List of Imperial Roman victory titles

List of Imperial Roman victory titles

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This document is a list of victory titles assumed by Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period . The Romans had no single term for the office although at any given time, a given title was associated with the emperor...

s, not including assumption of the title Imperator
Imperator
The Latin word Imperator was originally a title roughly equivalent to commander under the Roman Republic. Later it became a part of the titulature of the Roman Emperors as part of their cognomen. The English word emperor derives from imperator via Old French Empreur...

(originally itself a victory title); note that the Roman Emperors were not the only persons to assume victory titles (Maximinus Thrax
Maximinus Thrax
Maximinus Thrax , also known as Maximinus I, was Roman Emperor from 235 to 238.Maximinus is described by several ancient sources, though none are contemporary except Herodian's Roman History. Maximinus was the first emperor never to set foot in Rome...

 acquired his victory title during the reign of a previous Emperor). In a sense, the Imperial victory titles give an interesting summary of which wars and which adversaries were considered significant by the senior leadership of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

, but in some cases more opportunistic motifs play a role, even to the point of glorifying a victory that was by no means a real triumph (but celebrated as one for internal political prestige). For a more complete list of the Emperors themselves, see List of Roman Emperors.
  • Caligula
    Caligula
    Caligula , also known as Gaius, was Roman Emperor from 37 AD to 41 AD. Caligula was a member of the house of rulers conventionally known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Caligula's father Germanicus, the nephew and adopted son of Emperor Tiberius, was a very successful general and one of Rome's most...

    , 37-41
    • Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), born with it
  • Claudius
    Claudius
    Claudius , was Roman Emperor from 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he was the son of Drusus and Antonia Minor. He was born at Lugdunum in Gaul and was the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italy...

    , 41-54
    • Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), born with it
    • Britannicus ("Victorious in Britain"), 44
  • Vitellius
    Vitellius
    Vitellius , was Roman Emperor for eight months, from 16 April to 22 December 69. Vitellius was acclaimed Emperor following the quick succession of the previous emperors Galba and Otho, in a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors...

    , 69
    • Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), 69
  • Domitian
    Domitian
    Domitian was Roman Emperor from 81 to 96. Domitian was the third and last emperor of the Flavian dynasty.Domitian's youth and early career were largely spent in the shadow of his brother Titus, who gained military renown during the First Jewish-Roman War...

    , 81 - 96
    • Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), late 83
  • Nerva
    Nerva
    Nerva , was Roman Emperor from 96 to 98. Nerva became Emperor at the age of sixty-five, after a lifetime of imperial service under Nero and the rulers of the Flavian dynasty. Under Nero, he was a member of the imperial entourage and played a vital part in exposing the Pisonian conspiracy of 65...

    , 96 98
    • Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), October 97
  • Trajan
    Trajan
    Trajan , was Roman Emperor from 98 to 117 AD. Born into a non-patrician family in the province of Hispania Baetica, in Spain Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor Domitian. Serving as a legatus legionis in Hispania Tarraconensis, in Spain, in 89 Trajan supported the emperor against...

    , 98 - 117
    • Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), October 97
    • Dacicus ("Victorious in Dacia"), 102
    • Parthicus ("Victorious in Parthia") and Optimus ("the Best"), 114
  • Marcus Aurelius, 161 - 180
    • Armeniacus ("Victorious in Armenia"), 164
    • Medicus ("Victorious in Media") and Parthicus Maximus ("The great victor in Parthia"), 166
    • Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), 172
    • Sarmaticus ("Victorious in Sarmatia"), 175
  • Lucius Verus
    Lucius Verus
    Lucius Verus , was Roman co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius, from 161 until his death.-Early life and career:Lucius Verus was the first born son to Avidia Plautia and Lucius Aelius Verus Caesar, the first adopted son and heir of Roman Emperor Hadrian . He was born and raised in Rome...

    , 161 - 169
    • Armeniacus ("Victorious in Armenia"), 164
    • Parthicus Maximus ("The great victor in Parthia"), 165
    • Medicus ("Victorious in Media"), 166
  • Commodus
    Commodus
    Commodus , was Roman Emperor from 180 to 192. He also ruled as co-emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177 until his father's death in 180. His name changed throughout his reign; see changes of name for earlier and later forms. His accession as emperor was the first time a son had succeeded...

    , 177 - 192
    • Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), 15 October 172
    • Sarmaticus ("Victorious in Sarmatia"), spring 175
    • Germanicus Maximus ("The great victor in Germania"), mid-182
    • Britannicus, late 184
  • Septimius Severus
    Septimius Severus
    Septimius Severus , also known as Severus, was Roman Emperor from 193 to 211. Severus was born in Leptis Magna in the province of Africa. As a young man he advanced through the customary succession of offices under the reigns of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus. Severus seized power after the death of...

