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Lincoln Cathedral

Lincoln Cathedral

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Lincoln Cathedral is a historic Anglican cathedral in Lincoln in England and seat of the Bishop of Lincoln
Bishop of Lincoln
The Bishop of Lincoln is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Lincoln in the Province of Canterbury.The present diocese covers the county of Lincolnshire and the unitary authority areas of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire. The Bishop's seat is located in the Cathedral...

 in the Church of England
Church of England
The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England and the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion. The church considers itself within the tradition of Western Christianity and dates its formal establishment principally to the mission to England by St...

. It was reputedly the tallest building in the world for 249 years (1300–1549). The central spire
Spire
A spire is a tapering conical or pyramidal structure on the top of a building, particularly a church tower. Etymologically, the word is derived from the Old English word spir, meaning a sprout, shoot, or stalk of grass....

 collapsed in 1549 and was not rebuilt. It is highly regarded by architectural scholars; the eminent Victorian
Victorian era
The Victorian era of British history was the period of Queen Victoria's reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a long period of peace, prosperity, refined sensibilities and national self-confidence...

 writer John Ruskin
John Ruskin
John Ruskin was the leading English art critic of the Victorian era, also an art patron, draughtsman, watercolourist, a prominent social thinker and philanthropist. He wrote on subjects ranging from geology to architecture, myth to ornithology, literature to education, and botany to political...

 declared, "I have always held... that the cathedral of Lincoln is out and out the most precious piece of architecture in the British Isles and roughly speaking worth any two other cathedrals we have."

History


Remigius de Fécamp
Remigius de Fécamp
Remigius de Fécamp was a Benedictine monk who was a supporter of William the Conqueror.-Early life:...

, first bishop of Lincoln, ordered the first cathedral to be built in Lincoln, in 1072. Before that, St. Mary's Church in Lincoln was a mother church but not a cathedral
Cathedral
A cathedral is a Christian church that contains the seat of a bishop...

, and the seat of the diocese was at Dorchester Abbey in Dorchester-on-Thames, Oxfordshire. Lincoln was more central to a diocese that stretched from the Thames to the Humber. Bishop Remigius
Remigius de Fécamp
Remigius de Fécamp was a Benedictine monk who was a supporter of William the Conqueror.-Early life:...

 built the first Lincoln Cathedral on the present site, finishing it in 1092 and then dying two days before it was to be consecrated
Consecration
Consecration is the solemn dedication to a special purpose or service, usually religious. The word "consecration" literally means "to associate with the sacred". Persons, places, or things can be consecrated, and the term is used in various ways by different groups...

 on May 9 of that year. In 1141, the timber roofing was destroyed in a fire. Bishop Alexander
Alexander of Lincoln
Alexander of Lincoln was a medieval English Bishop of Lincoln, a member of an important administrative and ecclesiastical family. He was the nephew of Roger of Salisbury, a Bishop of Salisbury and Chancellor of England under King Henry I, and he was also related to Nigel, Bishop of Ely...

 rebuilt and expanded the cathedral, but it was destroyed by an earthquake
Earthquake
An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. The seismicity, seismism or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time...

 about forty years later, in 1185.

After the earthquake, a new bishop was appointed. The new bishop was St Hugh of Lincoln
Hugh of Lincoln
Hugh of Lincoln was at the time of the Reformation the best-known English saint after Thomas Becket.-Life:...

, originally from Avalon, France
Avalon, France
Avalon is a village outside of Pontcharra, Isère département, eastern France. It is part of the commune Saint-Maximin. It is notable for being the birthplace of Saint Hugh of Lincoln , and for the Tour d'Avallon, a tower in the village....

; he began a massive rebuilding and expansion programme. Rebuilding began at the east end of the cathedral, with an apse and five small radiating chapels. The central nave was then built in the Early English Gothic
Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

 style. Lincoln Cathedral soon followed other architectural advances of the time — pointed arches, flying buttresses and ribbed vaulting were added to the cathedral. This allowed the creation and support of larger windows. The cathedral is the 3rd largest in Britain (in floor space) after St Paul's
St Paul's Cathedral
St Paul's Cathedral, London, is a Church of England cathedral and seat of the Bishop of London. Its dedication to Paul the Apostle dates back to the original church on this site, founded in AD 604. St Paul's sits at the top of Ludgate Hill, the highest point in the City of London, and is the mother...

 and York Minster
York Minster
York Minster is a Gothic cathedral in York, England and is one of the largest of its kind in Northern Europe alongside Cologne Cathedral. The minster is the seat of the Archbishop of York, the second-highest office of the Church of England, and is the cathedral for the Diocese of York; it is run by...

