Limburg (Netherlands)

Limburg (Netherlands)

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Limburg (Netherlands)'
Start a new discussion about 'Limburg (Netherlands)'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
Limburg (ˈlɪmˌbʏrx) is the southernmost of the twelve provinces
Provinces of the Netherlands
A Dutch province represents the administrative layer in between the national government and the local municipalities, having the responsibility for matters of subnational or regional importance. The government of each province consists of three major parts: the Provinciale Staten which is the...

 of the Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

. It is located in the southeastern part of the country and bordered by the province of Gelderland
Gelderland
Gelderland is the largest province of the Netherlands, located in the central eastern part of the country. The capital city is Arnhem. The two other major cities, Nijmegen and Apeldoorn have more inhabitants. Other major regional centers in Gelderland are Ede, Doetinchem, Zutphen, Tiel, Wijchen,...

 to the north, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 to the east, Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

 to the south and part of the west, and
the Dutch province of North Brabant
North Brabant
North Brabant , sometimes called Brabant, is a province of the Netherlands, located in the south of the country, bordered by Belgium in the south, the Meuse River in the north, Limburg in the east and Zeeland in the west.- History :...

 partly to the west. Its capital is Maastricht
Maastricht
Maastricht is situated on both sides of the Meuse river in the south-eastern part of the Netherlands, on the Belgian border and near the German border...

.

Limburg has a highly distinct character. The social and economic trends which affected the province in recent decades generated a process of change and renewal which has enabled Limburg to transform its national peripheral location into a highly globalized regional nexus, linking the Netherlands to the Ruhr
Ruhr
The Ruhr is a medium-size river in western Germany , a right tributary of the Rhine.-Description:The source of the Ruhr is near the town of Winterberg in the mountainous Sauerland region, at an elevation of approximately 2,200 feet...

 metro area and the southern part of the Benelux
Benelux
The Benelux is an economic union in Western Europe comprising three neighbouring countries, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. These countries are located in northwestern Europe between France and Germany...

 region. A less appreciated consequence of this international gateway location is rising international crime, often drugs-related, especially in the southernmost part of the province.

The name Limburg


Limburg's name derives from the fortified castle town known as Limbourg
Limbourg
Limbourg is a medieval town located in the province of Liège, Wallonia, Belgium.On 1 January 2008 Limbourg had a total population of 5,680. The total area is 24.63 km² which gives a population density of 231 inhabitants per km²...

, situated on the river Vesdre
Vesdre
thumb|right|250px|The course of the VesdreThe Weser or Vesdre is a river in eastern Belgium, in the province of Liège, and is a right tributary to the river Ourthe. Its source lies in the High Fens , close to the border with Germany near Monschau...

 near the High Fens
High Fens
The High Fens , which were declared a nature reserve in 1957, are an upland area, a plateau region in the province of Liège, in the east of Belgium and nearby parts of Germany, lying between the Ardennes and the Eifel highlands. It is the largest nature reserve or park in Belgium, with an area of ;...

, currently in the Belgian
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

 province of Liège
Liège (province)
Liège is the easternmost province of Belgium and belongs to the Walloon Region. It is an area of French and German ethnicity. It borders on the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, and in Belgium the provinces of Luxembourg, Namur, Walloon Brabant , and those of Flemish Brabant and Limburg . Its...

. It was the seat of the medieval Duchy of Limburg
Duchy of Limburg
The Duchy of Limburg, situated in the Low Countries between the river Meuse and the city of Aachen, was a state of the Holy Roman Empire. Its territory is now divided between the Belgian provinces of Liège and Limburg , the Dutch province of Limburg , and a small part of North Rhine-Westphalia in...

 which extended into the Meuse
Meuse River
The Maas or Meuse is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea...

 region north of the city of Liège. However, most the area of the current Dutch Limburg was not part of this polity but was divided among several states including the Duchy of Brabant
Duchy of Brabant
The Duchy of Brabant was a historical region in the Low Countries. Its territory consisted essentially of the three modern-day Belgian provinces of Flemish Brabant, Walloon Brabant and Antwerp, the Brussels-Capital Region and most of the present-day Dutch province of North Brabant.The Flag of...

, the Duchy of Jülich
Duchy of Jülich
The Duchy of Jülich comprised a state within the Holy Roman Empire from the 11th to the 18th centuries. The duchy lay left of the Rhine river between the Electorate of Cologne in the east and the Duchy of Limburg in the west. It had territories on both sides of the river Rur, around its capital...

, the Duchy of Guelders, and the Bishopric of Liège
Bishopric of Liège
The Bishopric of Liège or Prince-Bishopric of Liège was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries in present Belgium. It acquired its status as a prince-bishopric between 980 and 985 when Bishop Notger, who had been the bishop of Liege since 972, acquired the status of Prince-Bishop...

, as well as the Duchy of Limburg. A result of this division is still evident in the plethora of distinct varieties of the Limburgish language
Limburgish language
Limburgish, also called Limburgian or Limburgic is a group of East Low Franconian language varieties spoken in the Limburg and Rhineland regions, near the common Dutch / Belgian / German border...

 spoken in Limburg municipalities.

History



For centuries, the strategic location of the current province made it a much-coveted region among Europe's major powers. Romans
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

, Habsburg Spaniards
Habsburg Spain
Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries , when Spain was ruled by the major branch of the Habsburg dynasty...

, Prussia
Prussia
Prussia was a German kingdom and historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organized and effective army. Prussia shaped the history...

ns, Habsburg Austrians
Habsburg Monarchy
The Habsburg Monarchy covered the territories ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg , and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine , between 1526 and 1867/1918. The Imperial capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611, when it was moved to Prague...

 and French
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 have all ruled Limburg.