    , 193 - 211
    • Arabicus ("Victorious in Arabia") and Adiabenicus ("the victor of Adiabene
      Adiabene
      Adiabene was an ancient Assyrian independent kingdom in Mesopotamia, with its capital at Arbela...

      "), 195
    • Parthicus Maximus ("The great victor in Parthia"), 198
    • Britannicus Maximus ("The great victor in Britain"), 209 or 210
  • Caracalla
    Caracalla
    Caracalla , was Roman emperor from 198 to 217. The eldest son of Septimius Severus, he ruled jointly with his younger brother Geta until he murdered the latter in 211...

    , 198 - 217
    • Britannicus Maximus ("The great victor in Britain"), 209 or 210
    • Germanicus Maximus ("The great victor in Germania"), 213
  • Maximinus Thrax
    Maximinus Thrax
    Maximinus Thrax , also known as Maximinus I, was Roman Emperor from 235 to 238.Maximinus is described by several ancient sources, though none are contemporary except Herodian's Roman History. Maximinus was the first emperor never to set foot in Rome...

    , 235 - 238
    • Germanicus Maximus ("The great victor in Germania"), 235 (awarded by Emperor Alexander Severus
      Alexander Severus
      Severus Alexander was Roman Emperor from 222 to 235. Alexander was the last emperor of the Severan dynasty. He succeeded his cousin Elagabalus upon the latter's assassination in 222, and was ultimately assassinated himself, marking the epoch event for the Crisis of the Third Century — nearly fifty...

      )
  • Claudius II
    Claudius II
    Claudius II , commonly known as Claudius Gothicus, was Roman Emperor from 268 to 270. During his reign he fought successfully against the Alamanni and scored a crushing victory against the Goths at the Battle of Naissus. He died after succumbing to a smallpox plague that ravaged the provinces of...

    , 268 - 270
    • Gothicus Maximus ("The great victor against the Goths"), 269
  • Aurelian
    Aurelian
    Aurelian , was Roman Emperor from 270 to 275. During his reign, he defeated the Alamanni after a devastating war. He also defeated the Goths, Vandals, Juthungi, Sarmatians, and Carpi. Aurelian restored the Empire's eastern provinces after his conquest of the Palmyrene Empire in 273. The following...

    , 270-275
    • Germanicus Maximus ("The great victor in Germania"), 270 and 271
    • Gothicus Maximus ("The great victor of the Goths"), 271
    • Parthicus Maximus ("The great victor in Parthia"), 273
  • Tacitus
    Marcus Claudius Tacitus
    Tacitus , was Roman Emperor from 275 to 276. During his short reign he campaigned against the Goths and the Heruli, for which he received the title Gothicus Maximus.-Biography:Tacitus was born in Interamna , in Italia...

    , 275 - 276
    • Gothicus Maximus ("The great victor of the Goths"), 276
  • Probus, 276 - 282
    • Gothicus ("the victor of the Goths"), 277
    • Gothicus Maximus, Germanicus Maximus ("The great victor in Germania"), and Persicus Maximus ("The great victor in Persia"), 279
  • Diocletian
    Diocletian
    Diocletian |latinized]] upon his accession to Diocletian . c. 22 December 244  – 3 December 311), was a Roman Emperor from 284 to 305....

    , 284 - 305
    • Germanicus Maximus ("The great victor in Germania") and Sarmaticus Maximus ("The great victor of the Sarmatians"), 285
      • Diocletian claimed the title Germanicus Maximus five more times (twice in 287, and in 288, 293, and 301) and the title Sarmaticus Maximus three more times (in 289, 294, and 300)
    • Persicus Maximus ("The great victor over the Persians"), 295
      • Diocletian claimed the title Persicus Maximus again in 298
    • Britannicus Maximus ("The great victor in Britain") and Carpicus Maximus ("The great victor over Carpians"), 297
    • Armenicus Maximus ("Victorious in Armenia"), Medicus Maximus ("The great victor in Media"), and Adiabenicus Maximus ("The great victor in Adiabene
      Adiabene
      Adiabene was an ancient Assyrian independent kingdom in Mesopotamia, with its capital at Arbela...

      "), 298
  • Maximian
    Maximian
    Maximian was Roman Emperor from 286 to 305. He was Caesar from 285 to 286, then Augustus from 286 to 305. He shared the latter title with his co-emperor and superior, Diocletian, whose political brain complemented Maximian's military brawn. Maximian established his residence at Trier but spent...

