoid bone backwards and elevate the tongue....

 - styloid process - stylopharyngeus muscle
Stylopharyngeus muscle
The stylopharyngeus is a muscle in the head that stretches between the styloid process and the pharynx.-Structure:The stylopharyngeus is a long, slender muscle, cylindrical above, flattened below...

 - subarachnoid cisternae - subarachnoid space
Subarachnoid space
In the central nervous system, the subarachnoid cavity is the interval between the arachnoid membrane and pia mater....

 - subcallosal gyrus - subclavian artery
Subclavian artery
In human anatomy, the subclavian arteries are two major arteries of the upper thorax , below the clavicle . They receive blood from the top of the aorta...

 - subclavian vein
Subclavian vein
The subclavian veins are two large veins, one on either side of the body. Their diameter is approximately that of the smallest finger.-Path:Each subclavian vein is a continuation of the axillary vein and runs from the outer border of the first rib to the medial border of anterior scalene muscle...

 - subdural hematoma
Subdural hematoma
A subdural hematoma or subdural haematoma , also known as a subdural haemorrhage , is a type of haematoma, a form of traumatic brain injury. Blood gathers within the outermost meningeal layer, between the dura mater, which adheres to the skull, and the arachnoid mater, which envelops the brain...

 - subdural space
Subdural space
The subdural space is an artificial space created by the separation of the arachnoid mater from the dura mater as the result of trauma, pathologic process, or the absence of cerebrospinal fluid as seen in a cadaver. In the cadaver, due to the absence of cerebrospinal fluid, the arachnoid mater...

 - subglottic airway - subiculum
Subiculum
The subiculum is the most inferior component of the hippocampal formation. It lies between the entorhinal cortex and the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus proper.-Paths:...

 - sublingual fossa - sublingual region - sublingual salivary gland - subluxation
Subluxation
A subluxation may have different meanings, depending on the medical specialty involved. It implies the presence of an incomplete or partial dislocation of a joint or organ. The World Health Organization defines both the medical subluxation and the chiropractic subluxation...

 - submandibular duct - submandibular ganglion
Submandibular ganglion
The submandibular ganglion is part of the human autonomic nervous system. It is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck...

 - submandibular gland
Submandibular gland
The paired submandibular glands are salivary glands located beneath the floor of the mouth. In humans, they account for 70% of the salivary volume and weigh about 15 grams. Unstimulated in humans, the percentage contribution to whole saliva; ~25% Parotid, Submandibular and Sublingual ~ 67% and...

 - submandibular triangle - submental triangle - suboccipital muscle
Suboccipital muscle
Suboccipital muscles refers to the muscles located below the occipital bone. The muscles are named: Rectus capitis posterior major, Rectus capitis posterior minor, Obliquus capitis inferior, and Obliquus capitis superior...

 - suboccipital triangle
Suboccipital triangle
The suboccipital triangle is a region of the neck bounded by the following three muscles of the suboccipital group of muscles:* Rectus capitis posterior major - above and medially* Obliquus capitis superior - above and laterally...

 - subscapularis muscle
Subscapularis muscle
The subscapularis is a large triangular muscle which fills the subscapular fossa and inserts into the lesser tubercle of the humerus and the front of the capsule of the shoulder-joint.-Origin and insertion:...

 - Substantia gelatinosa of Rolando
Substantia gelatinosa of Rolando
The apex of the posterior horn of the gray matter of the spinal cord is capped by a V-shaped or crescentic mass of translucent, gelatinous neuroglia, termed the substantia gelatinosa of Rolando , which contains both neuroglia cells, and small nerve cells...

 - substantia innominata
Substantia innominata
The substantia innominata of Meynert is a stratum in the human brain consisting partly of gray and partly of white substance, which lies below the anterior part of the thalamus and lentiform nucleus...

 - substantia nigra
Substantia nigra
The substantia nigra is a brain structure located in the mesencephalon that plays an important role in reward, addiction, and movement. Substantia nigra is Latin for "black substance", as parts of the substantia nigra appear darker than neighboring areas due to high levels of melanin in...

 - subthalamic nucleus
Subthalamic nucleus
The subthalamic nucleus is a small lens-shaped nucleus in the brain where it is, from a functional point of view, part of the basal ganglia system. Anatomically, it is the major part of subthalamus. As suggested by its name, the subthalamic nucleus is located ventral to the thalamus. It is also...

 - succus - sulcus
Sulcus (anatomy)
A sulcus is a depression or fissure in the surface of an organ, especially the brain.-Elsewhere:* anterior interventricular sulcus* calcaneal sulcus* coronal sulcus* gingival sulcus* gluteal sulcus* interlabial sulci...

 - sulcus limitans
Sulcus limitans
In the floor of the fourth ventricle, the sulcus limitans separates the cranial nerve motor nuclei from the sensory nuclei . In the superior part of the rhomboid fossa, it corresponds with the lateral limit of the fossa and presents a bluish-gray area, the locus ceruleus In the floor of the fourth...

 - superciliary arch - superciliary line - superficial cervical muscle - superficial temporal artery
Superficial temporal artery
In human anatomy, the superficial temporal artery is a major artery of the head. It arises from the external carotid artery when it bifurcates into the superficial temporal artery and maxillary artery....

 - superior alveolar artery
Superior alveolar artery
The superior alveolar artery does not exist.Rather, the posterior superior alveolar artery is a branch of the maxillary artery that serves the upper teeth and other related structures....

 - superior cerebellar artery
Superior cerebellar artery
The superior cerebellar artery arises near the termination of the basilar artery.It passes lateralward, immediately below the oculomotor nerve, which separates it from the posterior cerebral artery, winds around the cerebral peduncle, close to the trochlear nerve, and, arriving at the upper...

 - superior cerebellar peduncle - superior cervical ganglion
Superior cervical ganglion
The superior cervical ganglion , the largest of the cervical ganglia, is placed opposite the second and third cervical vertebræ. It contains neurons that supply sympathetic innervation to the face....

 - superior colliculus
Superior colliculus
The optic tectum or simply tectum is a paired structure that forms a major component of the vertebrate midbrain. In mammals this structure is more commonly called the superior colliculus , but, even in mammals, the adjective tectal is commonly used. The tectum is a layered structure, with a...