The first inhabitants of which traces have been found were Neanderthals that camped in South Limburg. In the Neolithic
Neolithic
The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 9500 BC in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world. It is traditionally considered as the last part of the Stone Age...

 flint
Flint
Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert. It occurs chiefly as nodules and masses in sedimentary rocks, such as chalks and limestones. Inside the nodule, flint is usually dark grey, black, green, white, or brown in colour, and...

 was mined in underground mines; among others at Rijckholt
Rijckholt
Rijckholt is a village in the Dutch province of Limburg. It is located in the municipality of Eijsden.Rijckholt was a separate municipality until 1943, when it was merged with Gronsveld.- External links :*...

 where tourists can still visit one. In Roman times Limburg was thoroughly Romanized and many existing towns and cities like Mosa Trajectum (Maastricht) and Coriovallum (Heerlen) were then founded. Bishop Servatius introduced Christianity in Roman Maastricht where he died in 384. After the Romans had the Franks
Franks
The Franks were a confederation of Germanic tribes first attested in the third century AD as living north and east of the Lower Rhine River. From the third to fifth centuries some Franks raided Roman territory while other Franks joined the Roman troops in Gaul. Only the Salian Franks formed a...

 charge here. The area flourished under Frankish rule. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
Charlemagne was King of the Franks from 768 and Emperor of the Romans from 800 to his death in 814. He expanded the Frankish kingdom into an empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe. During his reign, he conquered Italy and was crowned by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800...

 had his palace in nearby Aachen
Aachen
Aachen has historically been a spa town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Aachen was a favoured residence of Charlemagne, and the place of coronation of the Kings of Germany. Geographically, Aachen is the westernmost town of Germany, located along its borders with Belgium and the Netherlands, ...

. After the partition of the Frankish empire
Frankish Empire
Francia or Frankia, later also called the Frankish Empire , Frankish Kingdom , Frankish Realm or occasionally Frankland, was the territory inhabited and ruled by the Franks from the 3rd to the 10th century...

  the current Limburg belonged, like the rest of the Netherlands, till the new time to the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

.

The territory of Limburg was from the early Middle Ages usually divided between the Duchy of Brabant
Duchy of Brabant
The Duchy of Brabant was a historical region in the Low Countries. Its territory consisted essentially of the three modern-day Belgian provinces of Flemish Brabant, Walloon Brabant and Antwerp, the Brussels-Capital Region and most of the present-day Dutch province of North Brabant.The Flag of...

, Duchy of Gelderland, Duchy of Jülich
Duchy of Jülich
The Duchy of Jülich comprised a state within the Holy Roman Empire from the 11th to the 18th centuries. The duchy lay left of the Rhine river between the Electorate of Cologne in the east and the Duchy of Limburg in the west. It had territories on both sides of the river Rur, around its capital...

, the Principality of Liège and the prince-bishop of Cologne
Cologne
Cologne is Germany's fourth-largest city , and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.Cologne is located on both sides of the...

. These dukes and bishops were nominal subordinates of the Emperor of the Roman Empire, but in practice they acted as independent sovereigns who often were at war among themselves. Their conflicts were often fought in Limburg area so that it also contributed to the fragmentation of the area.

The New time Limburg was largely divided between Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 (and its successor, Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

), Prussia
Prussia
Prussia was a German kingdom and historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organized and effective army. Prussia shaped the history...

, the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, the Principality of Liège and many independent small Fiefs.

In 1673, Louis XIV
Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV , known as Louis the Great or the Sun King , was a Bourbon monarch who ruled as King of France and Navarre. His reign, from 1643 to his death in 1715, began at the age of four and lasted seventy-two years, three months, and eighteen days...

 personally commanded the siege of Maastricht
Maastricht
Maastricht is situated on both sides of the Meuse river in the south-eastern part of the Netherlands, on the Belgian border and near the German border...

 by French
Early Modern France
Kingdom of France is the early modern period of French history from the end of the 15th century to the end of the 18th century...

 troops. During the siege, one of his brigadiers, Charles de Batz-Castelmore d'Artagnan
Charles de Batz-Castelmore d'Artagnan
Charles Ogier de Batz de Castelmore, Comte d'Artagnan served Louis XIV as captain of the Musketeers of the Guard and died at the Siege of Maastricht in the Franco-Dutch War. A fictionalized account of his life by Gatien de Courtilz de Sandras formed the basis for the d'Artagnan Romances of...

, perished. He subsequently became known as a major character in The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers is a novel by Alexandre Dumas, first serialized in March–July 1844. Set in the 17th century, it recounts the adventures of a young man named d'Artagnan after he leaves home to travel to Paris, to join the Musketeers of the Guard...

by Alexandre Dumas, père
Alexandre Dumas, père
Alexandre Dumas, , born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie was a French writer, best known for his historical novels of high adventure which have made him one of the most widely read French authors in the world...

 (1802–1870).

Limburg was also the scene of many a bloody battle during the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648), in which the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
The Dutch Republic — officially known as the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands , the Republic of the United Netherlands, or the Republic of the Seven United Provinces — was a republic in Europe existing from 1581 to 1795, preceding the Batavian Republic and ultimately...

 threw off Habsburg Spanish
Habsburg Spain
Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries , when Spain was ruled by the major branch of the Habsburg dynasty...

 rule. At the Battle of Mookerheyde
Battle of Mookerheyde
The Battle of Mookerheyde was a battle of the Eighty Years' War fought on 14 April 1574 near the village Mook and the river Meuse.In the winter months of on 1574, William the Silent's brothers, Louis and Henry of Nassau, raised a mercenary army in Germany of 6500 infantry and 3000 cavalry, and led...

 (14 April 1574), two brothers of Prince William of Orange-Nassau
William the Silent
William I, Prince of Orange , also widely known as William the Silent , or simply William of Orange , was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish that set off the Eighty Years' War and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1648. He was born in the House of...

 and thousands of "Dutch
Seventeen Provinces
The Seventeen Provinces were a personal union of states in the Low Countries in the 15th century and 16th century, roughly covering the current Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, a good part of the North of France , and a small part of Western Germany.The Seventeen Provinces were originally held by...

" mercenaries lost their lives. Most Limburgians fought on the Spanish side, being Catholic
Roman Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...

s and hating the Calvinist
Calvinism
Calvinism is a Protestant theological system and an approach to the Christian life...

 Hollanders.