, being 484 feet (147.5 m) by 271 feet (82.6 m). It is Lincolnshire's largest building, and until 1549 the spire was reputedly the tallest medieval tower in Europe, though the exact height has been a matter of debate. Accompanying the cathedral's large bell, Great Tom of Lincoln, is a quarter-hour striking clock. The clock was installed in the early 19th century.

There are thirteen bells in the south-west tower, two in the north-west tower, and five in the central tower (including Great Tom). The matching Dean's Eye and Bishop’s Eye were added to the cathedral during the late Middle Ages. The former, the Dean's Eye in the north transept dates from the 1192 rebuild begun by St Hugh, it was finally completed in 1235. The latter, the Bishop’s eye, in the south transept was reconstructed 100 years later in 1330. A contemporary record, “The Metrical Life of St Hugh”, refers to the meaning of these two windows (one on the dark, north, side and the other on the light, south, side of the building):

After the additions of the Dean’s eye and other major Gothic additions it is believed some mistakes in the support of the tower occurred, for in 1237 the main tower collapsed. A new tower was soon started and in 1255 the Cathedral petitioned Henry III
Henry III of England
Henry III was the son and successor of John as King of England, reigning for 56 years from 1216 until his death. His contemporaries knew him as Henry of Winchester. He was the first child king in England since the reign of Æthelred the Unready...

 to allow them to take down part of the town wall to enlarge and expand the Cathedral, including the rebuilding of the central tower and spire. They replaced the small rounded chapels (built at the time of St Hugh) with a larger east end to the cathedral. This was to handle the increasing number of pilgrims to the Cathedral, who came to worship at the shrine of Hugh of Lincoln
Hugh of Lincoln
Hugh of Lincoln was at the time of the Reformation the best-known English saint after Thomas Becket.-Life:...

.

In 1290 Eleanor of Castile died and King Edward I
Edward I of England
Edward I , also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots, was King of England from 1272 to 1307. The first son of Henry III, Edward was involved early in the political intrigues of his father's reign, which included an outright rebellion by the English barons...

 of England decided to honour her, his Queen Consort, with an elegant funeral procession. After her body had been embalmed, which in the thirteenth century involved evisceration, Eleanor's viscera were buried in Lincoln cathedral, and Edward placed a duplicate of the Westminster
Westminster Abbey
The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, popularly known as Westminster Abbey, is a large, mainly Gothic church, in the City of Westminster, London, United Kingdom, located just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English,...

 tomb there. The Lincoln tomb's original stone chest survives; its effigy was destroyed in the 17th century and replaced with a 19th-century copy. On the outside of Lincoln Cathedral are two prominent statues often identified as Edward and Eleanor, but these images were heavily restored in the 19th century and they were probably not originally intended to depict the couple.


Between 1307 and 1311 the central tower was raised to its present height of 83 m (271 feet). The western towers and front of the cathedral were also improved and heightened. At this time, a tall lead-encased wooden spire topped the central tower but was blown down in a storm in 1548. With its spire, the tower reputedly reached a height of 525 feet (160 m) (which would have made it the world's tallest structure, surpassing the Great Pyramid of Giza
Great Pyramid of Giza
The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one to remain largely intact...

, which held the record for almost 4,000 years). This height is agreed by most sources but has been doubted by others. Other additions to the cathedral at this time included its elaborate carved screen and the 14th century misericords, as was the Angel choir. For a large part of the length of the cathedral, the walls have arches in relief with a second layer in front to give the illusion of a passageway along the wall. However the illusion does not work, as the stonemason, copying techniques from France, did not make the arches the correct length needed for the illusion to be effective.

In 1398 John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford
Katherine Swynford
Katherine Swynford, Duchess of Lancaster , née Roet , was the daughter of Sir Payne Roet , originally a Flemish herald from County of Hainaut, later...

 founded a chantry
Chantry
Chantry is the English term for a fund established to pay for a priest to celebrate sung Masses for a specified purpose, generally for the soul of the deceased donor. Chantries were endowed with lands given by donors, the income from which maintained the chantry priest...

 in the cathedral, to pray for the welfare of their souls, and in the 15th century the building of the cathedral turned to chantry or memorial chapels. The chapels next to the Angel Choir were built in the Perpendicular style, with an emphasis on strong vertical lines, which survive today in the window tracery and wall panelling.

Magna Carta


The bishop of Lincoln, Hugh of Wells, was one of the signatories to the Magna Carta
Magna Carta
Magna Carta is an English charter, originally issued in the year 1215 and reissued later in the 13th century in modified versions, which included the most direct challenges to the monarch's authority to date. The charter first passed into law in 1225...

 and for hundreds of years the Cathedral held one of the four remaining copies of the original, now securely displayed in Lincoln Castle
Lincoln Castle
Lincoln Castle is a major castle constructed in Lincoln, England during the late 11th century by William the Conqueror on the site of a pre-existing Roman fortress. The castle is unusual in that it has two mottes. It is only one of two such castles in the country, the other being at Lewes in Sussex...