 - superior concha - superior gluteal artery
Superior gluteal artery
The superior gluteal artery is the largest branch of the internal iliac artery, and appears to be the continuation of the posterior division of that vessel....

 - superior jugular bulb - superior laryngeal artery
Superior laryngeal artery
The superior laryngeal artery accompanies the internal laryngeal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, beneath the Thyreohyoideus.This artery branches from the superior thyroid artery near its bifurcation from the external carotid artery...

 - superior laryngeal nerve
Superior laryngeal nerve
The superior laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve. It arises from the middle of the ganglion nodosum and in its course receives a branch from the superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic....

 - superior meatus
Superior meatus
The superior meatus, the smallest of the three meatuses of the nose, occupies the middle third of the lateral wall of the nasal cavity.It lies between the superior nasal conchæ and middle nasal conchæ; the sphenopalatine foramen opens into it behind, and the posterior ethmoidal cells in front.The...

 - superior mesenteric artery
Superior mesenteric artery
In human anatomy, the superior mesenteric artery arises from the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta, just inferior to the origin of the celiac trunk, and supplies the intestine from the lower part of the duodenum through two-thirds of the transverse colon, as well as the pancreas.-Location...

 - superior mesenteric vein
Superior mesenteric vein
In anatomy, the superior mesenteric vein is a blood vessel that drains blood from the small intestine . At its termination behind the neck of the pancreas, the SMV combines with the splenic vein to form the hepatic portal vein...

 - superior oblique muscle
Superior oblique muscle
For the abdominal muscle see: Abdominal external oblique muscleThe superior oblique muscle, or obliquus oculi superior, is a fusiform muscle originating in the upper, medial side of the orbit which abducts, depresses and internally rotates the eye...

 - superior olivary nucleus
Superior olivary nucleus
The superior olivary complex is a collection of brainstem nuclei that functions in multiple aspects of hearing and is an important component of the ascending and descending auditory pathways...

 - superior ophthalmic vein
Superior ophthalmic vein
The superior ophthalmic vein begins at the inner angle of the orbit in a vein named the nasofrontal which communicates anteriorly with the angular vein; it pursues the same course as the ophthalmic artery, and receives tributaries corresponding to the branches of that vessel.Forming a short single...

 - superior orbital fissure - superior petrosal sinus
Superior petrosal sinus
The superior petrosal sinus is a venous structure located beneath the brain. It receives blood from the cavernous sinus and passes backward and laterally to drain into the transverse sinus....

 - superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
The superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle is a quadrilateral muscle, thinner and paler than the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle and middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle.-Origin and insertion:The four parts of this muscle arise from:...

 - superior pubic ramus
Superior pubic ramus
The superior pubic ramus is a part of the pubic bone which forms a portion of the obturator foramen.It extends from the body to the median plane where it articulates with its fellow of the opposite side...

 - superior rectus - superior rectus muscle
Superior rectus muscle
The superior rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit. It is one of the extraocular muscles. It is innervated by the superior division of the oculomotor nerve...

 - superior sagittal sinus
Superior sagittal sinus
The superior sagittal sinus , within the human head, is an unpaired area along the attached margin of falx cerebri. It allows blood to drain from the lateral aspects of anterior cerebral hemispheres to the confluence of sinuses...

 - superior salivatory nucleus - superior temporal gyrus
Superior temporal gyrus
The superior temporal gyrus is one of three gyri in the temporal lobe of the human brain, which is located laterally to the head, situated somewhat above the external ear.The superior temporal gyrus is bounded by:* the lateral sulcus above;...

 - superior thyroid artery
Superior thyroid artery
The superior thyroid artery arises from the external carotid artery just below the level of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone and ends in the thyroid gland.-Relations:...

 - superior thyroid vein
Superior thyroid vein
The superior thyroid vein begins in the substance and on the surface of the thyroid gland, by tributaries corresponding with the branches of the superior thyroid artery, and ends in the upper part of the internal jugular vein....

 - Superior tibiofibular joint - superior vena cava
Superior vena cava
The superior vena cava is truly superior, a large diameter, yet short, vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the upper half of the body to the heart's right atrium...

 - superior vesicle artery - superior vestibular nucleus
Superior vestibular nucleus
The superior vestibular nucleus is the dorso-lateral part of the vestibular nucleus and receives collaterals and terminals from the ascending branches of the vestibular nerve....

 - supplementary motor cortex - supporting cell - suprachiasmatic cistern - supraclavicular nerves
Supraclavicular nerves
The supraclavicular nerves arise from the third and fourth cervical nerves; they emerge beneath the posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoideus, and descend in the posterior triangle of the neck beneath the platysma and deep cervical fascia.-Branches:Near the clavicle they perforate the fascia...

 - supramarginal gyrus
Supramarginal gyrus
The supramarginal gyrus is a portion of the parietal lobe. It is probably involved with language perception and processing, and lesions in it may cause Wernicke's aphasia or transcortical sensory aphasia.-External links:...

 - supraoptic nucleus
Supraoptic nucleus
The supraoptic nucleus is a nucleus of magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus of the mammalian brain. The nucleus is situated at the base of the brain, adjacent to the optic chiasm...

 - supraorbital artery - supraorbital foramen
Supraorbital foramen
The supraorbital foramen is a bony elongated path located above the orbit and under the forehead. The supraorbital foramen lies directly under the eyebrow....

 - supraorbital nerve
Supraorbital nerve
The supraorbital nerve is a terminal branch of the frontal nerve.It passes through the supraorbital foramen, and gives off, in this situation, palpebral filaments to the upper eyelid...

 - suprapatellar bursa - sural nerve
Sural nerve
The sural nerve , formed by the junction of the medial sural cutaneous with the peroneal anastomotic branch of the lateral sural cutaneous nerve, passes downward near the lateral margin of the tendo calcaneus, lying close to the small saphenous vein, to the interval between the lateral malleolus...

 - suspensory ligament - sustentaculum tali
Sustentaculum tali
At the upper and forepart of the medial surface of the calcaneus is a horizontal eminence, the sustentaculum tali , which gives attachment to the plantar calcaneo-navicular ligament, tibiocalcaneal ligament, and medial talocalcaneal ligament.This eminence is concave above, and articulates with the...

 - suture - sweat glands - sylvian fissure - sympathetic chain ganglion - sympathetic nerve - sympathetic nervous system
Sympathetic nervous system
The sympathetic nervous system is one of the three parts of the autonomic nervous system, along with the enteric and parasympathetic systems. Its general action is to mobilize the body's nervous system fight-or-flight response...