Following the Napoleonic Era
Napoleonic Era
The Napoleonic Era is a period in the history of France and Europe. It is generally classified as including the fourth and final stage of the French Revolution, the first being the National Assembly, the second being the Legislative Assembly, and the third being the Directory...

, the great powers (England
Kingdom of England
The Kingdom of England was, from 927 to 1707, a sovereign state to the northwest of continental Europe. At its height, the Kingdom of England spanned the southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain and several smaller outlying islands; what today comprises the legal jurisdiction of England...

, Prussia
Prussia
Prussia was a German kingdom and historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organized and effective army. Prussia shaped the history...

, the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
The Austrian Empire was a modern era successor empire, which was centered on what is today's Austria and which officially lasted from 1804 to 1867. It was followed by the Empire of Austria-Hungary, whose proclamation was a diplomatic move that elevated Hungary's status within the Austrian Empire...

, the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

 and France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

) united the region with the new Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
The Kingdom of the Netherlands is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with territory in Western Europe and in the Caribbean. The four parts of the Kingdom—Aruba, Curaçao, the Netherlands, and Sint Maarten—are referred to as "countries", and participate on a basis of equality...

 in 1815. A new province was formed which was to receive the name "Maastricht" after its capital. The first king, William I
William I of the Netherlands
William I Frederick, born Willem Frederik Prins van Oranje-Nassau , was a Prince of Orange and the first King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg....

, who did not want the name Limburg to be lost, insisted that the name be changed to "Province of Limburg". As such, the name of the new province derived from the old Duchy of Limburg that had existed until 1648 within the triangle of Maastricht
Maastricht
Maastricht is situated on both sides of the Meuse river in the south-eastern part of the Netherlands, on the Belgian border and near the German border...

, Liège, and Aachen
Aachen
Aachen has historically been a spa town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Aachen was a favoured residence of Charlemagne, and the place of coronation of the Kings of Germany. Geographically, Aachen is the westernmost town of Germany, located along its borders with Belgium and the Netherlands, ...

.

When the Catholic
Roman Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...

 and French
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

-speaking Belgians split away from the mainly Calvinist
Calvinism
Calvinism is a Protestant theological system and an approach to the Christian life...

 northern Netherlands in the Belgian Revolution
Belgian Revolution
The Belgian Revolution was the conflict which led to the secession of the Southern provinces from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and established an independent Kingdom of Belgium....

 of 1830, the Province of Limburg was at first almost entirely under Belgian rule. However, by the 1839 Treaty of London
Treaty of London, 1839
The Treaty of London, also called the First Treaty of London or the Convention of 1839, was a treaty signed on 19 April 1839 between the European great powers, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Kingdom of Belgium. It was the direct follow-up of the 1831 'Treaty of the XXIV Articles'...

, the province was divided in two, with the eastern part going to the Netherlands and the western part to Belgium, a division that remains today.
With the Treaty of London, what is now the Belgian Province of Luxembourg
Luxembourg (Belgium)
Luxembourg is the southernmost province of Wallonia and of Belgium. It borders on the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, France, and the Belgian provinces of Namur and Liège. Its capital is Arlon, in the south-east of the province.It has an area of 4,443 km², making it the largest Belgian province...

 was handed over to Belgium and removed from the German Confederation
German Confederation
The German Confederation was the loose association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries. It acted as a buffer between the powerful states of Austria and Prussia...

. To appease Prussia, which had also lost access to the Meuse
Prussian Guelders
Prussian Guelders or Prussian Gelderland was the part of the Duchy of Guelders ruled by the Kingdom of Prussia from 1713. Its capital was Geldern....

 after the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from September, 1814 to June, 1815. The objective of the Congress was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars,...

, the Dutch province of Limburg (but not the cities of Maastricht
Maastricht
Maastricht is situated on both sides of the Meuse river in the south-eastern part of the Netherlands, on the Belgian border and near the German border...

 and Venlo
Venlo
Venlo is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands, next to the German border. It is situated in the province of Limburg.In 2001, the municipalities of Belfeld and Tegelen were merged into the municipality of Venlo. Tegelen was originally part of the Duchy of Jülich centuries ago,...

 because without them the population of Limburg equalled the population of the Province of Luxembourg, 150,000 http://www.hgisg-ekompendium.ieg-mainz.de/Dokumentation_Datensaetze/Multimedia/Sonstige_Gebiete/Limburg.pdf), was joined to the German Confederation
German Confederation
The German Confederation was the loose association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries. It acted as a buffer between the powerful states of Austria and Prussia...

 between September 5, 1839 and August 23, 1866 as Duchy of Limburg. On 11 May 1867, the Duchy, which from 1839 on had been de jure a separate polity in personal union with the Kingdom of the Netherlands, was re-incorporated into the latter with the Treaty of London. The style "Duchy of Limburg" however continued in some official use until February 1907. Another idiosyncrasy survives today: the head of the province, referred to as the "Queen's Commissioner" in other provinces, is addressed as "Governor" in Limburg.

The Second World War
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 cost the lives of many civilians in Limburg, and a large number of towns and villages were destroyed by bombings and artillery battles. Various cemeteries, too, bear witness to this dark chapter in Limburg's history. Almost 8,500 American
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 soldiers, who perished during the liberation of the Netherlands, lie buried at the Netherlands American Cemetery and Memorial in Margraten
Margraten
-History:In Margraten is the Netherlands American Cemetery and Memorial, Europe's third largest war cemetery for unidentified soldiers who died in World War II. 8,301 soldiers are buried there under long rows of white crosses and stars of David. All graves are adopted by locals, who attend the...

. Other big war cemeteries are to be found at Overloon
Overloon
Overloon, mun. Boxmeer, is a village in the Netherlands in the province of North Brabant. It is best known as the site of the National Museum of War and Resistance of the Netherlands, and for a World War II battle that occurred around the village in September and October 1944.As a result most of...

 (British
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 soldiers) and the Ysselsteyn German war cemetery was constructed in the Municipality of Venray
Venray
Venray is a municipality and a town in Limburg, Netherlands, 115 kilometers southeast of Amsterdam. Venray has about 43,000 inhabitants.- Population centres :...

 for the 31,000 German
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

 soldiers who lost their lives.