. There are three other surviving copies; two at the British Library
British Library
The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom, and is the world's largest library in terms of total number of items. The library is a major research library, holding over 150 million items from every country in the world, in virtually all known languages and in many formats,...

 and one at Salisbury Cathedral
Salisbury Cathedral
Salisbury Cathedral, formally known as the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary, is an Anglican cathedral in Salisbury, England, considered one of the leading examples of Early English architecture....

.
In 2009 the Lincoln Magna Carta was loaned to the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library
Ronald Reagan Presidential Library
The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library and Center for Public Affairs is the presidential library and final resting place of Ronald Wilson Reagan, the 40th President of the United States. Designed by Hugh Stubbins and Associates, the library is located in Simi Valley, California, about northwest of...

 in Simi Valley, California.

Little Saint Hugh



In August of 1255 the body of an 8-year old boy was found in a well in Lincoln. He had been missing for nearly a month. This incident became the source of a blood libel
Blood libel
Blood libel is a false accusation or claim that religious minorities, usually Jews, murder children to use their blood in certain aspects of their religious rituals and holidays...

 in the city, with Jews accused of his abduction, torture, and murder. Many Jews were arrested and eighteen were hanged. The boy became named as Little Saint Hugh to distinguish him from Saint Hugh of Lincoln, but he was never officially canonised (made a saint).

The cathedral benefited from these events because Hugh was seen as a martyr, and many devotees came to the city and cathedral to venerate him. Chaucer mentions the case in "The Prioress's Tale
The Prioress's Tale
"The Prioress's Tale" follows The Shipman's Tale in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales. Because of fragmentation of the manuscripts, it is impossible to tell where it comes in ordinal sequence, but it is second in group B2, followed by Chaucer's Tale of Sir Topas...

" and a ballad was written about it in 1783. In 1955 a plaque was put up near “the remains of the shrine of ‘Little St Hugh’” in the cathedral, that decries the “Trumped up stories of ‘ritual murders’ of Christian boys by Jewish communities.”

The Lincoln Imp




One of the stone carvings within the Cathedral is the Lincoln Imp
Lincoln Imp
The Lincoln Imp is the symbol of the City of Lincoln, the county town of Lincolnshire, England.According to a 14th-century legend two mischievous creatures called imps were sent by Satan to do evil work on Earth. After causing mayhem in Northern England, the two imps headed to Lincoln Cathedral...

. There are several variations of the legend surrounding the figure.

According to 14th-century legend, two mischievous imps were sent by Satan to do evil work on Earth. After causing mayhem elsewhere in Northern England the two imps headed to Lincoln Cathedral, where they smashed tables and chairs and tripped up the Bishop. An angel appeared in the Angel Choir and ordered them to stop. One of the imps sat atop a stone pillar and started throwing rocks at the angel whilst the other cowered under the broken tables and chairs. The angel turned the first imp to stone, allowing the second imp to escape. The imp that turned to stone can still be found sitting atop his stone column in the Angel Choir.

Wren library



The Wren Library houses a rare collection of over 277 manuscripts, including the text of the Venerable Bede.

Rose windows


Lincoln Cathedral features two major rose windows, which are a highly uncommon feature among medieval architecture in England. On the north side of the cathedral there is the “Dean’s Eye” which survives from the original structure of the building and on the south side there is the “Bishop’s Eye” which was most likely rebuilt circa 1325-1350. This south window is one of the largest examples of curvilinear tracery seen in medieval architecture. Curvilinear tracery is a form of tracery where the patterns are continuous curves. This form was often done within pointed arches and squared windows because those are the easiest shapes, so the circular space of the window was a unique challenge to the designers. A solution was created that called for the circle to be divided down into smaller shapes that would make it simpler to design and create. Curves were drawn within the window which created four distinct areas of the circle. This made the spaces within the circle where the tracery would go much smaller, and easier to work with. This window is also interesting and unique in that the focus of the tracery was shifted away from the center of the circle and instead placed in other sections. The glazing of the window was equally as difficult as the tracery for many of the same reason; therefore, the designers made a decision to cut back on the amount of iconography within the window. Most cathedral windows during this time displayed many colorful images of the bible; however at Lincoln there are very few images. Some of those images that can be seen within the window include saints Paul, Andrew, and James.