 - sympathetic trunk
Sympathetic trunk
The sympathetic trunks are a paired bundle of nerve fibers that run from the base of the skull to the coccyx.-Structure:...

 - symphysis
Symphysis
A symphysis is a fibrocartilaginous fusion between two bones. It is a type of cartilaginous joint, specifically a secondary cartilaginous joint.1.A symphysis is an amphiarthrosis, a slightly movable joint.2.A growing together of parts or structures...

 - synapse
Synapse
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another cell...

 - synaptic button - syncytium
Syncytium
In biology, a syncytium is a large cell-like structure; filled with cytoplasm and containing many nuclei. Most cells in eukaryotic organisms have a single nucleus; syncytia are specialized forms used by various organisms.The term may also refer to cells that are connected by specialized membrane...

 - syndesmosis
Syndesmosis
A syndesmosis is slightly movable articulation where the contiguous bony surfaces are united by an interosseous ligament, as in the inferior tibiofibular articulation...

 - synovial fluid
Synovial fluid
Synovial fluid is a viscous, non-Newtonian fluid found in the cavities of synovial joints. With its yolk-like consistency , the principal role of synovial fluid is to reduce friction between the articular cartilage of synovial joints during movement.-Overview:The inner membrane of synovial joints...

 - synovial joint
Synovial joint
A Synovial joint, also known as a diarthrosis, is the most common and most movable type of joint in the body of a mammal. As with most other joints, synovial joints achieve movement at the point of contact of the articulating bones....

 - systole
Systole (medicine)
Systole is the contraction of the heart. Used alone, it usually means the contraction of the left ventricle.In all mammals, the heart has 4 chambers. The left and right ventricles pump together. The atria and ventricles pump in sequence...


T


tabes dorsalis
Tabes dorsalis
Tabes dorsalis is a slow degeneration of the sensory neurons that carry afferent information. The degenerating nerves are in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord and carry information that help maintain a person's sense of position , vibration, and discriminative touch.-Cause:Tabes dorsalis is...

 - taenia coli
Taenia coli
The taenia coli are three separate longitudinal ribbons of smooth muscle on the outside of the ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid colons. They are visible, and can be seen just below the serosa or fibrosa....

 - tail of pancreas
Tail of pancreas
The tail of the pancreas, located anatomically left near the hilum of the spleen, is not simply an anatomical distinction. The tail is the only part of the pancreas which contains Pancreatic Polypeptide cells, which are responsible for secreting pancreatic polypeptide to coordinate exocrine and...

 - talus
Talus bone
-External links:* *...

 - tapetum lucidum
Tapetum lucidum
The tapetum lucidum is a layer of tissue in the eye of many vertebrate animals....

 - tarsus
Tarsus (skeleton)
In tetrapods, the tarsus is a cluster of articulating bones in each foot situated between the lower end of tibia and fibula of the lower leg and the metatarsus. In the foot the tarsus articulates with the bones of the metatarsus, which in turn articulate with the bones of the individual toes...

 - taste buds - taste pore - Tectorial membrane (cochlea)
Tectorial membrane (cochlea)
Covering the sulcus spiralis internus and the spiral organ of Corti in the cochlea is the tectorial membrane, which is attached to the limbus laminae spiralis close to the inner edge of the vestibular membrane. The tectorial membrane covers the hair cells in Organ of Corti, with the longer hairs...

 - Tectorial membrane of atlanto-axial joint - tectospinal tract
Tectospinal tract
In humans, the tectospinal tract is a nerve pathway which coordinates head and eye movements. It is part of the indirect extrapyramidal tract...

 - tectum - tegmen tympani - tegmentum
Tegmentum
The tegmentum is a general area within the brainstem. It is located between the ventricular system and distinctive basal or ventral structures at each level...

 - tela choroidae - telencephalon
Telencephalon
The cerebrum or telencephalon, together with the diencephalon, constitutes the forebrain. The cerebrum is the most anterior region of the vertebrate central nervous system. Telencephalon refers to the embryonic structure, from which the mature cerebrum develops...

 - temporal artery - temporal bone
Temporal bone
The temporal bones are situated at the sides and base of the skull, and lateral to the temporal lobes of the cerebrum.The temporal bone supports that part of the face known as the temple.-Parts:The temporal bone consists of four parts:* Squama temporalis...

 - temporal fascia
Temporal fascia
The temporal fascia covers the Temporalis muscle.It is a strong, fibrous investment, covered, laterally, by the Auricularis anterior and superior, by the galea aponeurotica, and by part of the Orbicularis oculi....

 - temporal gyrus - temporal lobe
Temporal lobe
The temporal lobe is a region of the cerebral cortex that is located beneath the Sylvian fissure on both cerebral hemispheres of the mammalian brain....

 - temporal pole - temporalis muscle
Temporalis muscle
The temporal muscle is one of the muscles of mastication.-Structure:It arises from the temporal fossa and the deep part of temporal fascia...

 - temporomandibular joint
Temporomandibular joint
The temporomandibular joint is the joint of the jaw and is frequently referred to as TMJ. There are two TMJs, one on either side, working in unison. The name is derived from the two bones which form the joint: the upper temporal bone which is part of the cranium , and the lower jaw bone called the...

 - tendon
Tendon
A tendon is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension. Tendons are similar to ligaments and fasciae as they are all made of collagen except that ligaments join one bone to another bone, and fasciae connect muscles to other...

 - tensor tympani muscle - tensor veli palatini - tentorial incisure
Tentorial incisure
Tentorial incisure refers to the anterior opening between the free edge of the tentorium cerebelli and the clivus for the passage of the brainstem.-Clinical Considerations:...

 - tentorial notch - tentorium cerebelli
Tentorium cerebelli
The tentorium cerebelli or cerebellar tentorium is an extension of the dura mater that separates the cerebellum from the inferior portion of the occipital lobes.-Anatomy:...

 - Terminal sulcus (heart)
Terminal sulcus (heart)
The separation of the right atrial pectinate muscle from the sinus venarum is indicated externally by a groove, the terminal sulcus , which extends from the front of the superior vena cava to the front of the inferior vena cava, and represents the line of union of the sinus venosus of the embryo...