In December 1991, the European Community (now European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

) held a summit in Maastricht. At that summit, the "Treaty on European Union" or so-called Maastricht treaty
Maastricht Treaty
The Maastricht Treaty was signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands. On 9–10 December 1991, the same city hosted the European Council which drafted the treaty...

 was signed by the European Community member states. With that treaty, the European Union came into existence.

Anthem


In 't Bronsgroen Eikenhout
In 't Bronsgroen Eikenhout
Limburg mijn Vaderland is the official anthem of Limburg, a region split up in two parts: Belgian Limburg and Dutch Limburg...

 is the official anthem
National anthem
A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people.- History :Anthems rose to prominence...

 of both Belgian and Dutch Limburg.

Languages


Limburg has its own language
Language
Language may refer either to the specifically human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication, or to a specific instance of such a system of complex communication...

, called Limburgish
Limburgish language
Limburgish, also called Limburgian or Limburgic is a group of East Low Franconian language varieties spoken in the Limburg and Rhineland regions, near the common Dutch / Belgian / German border...

 (Dutch: Limburgs). This is, since 1997, an official regional language
Regional language
A regional language is a language spoken in an area of a nation state, whether it be a small area, a federal state or province, or some wider area....

, and as such receives moderate protection under Chapter 2 of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages is a European treaty adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe...

. It is not recognised by the Dutch
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

, German
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 and Belgian
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

 governments as an official language.
Limburgish is spoken by an estimated 1.6 million people in both Belgian
Limburg (Belgium)
Limburg is the easternmost province of modern Flanders, which is one of the three main political and cultural sub-divisions of modern Belgium. It is located west of the river Meuse . It borders on the Dutch provinces of North Brabant and Limburg and the Belgian provinces of Liège, Flemish Brabant...

 and Dutch Limburg and Germany. There are many different dialect
Dialect
The term dialect is used in two distinct ways, even by linguists. One usage refers to a variety of a language that is a characteristic of a particular group of the language's speakers. The term is applied most often to regional speech patterns, but a dialect may also be defined by other factors,...

s in the Limburgish language. Almost every town and village has its own slightly different dialect.

Dialects in the southeast (near Aachen
Aachen
Aachen has historically been a spa town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Aachen was a favoured residence of Charlemagne, and the place of coronation of the Kings of Germany. Geographically, Aachen is the westernmost town of Germany, located along its borders with Belgium and the Netherlands, ...

) are closer to Ripuarian, and are sometimes classified as Southeast Limburgish, while dialects spoken in the Meuse
Meuse River
The Maas or Meuse is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea...

 (Dutch: Maas) valley have a somewhat lighter tone to them. Even within the cities of Venlo
Venlo
Venlo is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands, next to the German border. It is situated in the province of Limburg.In 2001, the municipalities of Belfeld and Tegelen were merged into the municipality of Venlo. Tegelen was originally part of the Duchy of Jülich centuries ago,...

 and Maastricht
Maastricht
Maastricht is situated on both sides of the Meuse river in the south-eastern part of the Netherlands, on the Belgian border and near the German border...

, very different dialects separated by major isogloss
Isogloss
An isogloss—also called a heterogloss —is the geographical boundary of a certain linguistic feature, such as the pronunciation of a vowel, the meaning of a word, or use of some syntactic feature...

es continue to exist. These distinctions have been around for hundreds if not thousands of years.

Politics


The provincial council (Provinciale Staten) has 63 seats, and is headed by a Queen's Commissioner
Queen's Commissioner
The Queen's Commissioner is the head of a province in the Netherlands, who is chairman of both the Provinciale Staten and the Gedeputeerde Staten , but only has a right to vote in the latter...

 that is uniquely among Dutch provinces called the Governor
Governor
A governor is a governing official, usually the executive of a non-sovereign level of government, ranking under the head of state...

. The current Governor is Leon Frissen
Leon Frissen
Leonardus Johannes Petrus Maria Frissen is the present Queen's Commissioner or Queen's Governor of the province of Limburg, Netherlands....

. While the provincial council is elected by the inhabitants, the Governor is appointed by the Queen and the cabinet of the Netherlands. The populist PVV
Party for Freedom
The Party for Freedom is a Dutch right-wing political party. Founded in 2005 as the successor to Geert Wilders' one-man party in the House of Representatives, it won nine seats in the 2006 general election, making it the fifth largest party in parliament, and third largest opposition party. It...

 is currently the largest party in the council.

The daily affairs of the province are taken care of by the Gedeputeerde Staten, which are also headed by the Governor; its members (gedeputeerden) can be compared with ministers.

Municipalities


  • Beek
  • Beesel
    Beesel
    - The town of Beesel :The town of Beesel lies about 10 km north of Roermond. Although the municipality is named after this village, it is not the largest town in the municipality, and neither is the municipal hall located in Beesel....

  • Bergen
  • Brunssum
    Brunssum
    Brunssum is a municipality and a town in the province of Limburg, the Netherlands. Brunssum was formerly a center of coal mining in the Netherlands and there are a few active mines remaining in the area...

  • Echt-Susteren
    Echt-Susteren
    Echt-Susteren is a municipality in the southeastern Netherlands. Echt-Susteren was created in 2003 by merging the former municipalities of Echt and Susteren....

  • Eijsden-Margraten
    Eijsden-Margraten
    Eijsden-Margraten is a municipality in the southeastern Netherlands, in the very south of the province of Limburg. It was formed in 2011 from the former municipalities Eijsden and Margraten...

  • Gennep
    Gennep
    Gennep is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands.- Population centres :Aaldonk, Dam, De Looi, Diekendaal, Gennep, Heijen, Hekkens, Milsbeek, Ottersum, Smele, Ven-Zelderheide and Zelder.- The city of Gennep :...