Wooden trusses


Wooden trusses offer a solid and reliable source of support for building because through their joints they are able to resist damage and remain strong. Triangles are the strongest shape because no matter where the force is being placed on them they are able to use their three joints to their fullest extent in order to withstand it. Making trusses with triangles inside larger triangles adds even more strength, as seen in Lincoln’s choir. The design of all wooden trusses is a tedious task as there are many different things that need to be considered while building these supports. There are many different ways that the trusses can fail if they are not designed or built properly; it is therefore crucial to design trusses that suit a specific building with specific needs in mind. The simplest form of a truss is an A frame; however, the great amount of outward thrust generated here often causes the truss to fail. The addition of a tie beam creates a triangular shape, although this beam can sometimes sag if the overall truss is too large. Neither one of these examples would have been suitable for Lincoln, owing to the sheer size of the roof. They would have failed to support the building, so collar beams and queen posts were added to the design in order to help prevent sagging. To protect against wind damage, braces were added. Secondary rafters were also added to the design to ensure that the weight was equally distributed. Saint Hugh’s Choir has a total of thirty six trusses keeping the roof in place, and it is held up entirely by means of its own weight and forces.

Vaults


One major architectural feature of Lincoln Cathedral are the spectacular vaults. The varying vaults within the cathedral are said to be both original and experimental. Simply comparing the different vaults seen in Lincoln clearly shows that a great deal of creativity was involved when designing the cathedral. The vaults especially, clearly define the experimental aspect seen at Lincoln. There are several different kinds of vaults that differ between the nave, aisles, choir, and chapels of the cathedral. Along the North Aisle there is a continuous ridge rib with a regular arcade that ignores the bays. Meanwhile, on the South Aisle there is a discontinuous ridge rib that puts an emphasis on each separate bay. The North West Chapel has quadripartite vaults and the South Chapel has vaults that stem from one central support columns. The use of sexpartite vaults allowed for more natural light to enter the cathedral through the clerestory windows, which were placed inside of each separate bay. Saint Hugh’s Choir exhibits extremely unusual vaults. It is a series of asymmetrical vaults that appear to almost be a diagonal line created by two ribs on one side translating into only a single rib on the other side of the vault. This pattern divides up the space of the vaults and bays, perfectly placing the emphasis on the bays. The chapter house vaults are also interesting. It is a circular building with one column where twenty ribs extend from. Each separate area of Lincoln can be identified solely by the different vaults of the space. Each vault, or each variation of the vault, is fresh and original. They illustrate innovative thinking and great creativity. There is no doubt that these vaults, and all of the other experimental aspects of Lincoln came with a slight risk; however the results are truly wonderful.

Today



According to the cathedral website, over £1 million a year is spent on keeping the cathedral in shape; the most recent project completed has been the restoration of the West Front in 2000. About ten years ago it was discovered that the flying buttress
Flying buttress
A flying buttress is a specific form of buttressing most strongly associated with Gothic church architecture. The purpose of any buttress is to resist the lateral forces pushing a wall outwards by redirecting them to the ground...

es on the east end were no longer connected to the adjoining stonework, and repairs were made to prevent collapse. The most recent problem was the discovery that the stonework of the Dean's Eye window in the transept was crumbling, meaning that a complete reconstruction of the window has had to be carried out according to the conservation criteria set out by the International Council on Monuments and Sites
International Council on Monuments and Sites
The International Council on Monuments and Sites is a professional association that works for the conservation and protection of cultural heritage places around the world...

.

There was a period of great anxiety when it emerged that the stonework only needed to shift 5mm for the entire window to collapse. Specialist engineers removed the window's tracery before installing a strengthened, more stable replacement. In addition to this the original stained glass was cleaned and set behind a new clear isothermal glass which offers better protection from the elements. By April 2006 the renovation project was completed at a cost of £2 million.

Recently, concerns have been growing once more about the state of the West Front, as there has been some stonework falling, which has raised questions as to the effectiveness of the repairs carried out in 2000.

Lincoln Cathedral is at present a very popular destination and is visited by over 250,000 tourists a year. The semi-mandatory entrance fee for weekday visiting is £6.00, which is charged on admission throughout the tourist season. The cathedral offers tours of the cathedral, the tower and the roof. The peak of its season is the Lincoln Christmas Market
Lincoln Christmas Market
Lincoln Christmas Market, held in Lincoln, England, is one of the largest Christmas markets in Europe, attracting up to 250,000 visitors over the four day event....

, accompanied by a massive annual production of Handel's
George Frideric Handel
George Frideric Handel was a German-British Baroque composer, famous for his operas, oratorios, anthems and organ concertos. Handel was born in 1685, in a family indifferent to music...

 Messiah
Messiah (Handel)
Messiah is an English-language oratorio composed in 1741 by George Frideric Handel, with a scriptural text compiled by Charles Jennens from the King James Bible and the Book of Common Prayer. It was first performed in Dublin on 13 April 1742, and received its London premiere nearly a year later...