 - Terminal sulcus of tongue - terminal vein - tertiary sensory neuron - testicle
Testicle
The testicle is the male gonad in animals. Like the ovaries to which they are homologous, testes are components of both the reproductive system and the endocrine system...

 - testis - thalamic fasciculus
Thalamic fasciculus
The thalamic fasciculus is a component of the subthalamus. It is sometimes considered synonymous with "field H1 of Forel". Nerve fibres forming a composite bundle containing cerebellothalamic and pallidothalamic fibres that is insinuated between the thalamus and zona incerta.The thalamic...

 - thalamogeniculate artery
Thalamogeniculate artery
Also known as the arteria thalamogeniculata, the thalamogeniculate artery is a branch of the posterior cerebral artery supplying the medial and lateral geniculate bodies and the pulvinar of the thalamus....

 - thalamostriate fibers - thalamotomy
Thalamotomy
First introduced in the 1950s, thalamotomy is an invasive procedure, primarily effective for tremors such as those associated with Parkinson's Disease , where a selected portion of the thalamus is surgically destroyed...

 - thalamus
Thalamus
The thalamus is a midline paired symmetrical structure within the brains of vertebrates, including humans. It is situated between the cerebral cortex and midbrain, both in terms of location and neurological connections...

 - thenar eminence
Thenar eminence
The thenar eminence refers to the group of muscles on the palm of the human hand at the base of the thumb...

 - thigh
Thigh
In humans the thigh is the area between the pelvis and the knee. Anatomically, it is part of the lower limb.The single bone in the thigh is called the femur...

 - thigh bone - Third trochanter
Third trochanter
In human anatomy, the third trochanter is a bony projection occasionally present on the proximal femur near the superior border of the gluteal tuberosity. When present, it is oblong, rounded, or conical in shape and sometimes continuous with the gluteal ridge...

 - third ventricle
Third ventricle
The third ventricle is one of four connected fluid-filled cavities comprising the ventricular system within the human brain. It is a median cleft between the two thalami, and is filled with cerebrospinal fluid ....

 - thoracic aorta
Thoracic aorta
The thoracic aorta is contained in the posterior mediastinal cavity.It begins at the lower border of the fourth thoracic vertebra where it is continuous with the aortic arch, and ends in front of the lower border of the twelfth thoracic vertebra, at the aortic hiatus in the diaphragm where it...

 - thoracic cavity
Thoracic cavity
The thoracic cavity is the chamber of the human body that is protected by the thoracic wall ....

 - thoracic duct
Thoracic duct
In human anatomy, the thoracic duct of the lymphatic system is the largest lymphatic vessel in the body. It is also known as the left lymphatic duct, alimentary duct, chyliferous duct, and Van Hoorne's canal....

 - thoracic spine - thoracic vertebrae
Thoracic vertebrae
In human anatomy, twelve thoracic vertebrae compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. They are intermediate in size between those of the cervical and lumbar regions; they increase in size as one proceeds down the spine, the upper...

 - thorax
Thorax
The thorax is a division of an animal's body that lies between the head and the abdomen.-In tetrapods:...

 - thrombus
Thrombus
A thrombus , or blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis. It is achieved via the aggregation of platelets that form a platelet plug, and the activation of the humoral coagulation system...

 - thymus
Thymus
The thymus is a specialized organ of the immune system. The thymus produces and "educates" T-lymphocytes , which are critical cells of the adaptive immune system....

 - thyroarytenoid muscle
Thyroarytenoid muscle
The thyroarytenoid is a broad, thin muscle that lies parallel with and lateral to the vocal fold and that supports the wall of the ventricle and its appendix...

 - thyrocervical trunk
Thyrocervical trunk
The thyrocervical trunk is a branch of the subclavian artery arising from the first portion of this vessel, i.e. between the origin of the subclavian artery and the inner border of the scalenus anterior muscle...

 - thyroepiglotticus muscle - thyroglossal duct
Thyroglossal duct
The thyroglossal duct is an embryological anatomical structure forming an open connection between the initial area of development of the thyroid gland and its final position....

 - thyrohyoid membrane - thyrohyoid muscle
Thyrohyoid muscle
The Thyrohyoid muscle is a small, quadrilateral muscle appearing like an upward continuation of the Sternothyreoideus. It belongs to the infrahyoid muscles group....

 - thyroid
Thyroid
The thyroid gland or simply, the thyroid , in vertebrate anatomy, is one of the largest endocrine glands. The thyroid gland is found in the neck, below the thyroid cartilage...

 - thyroid cartilage
Thyroid cartilage
The thyroid cartilage is the largest of the nine cartilages that make up the laryngeal skeleton, the cartilage structure in and around the trachea that contains the larynx....

 - thyroid gland - tibia
Tibia
The tibia , shinbone, or shankbone is the larger and stronger of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertebrates , and connects the knee with the ankle bones....

 - tibial tuberosity - toe
Toe
Toes are the digits of the foot of a tetrapod. Animal species such as cats that walk on their toes are described as being digitigrade. Humans, and other animals that walk on the soles of their feet, are described as being plantigrade; unguligrade animals are those that walk on hooves at the tips of...

 - tomogram - tongue
Tongue
The tongue is a muscular hydrostat on the floors of the mouths of most vertebrates which manipulates food for mastication. It is the primary organ of taste , as much of the upper surface of the tongue is covered in papillae and taste buds. It is sensitive and kept moist by saliva, and is richly...

 - tonsil
Tonsil
Palatine tonsils, occasionally called the faucial tonsils, are the tonsils that can be seen on the left and right sides at the back of the throat....

 - tonsil of cerebellum - tooth
Tooth
Teeth are small, calcified, whitish structures found in the jaws of many vertebrates that are used to break down food. Some animals, particularly carnivores, also use teeth for hunting or for defensive purposes. The roots of teeth are embedded in the Mandible bone or the Maxillary bone and are...

 - torcular herophili - torso
Torso
Trunk or torso is an anatomical term for the central part of the many animal bodies from which extend the neck and limbs. The trunk includes the thorax and abdomen.-Major organs:...

 - torticollis
Torticollis
Torticollis, or wryneck, is a stiff neck associated with muscle spasm, classically causing lateral flexion contracture of the cervical spine musculature...

 - torus
Torus
In geometry, a torus is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a circle in three dimensional space about an axis coplanar with the circle...