  • Gulpen-Wittem
    Gulpen-Wittem
    Gulpen-Wittem is a municipality in the southeastern Netherlands with 14.677 inhabitants as of 2008.Gulpen-Wittem came into being after the merger of the municipalities Gulpen and Wittem. This took place after a request of both municipalities. At the time of the merger, both municipalities had...

  • Heerlen
    Heerlen
    Heerlen is a city and a municipality in the southeastern Netherlands. The municipality is the second largest in the province of Limburg. It forms part of Parkstad Limburg, , an agglomeration of about 220,000 inhabitants.After its early Roman beginnings and a rather modest medieval period, Heerlen...

  • Horst aan de Maas
    Horst aan de Maas
    Horst aan de Maas is a municipality in the southeastern Netherlands, in the province of Limburg. In 2010 the municipalities Sevenum and part of Meerlo-Wanssum joined the municipality.- Population centres :...

  • Kerkrade
    Kerkrade
    Kerkrade is a town and a municipality in the southeastern Netherlands.It is the western half of the divided region and de facto city, taken together with the eastern half, the German town of Herzogenrath...


  • Landgraaf
    Landgraaf
    Landgraaf is a municipality in southeastern Limburg.- Special information :A pop music festival called Pinkpop is held annually on the Pentecost weekend in the vicinity of Landgraaf....

  • Leudal
    Leudal
    Leudal is a municipality in the Dutch province of Limburg. It was formed on January 1, 2007 in a merger of the municipalities of Heythuysen, Haelen, Hunsel, and Roggel en Neer....

  • Maasgouw
    Maasgouw
    Maasgouw is a municipality in the Dutch province of Limburg. It is located on both banks of the river Meuse southwest of the city of Roermond. It was formed in a merger of the former municipalities of Heel, Maasbracht and Thorn on January 1, 2007....

  • Maastricht
    Maastricht
    Maastricht is situated on both sides of the Meuse river in the south-eastern part of the Netherlands, on the Belgian border and near the German border...

  • Meerssen
    Meerssen
    Meerssen is a place and a municipality in southeastern Netherlands.-History:The Treaty of Meerssen was signed in Meerssen in 870. The Treaty of Meerssen was an agreement of the division of the Carolingian Empire by the surviving sons of Louis I, Charles II of the West Franks and Louis the German...

  • Mook en Middelaar
    Mook en Middelaar
    Mook en Middelaar is a municipality in the mid-eastern part of the Netherlands, at the northern tip of the province of Limburg. The municipality is located about 100 km...

  • Nederweert
    Nederweert
    Nederweert is a municipality and a town in southeastern Netherlands with 16.561 inhabitants as of November 1, 2006 and has a surface area of 101,78 km² ....

  • Nuth
    Nuth
    Nuth is a municipality and a village in the Dutch province of Limburg, situated in the southern Netherlands.The village Nuth has 5,548 inhabitants, and is with that the largest village of the municipality. The town hall of the municipality Nuth is also situated in the village Nuth...

  • Onderbanken
    Onderbanken
    - Population centres :Bingelrade, Douvergenhout, Etzenrade, Jabeek, Merkelbeek, Op den Hering, Quabeek, Raath, Schinveld, Viel.-External links:*...

  • Peel en Maas
    Peel en Maas
    Maas en Peel is a new municipality since 1 January 2010 in the southeastern Netherlands. It is situated in the province of Limburg. The municipality is formed by the former municipalities Helden, Kessel, Maasbree and Meijel....

  • Roerdalen
    Roerdalen
    - Population centres :*Herkenbosch*Melick*Montfort*Posterholt*Reutje*Sint Odiliënberg*Vlodrop- External links :*...


  • Roermond
    Roermond
    Roermond is a city, a municipality, and a diocese in the southeastern part of the Netherlands.The city of Roermond is a historically important town, on the lower Roer at the east bank of the Meuse river. It received city rights in 1231...

  • Schinnen
    Schinnen
    Schinnen is a municipality and a town in the province of Limburg, the Netherlands. It is home to US Army Garrison Schinnen, a support base for US personnel assigned to nearby Allied Joint Force Command Brunssum...

  • Simpelveld
    Simpelveld
    Simpelveld is a municipality and a town in the southeastern Netherlands.Simpelveld has a heritage railway station and is the homebase of the South Limburg Railway Compagny ZLSM . On one weekend in October there is a Day out with Thomas from the children's television series Thomas and...

  • Sittard-Geleen
    Sittard-Geleen
    Sittard-Geleen is a municipality in the southeastern Netherlands. It was formed in 2001 from the former municipalities Sittard, Geleen and Born....

  • Stein
    Stein, Limburg
    Stein is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands. The municipality has 25660 inhabitants and covers an area of 22.77 square km ....

  • Vaals
    Vaals
    Vaals is a town in the extreme southeastern part of the Dutch province of Limburg, which in its turn finds itself in the southeastern part of the Netherlands....

  • Valkenburg aan de Geul
    Valkenburg aan de Geul
    Valkenburg aan de Geul is a municipality in the southeastern Netherlands.-History:Siege and conquest were characteristic of the history of Valkenburg. Each event is withheld, followed by subsequent restorations. This most definitely holds for the castle perched atop of a hill in the middle of the...

  • Venlo
    Venlo
    Venlo is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands, next to the German border. It is situated in the province of Limburg.In 2001, the municipalities of Belfeld and Tegelen were merged into the municipality of Venlo. Tegelen was originally part of the Duchy of Jülich centuries ago,...

  • Venray
    Venray
    Venray is a municipality and a town in Limburg, Netherlands, 115 kilometers southeast of Amsterdam. Venray has about 43,000 inhabitants.- Population centres :...

  • Voerendaal
    Voerendaal
    - Population centres :Barrier, Colmont, Craubeek, Dolberg, Eyserheide, Fromberg, Heek, Hellebeuk, Klimmen, Koulen, Kunrade, Mingersberg, Opscheumer, Overheek, Ransdaal, Retersbeek, Termaar, Termoors, Ubachsberg, Voerendaal, Weustenrade, Winthagen.-History:...