 . The Episcopacy of Lincoln Cathedral is currently in interregnum following the retirement of Dr John Saxbee on 31 January 2011. The current Dean of the Cathedral is the Very Reverend Philip Buckler
Philip Buckler
The Very Reverend Philip John Warr Buckler, MA is the current Dean of Lincoln; a post he has held since 2006.-Education:Buckler was educated at Highgate School and St Peter's College, Oxford before training for the priesthood at Cuddesdon College, Oxford.-Ministry:From 1972 to 1975, Buckler was...

.

Choir


The Choir is currently formed of 10 Gentlemen (who are either Lay Vicars and Choral Scholars), a team of c. 20 boys and a team of c. 20 girls.

The Cathedral accepted female choristers in 1995. Lincoln was only the second Cathedral in the country to adopt a separate girls' choir, after Salisbury Cathedral
Salisbury Cathedral
Salisbury Cathedral, formally known as the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary, is an Anglican cathedral in Salisbury, England, considered one of the leading examples of Early English architecture....

, and remains one of few who provide exactly the same musical opportunities and equal weekly singing duties to both girls and boys. All the choristers are educated at Lincoln Minster School
Lincoln Minster School
Lincoln Minster School is an independent co-educational day and boarding school in Lincolnshire, England. It houses scholars in music, sport and academics. It comprises three schools: the pre-preparatory, preparatory, senior school and sixth form...

.

The Director of Music is Aric Prentice, who conducts the choir of girls and men, and the Assistant Director of Music & Sub-Organist is Charles Harrison, who conducts the choir of boys and men. The Organist Laureate is Colin Walsh, previously Organist and Master of the Choristers, and the Assistant Organist is Claire Innes-Hopkins. Like any great cathedral, Lincoln has had its share of organists who have achieved international renown: perhaps the most famous is William Byrd
William Byrd
William Byrd was an English composer of the Renaissance. He wrote in many of the forms current in England at the time, including various types of sacred and secular polyphony, keyboard and consort music.-Provenance:Knowledge of Byrd's biography expanded in the late 20th century, thanks largely...

, the Renaissance composer. Although it is uncertain whether Byrd was born in Lincoln as has been claimed, he was organist at the Cathedral from 1563 until 1572 and continued to compose works specifically for the cathedral choir after his departure.

Organ


The organ is one of the finest examples of the work of 'Father' Henry Willis
Henry Willis
Henry Willis was a British organ player and builder, who is regarded as the foremost organ builder of the Victorian era.-Early Life and work:...

, dating from 1898 (it was his last cathedral organ before his death in 1901). There have been two restorations of it by Harrison & Harrison
Harrison & Harrison
Harrison & Harrison Ltd are a British company that make and restore pipe organs, based in Durham and established in 1861. They are well known for their work on instruments such as King's College Cambridge, Westminster Abbey and the Royal Festival Hall....

 in 1960 and 1998. The specification of the organ can be found on the National Pipe Organ Register.

Organists



  • 1439 John Ingleton
  • 1489 John Davy
  • 1490 John Warcup
  • 1506 Leonard Pepir
  • 1508 Thomas Ashwell
  • 1518 John Watkins
  • 1524 John Gilbert
  • 1528 Robert Dove
  • 1538 Thomas Appilby
  • 1539 James Crowe
  • 1541 Thomas Appilby

  • 1563 William Byrd
    William Byrd
    William Byrd was an English composer of the Renaissance. He wrote in many of the forms current in England at the time, including various types of sacred and secular polyphony, keyboard and consort music.-Provenance:Knowledge of Byrd's biography expanded in the late 20th century, thanks largely...

  • 1572 Thomas Butler
  • 1593 William Boys
  • 1594 John Hilton
  • 1599 Thomas Kingston
  • 1616 John Wanlesse
  • 1660 Thomas Mudd
  • 1663 Andrew Hecht
  • 1670 John Reading
  • 1693 Thomas Hecht
  • 1693 Thomas Allinson
  • 1704 George Holmes

  • 1721 Charles Murgatroy
  • 1741 William Middlebrook
  • 1756 Lloyd Raynor
  • 1784 John Hasted
  • 1794 George Skelton
  • 1850 John Matthew Wilson Young
    John Matthew Wilson Young
    John Matthew Wilson Young was an English organist. He was elder brother to William James Young , also a well-known English organist. John M.W. Young was buried in the cemetery at East Gate in Lincoln...

  • 1895 George Bennett
    George John Bennett (organist)
    George John Bennett was an English cathedral organist, who served in Lincoln Cathedral.-Background:George John Bennett was born on 5 May 1863 in Andover, Hampshire. He studied at the Royal Academy of Music and also abroad under Josef Rheinberger....

  • 1930 Gordon Archbold Slater
    Gordon Archbold Slater
    Gordon Archbold Slater was an English cathedral organist, who served in Leicester Cathedral and Lincoln Cathedral.He was a composer of organ, piano and choral music...