 - trabecula
Trabecula
A trabecula is a small, often microscopic, tissue element in the form of a small beam, strut or rod, generally having a mechanical function, and usually composed of dense collagenous tissue They can be composed of other materials; in the heart, for example, muscles such as trabeculae carneae...

 - trabecular meshwork
Trabecular meshwork
The trabecular meshwork is an area of tissue in the eye located around the base of the cornea, near the ciliary body, and is responsible for draining the aqueous humor from the eye via the anterior chamber .The tissue is spongy and lined by trabeculocytes; it allows fluid to drain into a set of...

 - trachea
Vertebrate trachea
In tetrapod anatomy the trachea, or windpipe, is a tube that connects the pharynx or larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air. It is lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium cells with goblet cells that produce mucus...

 - tract of Lissauer - tractus solitarius - tragus - transverse cervical artery
Transverse cervical artery
The transverse cervical artery is a branch of the thyrocervical trunk, running at a higher level than the suprascapular artery.-Path:...

 - transverse cervical nerve
Transverse cervical nerve
The transverse cervical nerve arises from the second and third cervical nerves, turns around the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoideus about its middle, and, passing obliquely forward beneath the external jugular vein to the anterior border of the muscle, it perforates the deep cervical...

 - transverse colon
Transverse colon
The transverse colon, the longest and most movable part of the colon, passes with a downward convexity from the right hypochondrium region across the abdomen, opposite the confines of the epigastric and umbilical zones, into the left hypochondrium region, where it curves sharply on itself beneath...

 - transverse facial artery
Transverse facial artery
The transverse facial artery is an artery that branches from the superficial temporal artery and runs across the face.-Course:The transverse facial artery is given off from the superficial temporal artery before that vessel leaves the parotid gland; running forward through the substance of the...

 - transverse pericardial sinus - transverse process - transverse sinus - transversus abdominus muscle - trapezium
Trapezium (bone)
The trapezium bone is a carpal bone in the wrist.The trapezium is distinguished by a deep groove on its palmar surface. It is situated at the radial side of the carpus, between the scaphoid and the first metacarpal bone...

 - trapezius - trapezoid
Trapezoid bone
The trapezoid bone is a carpal bone in tetrapods, including humans. It is the smallest bone in the distal row. It may be known by its wedge-shaped form, the broad end of the wedge constituting the dorsal, the narrow end the palmar surface; and by its having four articular facets touching each...

 - trapezoid body
Trapezoid body
The trapezoid body is part of the acoustic pathway. It is a bundle of fibers and cells in the pontine tegmentum. It consists of fibers arising from the ventral cochlear nucleus. A collection of nerve cells inside forms a trapezoid nucleus. The superior olivary nucleus is situated on the dorsal...

 - triangle of auscultation
Triangle of auscultation
The triangle of auscultation of the lungs is a relative thinning of the musculature of the back situated along the medial border of the scapula.-Boundaries:It has the following boundaries:* Superiorly and medially, by the inferior portion of the Trapezius...

 - triangles of the neck
Triangles of the neck
Anatomists use the term triangles of the neck to describe the divisions created by the major muscles in the region.The side of the neck presents a somewhat quadrilateral outline, limited, above, by the lower border of the body of the mandible, and an imaginary line extending from the angle of the...

 - triceps - triceps reflex
Triceps reflex
The triceps reflex, a deep tendon reflex, is a reflex as it elicits involuntary contraction of the triceps brachii muscle. It is initiated by the Cervical spinal nerve 7 nerve root...

 - tricuspid valve
Tricuspid valve
The tricuspid valve, or right atrioventricular valve, is on the right dorsal side of the mammalian heart, between the right atrium and the right ventricle. The normal tricuspid valve usually has three leaflets and three papillary muscles. They are connected to the papillary muscles by the chordae...

 - trigeminal ganglion
Trigeminal ganglion
The trigeminal ganglion is a sensory ganglion of the trigeminal nerve that occupies a cavity in the dura mater, covering the trigeminal impression near the apex of the petrous part of the temporal bone.-Relations:It is somewhat crescentic in shape, with its convexity...

 - trigeminal lemniscus
Trigeminal lemniscus
The Trigeminal lemniscus is a part of the brain that conveys tactile, pain, and temperature impulses from the skin of the face, the mucous membranes of the nasal and oral cavities, and the eye, as well as proprioceptive information from the facial and masticatory muscles...

 - trigeminal nerve
Trigeminal nerve
The trigeminal nerve contains both sensory and motor fibres. It is responsible for sensation in the face and certain motor functions such as biting, chewing, and swallowing. Sensory information from the face and body is processed by parallel pathways in the central nervous system...

 - Trigone of urinary bladder - triquetral - triticeal cartilage - Trochlea of humerus
Trochlea of humerus
The medial portion of the articular surface of the humerus is named the trochlea, and presents a deep depression between two well-marked borders; it is convex from before backward, concave from side to side, and occupies the anterior, lower, and posterior parts of the extremity...

 - Trochlea of superior oblique
Trochlea of superior oblique
The Trochlea of superior oblique is a pulley structure in the eye. The tendon of the superior oblique muscle passes through it. Situated on the superior nasal aspect of the frontal bone, it is the only cartilage found in the normal orbit....

 - trochlear nerve
Trochlear nerve
The trochlear nerve is a motor nerve that innervates a single muscle: the superior oblique muscle of the eye....

 - trochlear nucleus
Trochlear nucleus
The nucleus of the trochlear nerve is located in the midbrain, at the level of the inferior colliculus. It is a motor nucleus, so is located near the midline....

 - Trochlear process
Trochlear process
The two oblique grooves of the lateral surface of the calcaneus are separated by an elevated ridge, or tubercle, the trochlear process , which varies much in size in different bones.Its chief anatomical significance is as a point of divergence of the previously common pathway shared by the...

 - true vocal cords - Truncus arteriosus (embryology)
Truncus arteriosus (embryology)
The truncus arteriosus and bulbus cordis are divided by the aorticopulmonary septum. The truncus arteriosus gives rise to the ascending aorta and the pulmonary trunk. The caudal end of the bulbus cordis gives rise to the smooth parts of the left and right ventricles...

 - tuber cinereum
Tuber cinereum
The tuber cinereum is a hollow eminence of gray matter situated between the mammillary bodies and the optic chiasm. The tuber cinereum is part of the hypothalamus.-Structure:...