  • Weert
    Weert
    Weert is a municipality and city in the southeastern Netherlands. As of 2010, Weert had a population of 48,405. It lies on the Eindhoven–Maastricht railway line, and is also astride the Zuid-Willemsvaart canal.- Population centres :* Altweerterheide...



Geography


The south of the province is remarkable when compared to the rest of the country, as it is one of the few regions that has hills. The highest point in the Netherlands, the Vaalserberg
Vaalserberg
The Vaalserberg is a hill 322.7 metres in height and the highest point in the European part of the Netherlands. The Vaalserberg is located in the province of Limburg, at the south-easternmost edge of the country in the municipality of Vaals, near the eponymous town, some three kilometres west of...

, is situated at the Dutch-Belgian-German border. The most important river is the Meuse
Meuse River
The Maas or Meuse is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea...

, that passes through the entire length of the province from South to North. Limburg's surface is largely formed by deposits from this Meuse river, consisting of river clay, fertile loessial soil
Loam
Loam is soil composed of sand, silt, and clay in relatively even concentration . Loam soils generally contain more nutrients and humus than sandy soils, have better infiltration and drainage than silty soils, and are easier to till than clay soils...

 and large deposits of pebblestone, currently being quarried for the construction industry. In northern parts of the province, further away from the river bed, the soil primarily consists of sand and peat. Major cities are the provincial capital Maastricht
Maastricht
Maastricht is situated on both sides of the Meuse river in the south-eastern part of the Netherlands, on the Belgian border and near the German border...

 and the urban agglomerations of Sittard
Sittard
Sittard is a city in the Dutch province of Limburg, which is the southernmost province of the Netherlands.On the east Sittard borders on Germany . It has some 48,400 inhabitants . Sittard is part of the municipality of Sittard-Geleen...

-Geleen
Geleen
Geleen is a city in the southern part of the province of Limburg in the Netherlands. With 33,960 inhabitants, it is part of the municipality of Sittard-Geleen. Geleen is situated along the river Geleenbeek, a right tributary to the river Meuse. The town centre is situated at about 60 m above sea...

 and Parkstad Limburg
Parkstad Limburg
Parkstad Limburg is a collaboration between seven municipalities . They work together to improve public services, transport and housing on a regional level...

 (including Heerlen
Heerlen
Heerlen is a city and a municipality in the southeastern Netherlands. The municipality is the second largest in the province of Limburg. It forms part of Parkstad Limburg, , an agglomeration of about 220,000 inhabitants.After its early Roman beginnings and a rather modest medieval period, Heerlen...

) in the south and Venlo
Venlo
Venlo is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands, next to the German border. It is situated in the province of Limburg.In 2001, the municipalities of Belfeld and Tegelen were merged into the municipality of Venlo. Tegelen was originally part of the Duchy of Jülich centuries ago,...

 in the north. Limburg makes up one region of the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
The International Organization for Standardization , widely known as ISO, is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on February 23, 1947, the organization promulgates worldwide proprietary, industrial and commercial...

 world region code system, having the code ISO 3166-2:NL
ISO 3166-2:NL
ISO 3166-2:NL is the entry for the Netherlands in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization , which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.Currently for the Netherlands, ISO...

-LI.

Economy



In the past peat
Peat
Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter or histosol. Peat forms in wetland bogs, moors, muskegs, pocosins, mires, and peat swamp forests. Peat is harvested as an important source of fuel in certain parts of the world...

, gravel
Gravel
Gravel is composed of unconsolidated rock fragments that have a general particle size range and include size classes from granule- to boulder-sized fragments. Gravel can be sub-categorized into granule and cobble...

 and coal
Coal
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure...

 were mined in Limburg. The state-owned corporation that used to mine in Limburg, DSM
DSM (company)
DSM is a multinational life sciences and materials sciences-based company. DSM's global end markets include food and dietary supplements, personal care, feed, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, automotive, paints, electrical and electronics, life protection, alternative energy and bio-based materials...

, is currently a major chemical company, still operating in Limburg. Automotive industry (Born) and production of copiers and printers (Océ
Océ
Océ N.V. is a Netherlands-based company that develops, manufactures and sells printing and copying hardware and related software. The offering includes office printing and copying systems; production printers and wide format printing systems for both technical documentation and color display...

 in Venlo) are also present.
Furthermore in the southern part, the undulating, densely populated triangle between Heerlen/Kerkrade in the south-east, Sittard in the north and Maastricht in the south-west, there are some four beer-breweries.

From way back the southern part of Limburg is one of the two fruitgrowing areas of the country.
Since some four decades however big parts of the fruittree arsenal have disappeared and been replaced by water, as a result of vast gravel extraction near the river Meuse
Meuse
Meuse is a department in northeast France, named after the River Meuse.-History:Meuse is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790...

.

Famous Limburgians


Politicians, scientists
  • Louis Beel
    Louis Beel
    Louis Joseph Maria Beel was a Dutch politician of the defunct Catholic People's Party now merged into the Christian Democratic Appeal . He served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from July 3, 1946 until August 7, 1948 and again from December 22, 1958 until May 19, 1959...

     - Politician, former Prime Minister
  • Jo Cals
    Jo Cals
    Jozef Maria Laurens Theo "Jo" Cals was a Dutch politician of the defunct Catholic People's Party now merged into the Christian Democratic Appeal...

     - Politician, former Prime Minister
  • Pierre Cuypers
    Pierre Cuypers
    Petrus Josephus Hubertus Cuypers was a Dutch architect. His name is most frequently associated with the Amsterdam Central Station and the Rijksmuseum , both in Amsterdam. More representative for his oeuvre, however, are numerous churches, of which he designed more than 100...

     (1827–1921) - Architect (designer of the Amsterdam Rijksmuseum and Central station)
  • Peter 'Pie' Debye
    Peter Debye
    Peter Joseph William Debye FRS was a Dutch physicist and physical chemist, and Nobel laureate in Chemistry.-Early life:...

     (1884–1966) - Physicist, Nobel prize winner
  • Eugène Dubois
    Eugène Dubois
    Marie Eugène François Thomas Dubois was a Dutch paleoanthropologist. He earned worldwide fame for his discovery of Pithecanthropus erectus , or 'Java Man'...