  • 1966 Philip Marshall
    Philip Marshall
    Philip Marshall was an English cathedral organist, who served in Lincoln Cathedral and Ripon Cathedral-Career:Organist of:*St Botolph's Church, Boston *Ripon Cathedral *Lincoln Cathedral -References:...

  • 1986 David Flood
  • 1988 Colin Walsh



From 2003 the post was divided: Colin Walsh became Organist Laureate and Aric Prentice was appointed Director of Music.

Assistant organists


Articled pupils fulfilled the role of assistant organist until 1893 when the Chapter formalised the position of assistant organist.
  • John Hilton ?–1594
  • William James Young 1857–58 (brother of the organist)
  • William Thomas Freemantle 1870–?
  • Ernest Wood ?–1882
  • WR Pullein
  • Frank Pullein 1893–94
  • Edgar Cyril Robinson 1895–99 (afterwards organist of Gainsborough Parish Church and then Wigan Parish Church
    Wigan Parish Church
    All Saints' Church, Wigan is the Church of England parish church in Wigan, Greater Manchester.It is a Grade II* listed building.-History:The church is medieval but most of the present building was erected between 1845 and 1850 by the Lancaster partnership of Sharpe and Paley, when it was almost...

    )
  • John Pullein ?–1903 (afterwards organist of St. Peter's Church, Harrogate
    St. Peter's Church, Harrogate
    St. Peter's Church, Harrogate is a parish church in the Church of England located in Harrogate.-History:The church was formed out of the parish of Christ Church, High Harrogate....

    )
  • Frederick David Linley Penny 1917–21
  • William Wells Hewitt 1922–26 (afterwards organist of Church of the Holy Trinity, Stratford-upon-Avon)
  • Edward Francis Reginald Woolley 1926–30 (later organist of Church of St. Mary Magdalene, Newark-on-Trent
    Church of St. Mary Magdalene, Newark-on-Trent
    The Church of St. Mary Magadalene, Newark-on-Trent is a parish church in the Church of England in Newark-on-Trent in Nottinghamshire.The church is Grade I listed by the Department for Culture, Media & Sport as a building of outstanding architectural or historic interest.-Building:It is notable for...

    )
  • Willis Grant
    Willis Grant
    Willis Grant was an English cathedral organist, who served in St. Philip's Cathedral, Birmingham.-Background:Willis Grant was born on 1 May 1907 in Bolton, Lancashire. He was educated at Astley Bridge School...

     1931–36 (afterwards organist of St. Philip's Cathedral, Birmingham)
  • Clifford Hewis 1936–?
  • Roger Bryan 1975–92 (later organist of Church of St. Mary Magdalene, Newark-on-Trent
    Church of St. Mary Magdalene, Newark-on-Trent
    The Church of St. Mary Magadalene, Newark-on-Trent is a parish church in the Church of England in Newark-on-Trent in Nottinghamshire.The church is Grade I listed by the Department for Culture, Media & Sport as a building of outstanding architectural or historic interest.-Building:It is notable for...

    )
  • Andrew Post 1992-93 (later Director of Music, Christchurch Priory
    Christchurch Priory
    Christchurch Priory is an ecclesiastical parish and former priory church in Christchurch in the English county of Dorset .-Early history:...

    )
  • James Antony Vivian 1993-94 (acting)
  • Jeffrey Makinson 1994–99 (afterwards assistant organist of Manchester Cathedral
    Manchester Cathedral
    Manchester Cathedral is a medieval church on Victoria Street in central Manchester and is the seat of the Bishop of Manchester. The cathedral's official name is The Cathedral and Collegiate Church of St Mary, St Denys and St George in Manchester...

    )
  • Simon Morley 1999–2003
  • Charles Harrison (Assistant Director of Music and Sub Organist 2003–)
  • Julian Thomas
  • Stephen Bullamore (now organist of Waltham Abbey
    Waltham Abbey (abbey)
    The Abbey Church of Waltham Abbey has been a place of worship since at least 1030, and is in the town of Waltham Abbey, Essex, England. The Prime Meridian passes through its grounds. Harold Godwinson is said to be buried just outside the present abbey...

    )
  • Richard Apperley 2005–7 (currently Assistant Organist of St Paul's Cathedral, Wellington
    Wellington Cathedral of Saint Paul
    This article relates to the Anglican Cathedral of Wellington. For the two other Wellington Cathedrals see: Sacred Heart Cathedral and Cathedral of the Annunciation of the Virgin Mary thumb|View of the chancel...

     in New Zealand)
  • Benjamin Chewter 2008–2011 (subsequently Assistant Director of Music at Chester Cathedral
    Chester Cathedral
    Chester Cathedral is the mother church of the Church of England Diocese of Chester, and is located in the city of Chester, Cheshire, England. The cathedral, formerly St Werburgh's abbey church of a Benedictine monastery, is dedicated to Christ and the Blessed Virgin Mary...