    , 286 - 305, 306 - 308
    • Maximian's victory titles are the same as those of Diocletian, except that he did not share Diocletian's first assumption of the titles
  • Galerius Maximianus, 305 - 311
    • Britannicus Maximus ("The great victory in Britain"), and Carpicus Maximus ("The great victor of the Carpians"), 297
      • Galerius claimed the title Carpicus Maximus five more times until the Carpicus Maximus VI ("The 6th great victor of the Carpians"), 308

Germanicus Maximus and Sarmaticus Maximus in 285
  • Constantine I
    Constantine I
    Constantine the Great , also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was Roman Emperor from 306 to 337. Well known for being the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity, Constantine and co-Emperor Licinius issued the Edict of Milan in 313, which proclaimed religious tolerance of all...

    , 307 - 337
    • Germanicus Maximus ("The great victor in Germania"), 307
      • Constantine claimed the title Germanicus Maximus three more times (in 308, 314, and 328)
    • Sarmaticus Maximus ("The great victor over the Sarmatians"), 323
      • Constantine claimed the title Sarmaticus Maximus one more time (in 334)
    • Gothicus Maximus ("The great victor over the Goths"), 328
      • Constantine claimed the title Gothicus Maximus one more time (in 332)
    • Dacicus Maximus ("The great Victor over the Dacian"), (336)
  • Constans
    Constans
    Constans , was Roman Emperor from 337 to 350. He defeated his brother Constantine II in 340, but anger in the army over his personal life and preference for his barbarian bodyguards saw the general Magnentius rebel, resulting in Constans’ assassination in 350.-Career:Constans was the third and...

    , 337-350
    • Sarmaticus ("Victorious over the Sarmatians"). The title was awarded twice, and later critics wrote that proper form required that Constans be called "Sarmaticus Sarmaticus".
  • Justinian I
    Justinian I
    Justinian I ; , ; 483– 13 or 14 November 565), commonly known as Justinian the Great, was Byzantine Emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the Empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the classical Roman Empire.One of the most important figures of...

    , 527 - 565
    • Alamannicus ("Victorious over the Alamanni
      Alamanni
      The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of Germanic tribes located around the upper Rhine river . One of the earliest references to them is the cognomen Alamannicus assumed by Roman Emperor Caracalla, who ruled the Roman Empire from 211 to 217 and claimed thereby to be...

      "), on accession
    • Gothicus ("Victorious over the Goths
      Goths
      The Goths were an East Germanic tribe of Scandinavian origin whose two branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Roman Empire and the emergence of Medieval Europe....

      "), on accession
    • Francicus ("Victorious over the Franks
      Franks
      The Franks were a confederation of Germanic tribes first attested in the third century AD as living north and east of the Lower Rhine River. From the third to fifth centuries some Franks raided Roman territory while other Franks joined the Roman troops in Gaul. Only the Salian Franks formed a...

      "), on accession
    • Anticus ("Victorious over the Antae"), on accession
    • Alanicus ("Victorious over the Alans
      Alans
      The Alans, or the Alani, occasionally termed Alauni or Halani, were a group of Sarmatian tribes, nomadic pastoralists of the 1st millennium AD who spoke an Eastern Iranian language which derived from Scytho-Sarmatian and which in turn evolved into modern Ossetian.-Name:The various forms of Alan —...

      "), on accession
    • Vandalicus ("Victorious over the Vandals
      Vandals
      The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. The Vandals under king Genseric entered Africa in 429 and by 439 established a kingdom which included the Roman Africa province, besides the islands of Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia and the Balearics....

      "), after the Vandalic War
      Vandalic War
      The Vandalic War was a war fought in North Africa, in the areas of modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria, in 533-534, between the forces of the Eastern Roman Empire and the Vandal Kingdom of Carthage...

      , 534
    • Africanus ("Victorious in Africa"), after the Vandalic War
      Vandalic War
      The Vandalic War was a war fought in North Africa, in the areas of modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria, in 533-534, between the forces of the Eastern Roman Empire and the Vandal Kingdom of Carthage...

      , 534


ROMAN IMPERIAL VICTORY-TITLES (COGNOMINA EX VIRTUTE). Table B: Later 3rd century (AD 238 - 284)
Emperor
(reign-dates)
Adiabenicus Arabicus Armeniacus Britannicus Carpicus Dacicus Germanicus Gothicus Medicus Parthicus Persicus Sarmaticus Inscription
evidence
Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab , also known as Philip or Philippus Arabs, was Roman Emperor from 244 to 249. He came from Syria, and rose to become a major figure in the Roman Empire. He achieved power after the death of Gordian III, quickly negotiating peace with the Sassanid Empire...