     - Anatomist
  • Camiel Eurlings
    Camiel Eurlings
    Camiel Eurlings is a former Dutch politician and a member of the Christian Democratic Appeal . He was the minister at the Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management from 22 February 2007 to 14 October 2010...

     - Politician
  • Maria van der Hoeven
    Maria van der Hoeven
    Maria Josephina Arnoldina van der Hoeven is a Dutch politician of the Christian Democratic Appeal party. She is the Executive Director of the International Energy Agency since 1 September 2011....

     - Politician
  • Adam van Kan (1877–1944) - Scientist
  • Rene van der Linden
    René van der Linden
    Pierre René Hubert Marie van der Linden is a Member of the Senate of the Netherlands. He was President of the Dutch Senate from 2009 to 2011, and President of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe from 2005 to 2008....

     - Politician
  • Pierre Lardinois
    Pierre Lardinois
    Pierre Lardinois was a Dutch politician.In 1963 he was first elected to the Dutch House of Representatives for the Katholieke Volkspartij . From 1963 to 1967 he was member of the European Parliament...

     - Politician
  • Gerd Leers - Politician, Minister of Immegration and Asylum
  • Jan Pieter Minckeleers (1748–1824) - Physician, inventor
  • Charles of Mount Argus
    Charles of Mount Argus
    Saint Charles of Mount Argus was a well known Passionist priest in 19th century Ireland. He was born Joannes Andreas Houben on the 11 December 1821 in the village of Munstergeleen in the Province of Limburg in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. He joined the Passionists in 1845 at Ere in Belgium...

     (1821–1893) - Priest, saint
  • Ria Oomen-Ruijten
    Ria Oomen-Ruijten
    Ria Oomen-Ruijten is a Dutch politician and Member of the European Parliament. She is a member of the Christian Democratic Appeal, a member of the bureau of the EPP-ED group, and sits on the European Parliament's Committee on Employment and Social Affairs.She is also a substitute for the Committee...

     - Politician and member of the European Parliament
  • Henriëtte d'Oultremont de Wégimont (1792–1864)- 2nd wife of King Willem I
  • Petrus Regout (1801–1878) - First Dutch industrialist
  • Charles Ruijs de Beerenbrouck
    Charles Ruijs de Beerenbrouck
    Jhr. Charles Joseph Maria Ruijs de Beerenbrouck was a Dutch nobleman and Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 1918 to 1925 and again from 1929 to 1933...

     - Politician, Former Prime Minister
  • Terry Van Gevelt - Economist, Samsung
  • Frans Timmermans (1961) - Politician
  • Jac. P. Thijsse
    Jac. P. Thijsse
    Jac. P. Thijsse was a Dutch conservationist and botanist. He is sometimes referred to as J.P. Thijssse. He created the "J.P. Thijssse Park" in Amstelveen. He placed on De Grootste Nederlander.- References :...

     (1865–1945) - Biologist, ecologist
  • Maxime Verhagen
    Maxime Verhagen
    Maxime Jacques Marcel Verhagen is a Dutch politician in the Christian Democratic Appeal party. He is the Minister of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation and Deputy Prime Minister since October 14, 2010 in the Cabinet Rutte.He previously served as a Member of the European Parliament for...

     (1956) - Politician, Minister of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation
  • Geert Wilders
    Geert Wilders
    Geert Wilders is a Dutch right-wing politician and leader of the Party for Freedom , the third-largest political party in the Netherlands. He is the Parliamentary group leader of his party in the Dutch House of Representatives...

     (1963) - Politician


Entertainment, arts
  • John Bröcheler, (1945) - Bass-baritone singer
  • Jo Coenen
    Jo Coenen
    Jo Coenen is a Dutch architect and urban planner. He studied architecture at the Eindhoven University of Technology , and later held professorships at TU Karlsruhe, Eindhoven University of Technology and Delft University of Technology.Between 2000 and 2004 Coenen was Chief Government Architect of...

     - Architect and urban planner.
  • Guido Diederen - Musician, orchestra director
  • Mike van Diem
    Mike van Diem
    Mike van Diem is a Dutch film director.In 1990 his short film Alaska won a Golden Calf for best short film and the Student Academy Award for best foreign student film in the drama category...

     - Film director
  • Appie Drielsma - sculptor
  • Toon Hermans
    Toon Hermans
    Antoine G. T. "Toon" Hermans was a noted Dutch comedian, singer and writer. He was born in Sittard, now part of the municipality of Sittard-Geleen....

     (1916–2000) - Comedian, singer, writer
  • Marjon Lambriks (1949) - Soprano singer
  • Chantal Janzen
    Chantal Janzen
    Chantal Janzen is a Dutch actress and musical star. She starred in The Preacher, Full Moon Party and Deuce Bigalow: European Gigolo and presented Idols....

     (1979) - Actress
  • Connie Palmen
    Connie Palmen
    Aldegonda Petronella Huberta Maria "Connie" Palmen is a Dutch author.Palmen debuted with the novel De wetten , published in the USA as The Laws , translated by Richard Huijing...

     (1955) - Writer
  • Guido Pieters
    Guido Pieters
    Guido Pieters is a Dutch film director.His films include:*Op Hoop van Zegen*Het Woeden der Gehele Wereld-External links:...

     (1948) - Film director
  • Pussycat
    Pussycat (Dutch band)
    Pussycat was a Dutch country and pop music group from Brunssum, driven by the three Kowalczyk sisters: Tonny, Betty and Marianne. Other members of the band were Lou Willé , Theo Wetzels, Theo Coumans and John Theunissen.-Career:...

     - Band
  • André Rieu
    André Rieu
    André Léon Marie Nicolas Rieu is a Dutch violinist, conductor, and composer best known for creating the waltz-playing Johann Strauss Orchestra.- Early life and studies :...