    )

Other burials



  • Remigius de Fécamp
    Remigius de Fécamp
    Remigius de Fécamp was a Benedictine monk who was a supporter of William the Conqueror.-Early life:...

    , Bishop of Lincoln (1072–92) — began the construction of Lincoln Cathedral, which was consecrated in 1092, two days after his death
  • Robert Bloet
    Robert Bloet
    Robert Bloet was a medieval English bishop and a Chancellor of England. Born into a noble Norman family, he became a royal clerk under King William I of England. Under William I's son and successor King William II, Bloet was first named chancellor then appointed to the see of Lincoln...

    , Lord Chancellor
    Lord Chancellor
    The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom. He is the second highest ranking of the Great Officers of State, ranking only after the Lord High Steward. The Lord Chancellor is appointed by the Sovereign...

     of England and Bishop of Lincoln (1093–123)
  • Robert de Chesney
    Robert de Chesney
    Robert de Chesney was a medieval English Bishop of Lincoln. He was the brother of an important royal official, William de Chesney, and the uncle of Gilbert Foliot, later successively Bishop of Hereford and Bishop of London...

    , Bishop of Lincoln (1148–66?)
  • Hugh of Lincoln
    Hugh of Lincoln
    Hugh of Lincoln was at the time of the Reformation the best-known English saint after Thomas Becket.-Life:...

    , Bishop of Lincoln (1186–200) and Saint
    Saint
    A saint is a holy person. In various religions, saints are people who are believed to have exceptional holiness.In Christian usage, "saint" refers to any believer who is "in Christ", and in whom Christ dwells, whether in heaven or in earth...

     (at the time of the Reformation
    Reformation
    - Movements :* Protestant Reformation, an attempt by Martin Luther to reform the Roman Catholic Church that resulted in a schism, and grew into a wider movement...

    , the best-known English
    England
    England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

     saint after Thomas Becket
    Thomas Becket
    Thomas Becket was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170. He is venerated as a saint and martyr by both the Roman Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion...

    )
  • William de Blois
    William de Blois
    William de Blois was a medieval Bishop of Lincoln. He first served in the household of Hugh du Puiset, the Bishop of Durham, then later served the household of Hugh of Avalon, Bishop of Lincoln. After Hugh's death and a two year vacancy in the see, or bishopric, Blois was elected to succeed Hugh...

    , Bishop of Lincoln (1203–6)
  • Hugh of Wells, Bishop of Lincoln (1209–35)
  • Robert Grosseteste
    Robert Grosseteste
    Robert Grosseteste or Grossetete was an English statesman, scholastic philosopher, theologian and Bishop of Lincoln. He was born of humble parents at Stradbroke in Suffolk. A.C...

    , English
    England
    England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

     statesman, scholastic philosopher, theologian and Bishop of Lincoln (1235–53)
  • Katherine Swynford
    Katherine Swynford
    Katherine Swynford, Duchess of Lancaster , née Roet , was the daughter of Sir Payne Roet , originally a Flemish herald from County of Hainaut, later...

    , Duchess of Lancaster (1350–1403)
  • Joan Beaufort
    Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland
    Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland was the third or fourth child of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster and his mistress, later wife, Katherine Swynford; and, in her widowhood, a powerful landowner in the North of England.-Early life and marriages:She was likely born at the Swynford manor of...

    , Countess of Westmorland (1379–1440)
  • Philip Repyngdon, Bishop of Lincoln (1405–20) and Cardinal
    Cardinal (Catholicism)
    A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually an ordained bishop, and ecclesiastical prince of the Catholic Church. They are collectively known as the College of Cardinals, which as a body elects a new pope. The duties of the cardinals include attending the meetings of the College and...

  • John Russell (bishop)
    John Russell (bishop)
    John Russell was an English Bishop of Rochester and bishop of Lincoln and Lord Chancellor.-Life:Russell was admitted to Winchester College in 1443, and in 1449 went to Oxford as Fellow of New College...

    , Lord Privy Seal
    Lord Privy Seal
    The Lord Privy Seal is the fifth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord President of the Council and above the Lord Great Chamberlain. The office is one of the traditional sinecure offices of state...

     and Lord Chancellor
    Lord Chancellor
    The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom. He is the second highest ranking of the Great Officers of State, ranking only after the Lord High Steward. The Lord Chancellor is appointed by the Sovereign...

     of England, and Bishop of Lincoln (1480–94)
  • William Smyth
    William Smyth
    William Smyth was Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield from 1493 to 1496 and then Bishop of Lincoln until his death. He held political offices, the most important being Lord President of the Council of Wales and the Marches. He became very wealthy and was a benefactor of a number of institutions...