 - tuberal nuclei - tuberal region of hypothalamus - tubercle - tubercle of rib
Tubercle of rib
In anatomy, the term tubercle may describe a round nodule, small eminence, or warty outgrowth found on bones or skin, or, in cases of tuberculosis, in the lungs....

 - tuberculum impar
Tuberculum impar
During the third week of embryological development there appears, immediately behind the ventral ends of the two halves of the mandibular arch, a rounded swelling named the tuberculum impar, which was described by His as undergoing enlargement to form the buccal part of the tongue.More recent...

 - tuberoinfundibular tract - tuberosity - tunica vaginalis testis - turbinate
Turbinate
In anatomy, a nasal concha is a long, narrow and curled bone shelf that protrudes into the breathing passage of the nose...

 - turbinate bone - tympanic cavity
Tympanic cavity
The tympanic cavity is a small cavity surrounding the bones of the middle ear.It is formed from the tubotympanic recess, an expansion of the first pharyngeal pouch....

 - tympanic membrane - tympanic plexus
Tympanic plexus
In the tympanic cavity, the tympanic nerve divides into branches which form the tympanic plexus. This plexus is located on the surface of the promontory.This tympanic plexus gives off:* the lesser petrosal nerve...

 - tympanum
Eardrum
The eardrum, or tympanic membrane, is a thin membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear in humans and other tetrapods. Its function is to transmit sound from the air to the ossicles inside the middle ear. The malleus bone bridges the gap between the eardrum and the other ossicles...


U


ulna
Ulna
The ulna is one of the two long bones in the forearm, the other being the radius. It is prismatic in form and runs parallel to the radius, which is shorter and smaller. In anatomical position The ulna is one of the two long bones in the forearm, the other being the radius. It is prismatic in form...

 - ulnar artery
Ulnar artery
The ulnar artery is the main blood vessel, with oxygenated blood, of the medial aspect of the forearm. It arises from the brachial artery and terminates in the superficial palmar arch, which joins with the superficial branch of the radial artery...

 - ulnar nerve
Ulnar nerve
In human anatomy, the ulnar nerve is a nerve which runs near the ulna bone. The ulnar collateral ligament of elbow joint is in relation with the ulnar nerve. The nerve is the largest unprotected nerve in the human body , so injury is common...

 - umbilical folds
Umbilical folds
In the urinary bladder, anteriorly there are the following folds:* one median umbilical fold on the median umbilical ligament * two medial umbilical folds on the occluded umbilical artery...

 - umbilicus
Navel
The navel is a scar on the abdomen caused when the umbilical cord is removed from a newborn baby...

 - umbo
Umbo of tympanic membrane
The umbo is the most depressed part of the tympanic membrane.-Depression:The manubrium of the malleus is firmly attached to the medial surface of the membrane as far as its center, which it draws toward the tympanic cavity; the lateral surface of the membrane is thus concave, and the most depressed...

 - uncal cortex - uncal herniation - Uncinate process of ethmoid bone
Uncinate process of ethmoid bone
In the ethmoid bone, a curved lamina, the uncinate process, projects downward and backward from this part of the labyrinth; it forms a small part of the medial wall of the maxillary sinus, and articulates with the ethmoidal process of the inferior nasal concha....

 - Uncinate process of pancreas
Uncinate process of pancreas
In the head of the pancreas, the angle of junction of the lower and left lateral borders forms a prolongation, termed the uncinate process.During the embryonic development of the distal foregut, the duodenum c-shape is formed while rotating the ventral pancreatic bud into the dorsal bud. The dorsal...

 - Uncinate process of vertebra
Uncinate process of vertebra
An uncinate process of a vertebra is a hook-shaped process on the lateral borders of the superior surface of the vertebral bodies of the third to the seventh cervical vertebrae and first thoracic vertebra. This bony part prevents a vertebra from sliding backwards off the vertebra below it An...

 - Uncinate processes of ribs
Uncinate processes of ribs
The uncinate processes of the ribs are extensions of bone that in birds project caudally from the vertical segment of each rib. These processes help to strengthen the rib cage of birds by overlapping with the rib behind them...

 - upper motor neuron
Upper motor neuron
Upper motor neurons are motor neurons that originate in the motor region of the cerebral cortex or the brain stem and carry motor information down to the final common pathway, that is, any motor neurons that are not directly responsible for stimulating the target muscle...

 - urachus
Urachus
The urachus is a fibrous remnant of the allantois, a canal that drains the urinary bladder of the fetus that joins and runs within the umbilical cord...

 - ureter
Ureter
In human anatomy, the ureters are muscular tubes that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. In the adult, the ureters are usually long and ~3-4 mm in diameter....

 - urethra
Urethra
In anatomy, the urethra is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the genitals for the removal of fluids out of the body. In males, the urethra travels through the penis, and carries semen as well as urine...

 - urinary bladder
Urinary bladder
The urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys before disposal by urination. A hollow muscular, and distensible organ, the bladder sits on the pelvic floor...

 - urogenital system - uterine cavity - uterine tube
Fallopian tube
The Fallopian tubes, also known as oviducts, uterine tubes, and salpinges are two very fine tubes lined with ciliated epithelia, leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus, via the utero-tubal junction...

 - uterus
Uterus
The uterus or womb is a major female hormone-responsive reproductive sex organ of most mammals including humans. One end, the cervix, opens into the vagina, while the other is connected to one or both fallopian tubes, depending on the species...

 - utricle - uvea
Uvea
The uvea , also called the uveal layer, uveal coat, uveal tract, or vascular tunic, is the pigmented middle of the three concentric layers that make up an eye. The name is possibly a reference to its reddish-blue or almost black colour, wrinkled appearance and grape-like size and shape when...

 - uvula
Uvula
The palatine uvula, usually referred to as simply the uvula , is the conic projection from the posterior edge of the middle of the soft palate, composed of connective tissue containing a number of racemose glands, and some muscular fibers .-Function in language:The uvula plays a role in the...


V


vagina
Vagina
The vagina is a fibromuscular tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. Female insects and other invertebrates also have a vagina, which is the terminal part of the...

 - vagus ganglia
Vagus ganglia
A vagus ganglion is a small, elongated ganglion located between the esophagus and aorta. They mark the terminus of the recurrent nerve....