(244-9)
247 244 CIL III.4634 http://oracle-vm.ku-eichstaett.de:8888/epigr/epieinzel_en?p_belegstelle=CIL+03%2C+04634&r_sortierung=Belegstelle; RIC IV.66
Decius
Decius
Trajan Decius , was Roman Emperor from 249 to 251. In the last year of his reign, he co-ruled with his son Herennius Etruscus until they were both killed in the Battle of Abrittus.-Early life and rise to power:...


(249-51)
250 250 CIL II.6345 http://oracle-vm.ku-eichstaett.de:8888/epigr/epieinzel_en?p_belegstelle=CIL+02%2C+06345&r_sortierung=Belegstelle; AE (1942/3) 55 http://oracle-vm.ku-eichstaett.de:8888/epigr/epieinzel_en?p_belegstelle=AE+1942/43%2C+00055&r_sortierung=Belegstelle
Valerian
(253-60)
254 CIL VIII.2380 http://oracle-vm.ku-eichstaett.de:8888/epigr/epieinzel_en?p_belegstelle=CIL+08%2C+02380&r_sortierung=Belegstelle
Gallienus
Gallienus
Gallienus was Roman Emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260, and alone from 260 to 268. He took control of the Empire at a time when it was undergoing great crisis...


(253-68)
256 254 263 264/5 CIL X.4784 http://oracle-vm.ku-eichstaett.de:8888/epigr/epieinzel_en?p_belegstelle=CIL+10%2C+04784&r_sortierung=Belegstelle; AE (2006) 1762 http://oracle-vm.ku-eichstaett.de:8888/epigr/epieinzel_en?p_belegstelle=AE+2006%2C+01762&r_sortierung=Belegstelle
Claudius II
(268-70)
268 269
Battle of Naissus
The Battle of Naissus was the defeat of a Gothic coalition by the Roman Empire under Emperor Gallienus near Naissus...

270 CIL XII.5511 http://oracle-vm.ku-eichstaett.de:8888/epigr/epieinzel_en?p_belegstelle=CIL+12%2C+05511&r_sortierung=Belegstelle; CIL VIII.4876 http://oracle-vm.ku-eichstaett.de:8888/epigr/epieinzel_en?p_belegstelle=CIL+08%2C+04876&r_sortierung=Belegstelle
Aurelian
Aurelian
Aurelian , was Roman Emperor from 270 to 275. During his reign, he defeated the Alamanni after a devastating war. He also defeated the Goths, Vandals, Juthungi, Sarmatians, and Carpi. Aurelian restored the Empire's eastern provinces after his conquest of the Palmyrene Empire in 273. The following...


(270-5)
272 date? 272 275 271 272 273 270? CIL XIII.8973 http://oracle-vm.ku-eichstaett.de:8888/epigr/epieinzel_en?p_belegstelle=CIL+13%2C+08973&r_sortierung=Belegstelle; CIL III.13715 http://oracle-vm.ku-eichstaett.de:8888/epigr/epieinzel_en?p_belegstelle=CIL+03%2C+13715&r_sortierung=Belegstelle; CIL II.4506 http://oracle-vm.ku-eichstaett.de:8888/epigr/epieinzel_en?p_belegstelle=CIL+02%2C+04506&r_sortierung=Belegstelle
Tacitus
Marcus Claudius Tacitus
Tacitus , was Roman Emperor from 275 to 276. During his short reign he campaigned against the Goths and the Heruli, for which he received the title Gothicus Maximus.-Biography:Tacitus was born in Interamna , in Italia...

 
(275-6)
276 CIL XII.5563 http://oracle-vm.ku-eichstaett.de:8888/epigr/epieinzel_en?p_belegstelle=CIL+12%2C+05563&r_sortierung=Belegstelle
Probus
(276-82)
278 277 CIL XII.5472 http://oracle-vm.ku-eichstaett.de:8888/epigr/epieinzel_en?p_belegstelle=CIL+12%2C+05472&r_sortierung=Belegstelle
Carus
Carus
Carus , was Roman Emperor from 282 to 283. During his short reign, Carus fought the Germanic tribes and Sarmatians along the Danube frontier with success. During his campaign against the Sassanid Empire he sacked their capital Ctesiphon, but died shortly thereafter...


(282-3)
283 283 CIL VIII.12522 http://oracle-vm.ku-eichstaett.de:8888/epigr/epieinzel_en?p_belegstelle=CIL+08%2C+12522&r_sortierung=Belegstelle