    , Bishop of Lincoln (1496–514)
  • William Fuller (bishop)
    William Fuller (bishop)
    William Fuller was an English churchman.He was dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin , bishop of Limerick , and bishop of Lincoln . He was also the friend of Samuel Pepys and John Evelyn.-Life:...

    , Bishop of Lincoln (1667–75)

Literature

  • An important scene in D. H. Lawrence
    D. H. Lawrence
    David Herbert Richards Lawrence was an English novelist, poet, playwright, essayist, literary critic and painter who published as D. H. Lawrence. His collected works represent an extended reflection upon the dehumanising effects of modernity and industrialisation...

    's novel, The Rainbow, takes place at Lincoln Cathedral.
  • The cathedral features in Ken Follett
    Ken Follett
    Ken Follett is a Welsh author of thrillers and historical novels. He has sold more than 100 million copies of his works. Four of his books have reached the number 1 ranking on the New York Times best-seller list: The Key to Rebecca, Lie Down with Lions, Triple, and World Without End.-Early...

    's novel The Pillars of the Earth
    The Pillars of the Earth
    The Pillars of the Earth is a historical novel by Ken Follett published in 1989 about the building of a cathedral in the fictional town of Kingsbridge, England. It is set in the middle of the 12th century, primarily during the Anarchy, between the time of the sinking of the White Ship and the...

    .

Film

  • The cathedral was used for the filming of The Da Vinci Code (based on the book of the same name
    The Da Vinci Code
    The Da Vinci Code is a 2003 mystery-detective novel written by Dan Brown. It follows symbologist Robert Langdon and Sophie Neveu as they investigate a murder in Paris's Louvre Museum and discover a battle between the Priory of Sion and Opus Dei over the possibility of Jesus having been married to...

    ). Filming took place mainly within the cloisters and chapter house of the cathedral, and remained a closed set. The Cathedral took on the role of Westminster Abbey
    Westminster Abbey
    The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, popularly known as Westminster Abbey, is a large, mainly Gothic church, in the City of Westminster, London, United Kingdom, located just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English,...

    , as the Abbey had refused to permit filming. Although there was protest at the filming, the filming was completed by the end of August 2005. In order to make the Lincoln chapter house appear similar to the Westminster Chapter House, murals were painted on a special layer over the existing wall, and elsewhere polystyrene replicas of Isaac Newton's tomb and other Abbey monuments were set up. For a time these murals and replicas remained in the Chapter House, as part of a Da Vinci Code exhibit for visitors, but in January 2008 they were all sold off in an auction to raise money for the Cathedral.
  • The cathedral also doubled as Westminster Abbey for the film Young Victoria, filmed in September 2007.

Wartime history

  • Lincolnshire was home to many Bomber Command
    RAF Bomber Command
    RAF Bomber Command controlled the RAF's bomber forces from 1936 to 1968. During World War II the command destroyed a significant proportion of Nazi Germany's industries and many German cities, and in the 1960s stood at the peak of its postwar military power with the V bombers and a supplemental...

     airfields during the Second World War, giving rise to the nickname of 'Bomber County'. Lincoln Cathedral was an easily recognisable landmark for crews returning from raids over Germany
    Nazi Germany
    Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

     and Occupied Europe, and as such took on much importance to the men. The station badge for the nearby RAF Waddington
    RAF Waddington
    RAF Waddington is a Royal Air Force station in Lincolnshire, England.-Formation:Waddington opened as a Royal Flying Corps flying training station in 1916 until 1920, when the station went into care and maintenance....

     depicts Lincoln Cathedral rising through the clouds, a sight which returning bomber crews used to help find their way back to Waddington's airfield. Appropriately, the Cathedral currently has the only memorial in the United Kingdom dedicated to Bomber Command in the Second World War.

See also

  • Architecture of the medieval cathedrals of England
    Architecture of the medieval cathedrals of England
    The medieval cathedrals of England, dating from between approximately 1040 and 1540, are a group of twenty-six buildings which together constitute a major aspect of the country’s artistic heritage and are among the most significant material symbols of Christianity. Though diversified in style, they...

  • Church of England
    Church of England
    The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England and the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion. The church considers itself within the tradition of Western Christianity and dates its formal establishment principally to the mission to England by St...

  • English Gothic architecture
    English Gothic architecture
    English Gothic is the name of the architectural style that flourished in England from about 1180 until about 1520.-Introduction:As with the Gothic architecture of other parts of Europe, English Gothic is defined by its pointed arches, vaulted roofs, buttresses, large windows, and spires...

  • List of cathedrals in the United Kingdom
  • List of tallest churches
  • Romanesque architecture
    Romanesque architecture
    Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of Medieval Europe characterised by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque architecture, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 10th century. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style,...


External links