 - vagus nerve
Vagus nerve
The vagus nerve , also called pneumogastric nerve or cranial nerve X, is the tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves...

 - vallate papillae - vallecula
Vallecula
-Types:There are a variety of valleculae in the human body, including one between the hemispheres of the brain, on the inferior surface of the cerebellum, in which the medulla oblongata is located...

 - Valsalva maneuver
Valsalva maneuver
The Valsalva maneuver or Valsalva manoeuvre is performed by moderately forceful attempted exhalation against a closed airway, usually done by closing one's mouth and pinching one's nose shut...

 - varicocele
Varicocele
Varicocele , also known as varicoscele or varicose seal, is an abnormal enlargement of the vein that is in the scrotum draining the testicles. The testicular blood vessels originate in the abdomen and course down through the inguinal canal as part of the spermatic cord on their way to the testis...

 - varus deformity
Varus deformity
In orthopedics, a varus deformity is a term for the inward angulation of the distal segment of a bone or joint. The opposite of varus is called valgus.The terms varus and valgus always refer to the direction that the distal segment of the joint points....

 - vasa recta
Vasa recta
In the blood supply of the kidney, the vasa recta renis form a series of straight capillaries in the medulla...

 - vascular system - vein
Vein
In the circulatory system, veins are blood vessels that carry blood towards the heart. Most veins carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart; exceptions are the pulmonary and umbilical veins, both of which carry oxygenated blood to the heart...

 - velum
Soft palate
The soft palate is the soft tissue constituting the back of the roof of the mouth. The soft palate is distinguished from the hard palate at the front of the mouth in that it does not contain bone....

 - velum interpositum - vena terminalis - venogram - venter
Abdomen
In vertebrates such as mammals the abdomen constitutes the part of the body between the thorax and pelvis. The region enclosed by the abdomen is termed the abdominal cavity...

 - ventral amygdalofugal pathway - ventral anterior thalamic nucleus - ventral cochlear nucleus - ventral corticospinal tract - ventral horn cell - ventral lateral nucleus of thalamus - ventral posterolateral nucleus
Ventral posterolateral nucleus
The ventral posterolateral nucleus is a nucleus of the thalamus. Together with the ventral posteromedial nucleus , VPI and VMpo, it constitutes the ventral posterior nucleus.-Input and output:...

 - ventral posterolateral thalamus - ventral posteromedial nucleus
Ventral posteromedial nucleus
-Inputs and outputs:It conveys information of the trigeminothalamic tract, from the solitary tract and the trigeminal nerve and projects to the postcentral gyrus....

 - ventral root
Ventral root
In anatomy and neurology, the ventral root is the efferent motor root of a spinal nerve.At its distal end, the ventral root joins with the dorsal root to form a mixed spinal nerve....

 - ventral spinocerebellar tract
Ventral spinocerebellar tract
The ventral spinocerebellar tract conveys proprioceptive information from the body to the cerebellum. It is part of the somatosensory system and runs in parallel with the dorsal spinocerebellar tract...

 - ventral trigeminothalamic tract
Ventral trigeminothalamic tract
The Anterior trigeminothalamic tract serves as pain, temperature, and crude touch pathway from the face, head and neck. It receives input from trigeminal nerve, facial nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve and vagus nerve...

 - ventricle
Ventricle (heart)
In the heart, a ventricle is one of two large chambers that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs. The Atria primes the Pump...

 - ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus - vermiform appendix
Vermiform appendix
The appendix is a blind-ended tube connected to the cecum , from which it develops embryologically. The cecum is a pouchlike structure of the colon...

 - vertebra - vertebral artery
Vertebral artery
The vertebral arteries are major arteries of the neck. They branch from the subclavian arteries and merge to form the single midline basilar artery in a complex called the vertebrobasilar system, which supplies blood to the posterior part of the circle of Willis and thus significant portions of the...

 - vertebral body - vertebral canal - vertebral column
Vertebral column
In human anatomy, the vertebral column is a column usually consisting of 24 articulating vertebrae, and 9 fused vertebrae in the sacrum and the coccyx. It is situated in the dorsal aspect of the torso, separated by intervertebral discs...

 - vertebral vein
Vertebral vein
The vertebral vein is formed in the suboccipital triangle, from numerous small tributaries which spring from the internal vertebral venous plexuses and issue from the vertebral canal above the posterior arch of the atlas....

 - vertebrobasilar system - vertigo
Vertigo (medical)
Vertigo is a type of dizziness, where there is a feeling of motion when one is stationary. The symptoms are due to a dysfunction of the vestibular system in the inner ear...

 - vesicle
Vesicle (biology)
A vesicle is a bubble of liquid within another liquid, a supramolecular assembly made up of many different molecules. More technically, a vesicle is a small membrane-enclosed sack that can store or transport substances. Vesicles can form naturally because of the properties of lipid membranes , or...

 - vesiculae seminales - vestibular folds - vestibular ganglion - vestibular membrane - vestibular nuclei
Vestibular nuclei
The vestibular nuclei are the cranial nuclei for the vestibular nerve.In Terminologia Anatomica they are grouped in both the pons and medulla.-Subnuclei:There are 4 subnuclei; they are situated at the floor of the fourth ventricle....

 - Vestibule of the ear
Vestibule of the ear
-Definition:The vestibule is the central part of the osseous labyrinth, and is situated medial to the tympanic cavity, behind the cochlea, and in front of the semicircular canals.The etymology comes from the Latin vestibulum, literally an entrance hall....

 - vestibulocerebellar fiber - vestibulocerebellum - vestibulocochlear nerve
Vestibulocochlear nerve
The vestibulocochlear nerve is the eighth of twelve cranial nerves, and is responsible for transmitting sound and equilibrium information from the inner ear to the brain...

 - vestibuloocular reflexes - vestibulospinal tract
Vestibulospinal tract
The vestibulospinal tract is a component of the extrapyramidal system and also can be classified as a component of the medial pathway. The vestibulospinal fibers relay information from nuclei to motor neurons, like other descending motor pathways. Specifically, the vestibular nuclei receive...

 - vibrissae
Vibrissae
Vibrissae , or whiskers, are specialized hairs usually employed for tactile sensation. The term may also refer to the thick hairs found inside human nostrils, but these have no sensorial function and only operate as an airborne particulate barrier...

 - vidian nerve - vinculum (ligament) - viscera - visceromotor nuclei - viscus
Viscus
In anatomy, a viscus is an internal organ, and viscera is the plural form. The viscera, when removed from a butchered animal, are known collectively as offal...

 - Visible Human Project
Visible Human Project
The Visible Human Project is an effort to create a detailed data set of cross-sectional photographs of the human body, in order to facilitate anatomy visualization applications. A male and a female cadaver were cut into thin slices which were then photographed and digitized. The project is run by...

 - visual cortex
Visual cortex
The visual cortex of the brain is the part of the cerebral cortex responsible for processing visual information. It is located in the occipital lobe, in the back of the brain....

 - visual fields - visual radiation - vitreous body - vitreous humor - vocal folds
Vocal folds
The vocal folds, also known commonly as vocal cords, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally across the larynx...

 - vocal ligaments
Vocal ligaments
The vocal ligaments are two strong bands enclosed within the vocal folds.Each ligament consists of a band of yellow elastic tissue, attached in front to the angle of the thyroid cartilage, and behind to the vocal process of the arytenoid....

 - vocalis muscle - volvulus
Volvulus
A volvulus is a bowel obstruction with a loop of bowel whose nose has abnormally twisted on itself.-Types:* Volvulus Neonatorum.* Volvulus Small Intestine.* Volvulus Caecum.* Volvulus Sigmoid Colon .* Gastric volvulus....

 - vomer
Vomer
The vomer is one of the unpaired facial bones of the skull. It is located in the midsagittal line, and articulates with the sphenoid, the ethmoid, the left and right palatine bones, and the left and right maxillary bones.-Biology:...

 - vomeronasal organ
Vomeronasal organ
The vomeronasal organ , or Jacobson's organ, is an auxiliary olfactory sense organ that is found in many animals. It was discovered by Frederik Ruysch and later by Ludwig Jacobson in 1813....

 - vomiting center - vorticosae - vulva
Vulva
The vulva consists of the external genital organs of the female mammal. This article deals with the vulva of the human being, although the structures are similar for other mammals....


W


Waldeyer's ring - Wernicke's area
Wernicke's area
Wernicke's area is one of the two parts of the cerebral cortex linked since the late nineteenth century to speech . It is involved in the understanding of written and spoken language...

 - Wharton's duct - Wharton's jelly
Wharton's jelly
Wharton's jelly is a gelatinous substance within the umbilical cord, largely made up of mucopolysaccharides . It also contains some fibroblasts and macrophages...

 - white matter
White matter
White matter is one of the two components of the central nervous system and consists mostly of myelinated axons. White matter tissue of the freshly cut brain appears pinkish white to the naked eye because myelin is composed largely of lipid tissue veined with capillaries. Its white color is due to...

 - withdrawal reflex
Withdrawal reflex
The withdrawal reflex is a spinal reflex intended to protect the body from damaging stimuli...

 - wrist
Wrist
In human anatomy, the wrist is variously defined as 1) the carpus or carpal bones, the complex of eight bones forming the proximal skeletal segment of the hand;...

 -

Z


zona incerta
Zona incerta
The zona incerta is a horizontally elongated region of gray matter cells in the subthalamus below the thalamus. Its connections project extensively over the brain from the cerebral cortex down into the spinal cord....

 - zona pellucida
Zona pellucida
The zona pellucida is a glycoprotein membrane surrounding the plasma membrane of an oocyte. It is a vital constitutive part of the latter, external but of essential importance to it...

 - zootomy - zygapophysis - zygoma
Zygoma
The term zygoma generally refers to the zygomatic bone, a bone of the human skull commonly referred to as the cheekbone or malar bone, but it may also refer to:...

 - Zygomatic arch
Zygomatic arch
The zygomatic arch or cheek bone is formed by the zygomatic process of temporal bone and the temporal process of the zygomatic bone , the two being united by an oblique suture; the tendon of the Temporalis passes medial to the arch to gain insertion into the coronoid process...

 - Zygomatic bone
Zygomatic bone
The zygomatic bone is a paired bone of the human skull. It articulates with the maxilla, the temporal bone, the sphenoid bone and the frontal bone. The zygomatic is homologous to the jugal bone of other tetrapods...

 - Zygomatic branches of the facial nerve - Zygomaticus major muscle
Zygomaticus major muscle
The Zygomatic major is a muscle of the human body. It is a muscle of facial expression which draws the angle of the mouth superiorly and posteriorly . Like all muscles of facial expression, the zygomatic major is innervated by the facial nerve...

 - Zygomaticus minor muscle
Zygomaticus minor muscle
The zygomaticus minor is a muscle of facial expression. It originates from malar bone and continues with orbicularis oculi on the lateral face of the Levator labii superioris and then inserts into the outer part of the upper lip. Do not confuse this with the Zygomaticus major, which insets into...

 - Zygomatic nerve
Zygomatic nerve
The zygomatic nerve is a branch of the maxillary nerve that enters the orbit and helps to supply the skin over the zygomatic and temporal bones. The zygomatic nerve is not to be confused with the zygomatic branches of the facial nerve.-Structure:The zygomatic nerve arises in the pterygopalatine...

 - Zygomatic process
Zygomatic process
Zygomatic process is a protrusion from the rest of the skull, like the bumper of a car. Most of it belongs to the zygomatic bone, and could therefore be called the zygomatic process of the zygomatic bone...

 - Zygomatic process of frontal bone
Zygomatic process of frontal bone
The zygomatic process of frontal bone is the part of the zygomatic process consisting of the frontal bone.The supraorbital margin of the frontal bone ends laterally in the zygomatic process, which is strong and prominent, and articulates with the zygomatic bone...

 - Zygomatic process of maxilla
Zygomatic process of maxilla
The zygomatic process of the maxilla is a rough triangular eminence, situated at the angle of separation of the anterior, zygomatic, and orbital surfaces.* In front it forms part of the anterior surface....

 - Zygomatic process of temporal bone
Zygomatic process of temporal bone
The zygomatic process of the temporal bone is a long, arched process projecting from the lower part of the squamous portion of the temporal bone...

 - zygote
Zygote
A zygote , or zygocyte, is the initial cell formed when two gamete cells are joined by means of sexual reproduction. In multicellular organisms, it is the earliest developmental stage of the embryo...