     (1949) - Musician, orchestra director
  • Felix Rutten - Writer
  • Willy Schobben - Trompettist
  • Heintje Simons
    Heintje Simons
    Hendrik Nikolaas Theodoor Simons, known as Heintje and later on as Hein Simons, , is a Dutch singer and actor....

     - Singer and actor
  • Huub Stapel
    Huub Stapel
    Hubertus Wijnandus Jozef Marie Stapel is a Dutch actor. He is especially known from the films De Lift , Flodder and Amsterdamned by Dick Maas. He also appeared in the Golden Earring video When the Lady Smiles.- External links :* at the New York Times Movies & TV...

     (1954) - Actor
  • Frans Timmermans (1921-2005) - Sculptor
  • The Walkers
    The Walkers
    The Walkers was a Danish glam rock band featuring singer-composer Torben Lendager, guitarist Gert Michelsen, drummer-lyricist Poul Dehnhardt and bassist Jan Kanstrup Hansen. It was founded in 1968 and broke up in 1977...

     - Band
  • Thijs Wilms (1943 Helden- Panningen) - Co-author comic strip "Ox Tales"


Sports
  • Gerard Bergholtz (1939) - Former soccerplayer
  • Eddy Beugels - Former cyclist
  • Rens Blom
    Rens Blom
    Rens Blom is a former Dutch athlete competing in pole vault.-Biography:He achieved the result of 5.75 as early as in 2000, but five years passed without much progression. However, on June 8, 2004 in Zaragoza he set the current Dutch record with 5.81...

     (1977) - Athlete
  • Jo Bonfrère
    Jo Bonfrere
    Johannes Bonfrere or Jo Bonfrere is a Dutch football coach, and a former striker, who played for MVV Maastricht and K.F.C. Germinal Beerschot. He is currently the manager of Henan Construction F.C...

     - Soccerplayer/-coach
  • Bart Brentjens
    Bart Brentjens
    Bart Jan-Baptist Marie Brentjens is a Dutch racing cyclist in mountain biking.Brentjens won a gold medal for mountain biking in the 1996 Summer Olympics, the first to recognize cross-country mountain biking as an event. He followed this with bronze in the 2004 Summer Olympics...

     - Former cyclist
  • Willy Brokamp
    Willy Brokamp
    Willy Brokamp is a former footballplayer For MVV Maastricht in the 1960s and 1970s who recruited him from RKVV Chèvremont . His nickname was “The blond arrow”....

     (1946, Kerkrade) - Former soccer player
  • Annemarie Cox (Anna Wood) - Canoer
  • Willy Dullens (1945) - Former soccer player
  • Mia Gommers
    Mia Gommers
    Maria Francisca Philomena Hoogakker-Gommers is a former Dutch athlete, who competed mainly in the 800 metres....

     (1939) - Athlete
  • Ger Harings (1948) - Former cyclist
  • Jan Harings (1945) - Former cyclist
  • Jan Hugens (1939) - Former cyclist
  • Sjef Janssen
    Sjef Janssen
    Sjefke Janssen is a Dutch former professional road bicycle racer. He is most known for his bronze medal in the Elite race of the 1947 Road World Championships. He was born in Elsloo.- Palmarès :19441946 - Bloc Centauro...

     - Former Cyclist
  • Jan Krekels
    Jan Krekels
    Jan Jozef Alfons Franciscus Krekels is a retired cyclist from the Netherlands. He became Olympic champion in the 100 km team time trial in 1968 with Joop Zoetemelk, René Pijnen and Fedor den Hertog. He also won the 19th stage of the Tour de France in 1971 and the prologue of Paris–Nice in 1970...

     (1947) - Former cyclist
  • René Lotz - Former Cyclist
  • Jo Maas
    Jo Maas
    Jo Maas was a Dutch professional road bicycle racer. In the 1979 Tour de France, Maas won stage 10 and finished 7th place in the overall classification.- Palmarès :1978*...

     (1954, Eijsden) - Former cyclist
  • Leon Melchior - Horse jumping stable owning building contractor
  • Danny Nelissen
    Danny Nelissen
    Daniel Wilhelmus Maria Nelissen is a Dutch former professional road bicycle racer and current sports commentator at Eurosport...

     - Former cyclist
  • Jan Nolten
    Jan Nolten
    Jan Nolten was a Dutch professional road bicycle racer. Nolten participated in five Tours de France, and won two stages.- Palmarès :1952*...

     - Former Cyclist
  • Jan Notermans (1933) - Former soccer player
  • Rob Noortman (1946–2007) - Arts trader
  • Maartje Paumen
    Maartje Paumen
    Maartje Paumen is a Dutch field hockey player, who plays as midfielder for Dutch club HC Den Bosch...

     - Hockey player
  • Fred Rompelberg
    Fred Rompelberg
    Fred Rompelberg is a Dutch cyclist who has set several world cycling records. He is mainly known for his eleven world records cycling behind heavy engines, and for taking several attempts to break the Absolute World Speed Record Cycling...

     (1945) - Over 60 years old professional cyclist
  • Sjeng Schalken
    Sjeng Schalken
    Sjeng Schalken is a former professional tennis player from the Netherlands.-Playing style:A right-handed baseliner with a single-handed backhand, Schalken's game is characterised by his consistency of both wings and his continental technique on both the forehand and backhand...

     - Former professional tennis player
  • Wim Schepers - Former cyclist
  • Jeu Sprengers
    Jeu Sprengers
    Mathieu Jeu Sprengers was the Dutch chairman of the Royal Dutch Football Association from 2002 until 2008. Sprengers served as chairman until his death on April 5, 2008, at the age of 69.- References :...

     - KNVB soccer chairman
  • Harrie Stevens (Elsloo) - Former cyclist
  • Huub Stevens
    Huub Stevens
    Hubertus "Huub" Jozef Margaretha Stevens is a Dutch football manager and former defender.- Playing career :...

     (1953) - Soccer player and -coach
  • Wilbert Suvrijn
    Wilbert Suvrijn
    Wilbert Suvrijn is a retired Dutch footballer. Mainly a central defender, he could also operate as a defensive midfielder.-Club career:...

     - Former soccer player
  • Johann Friedrich August Tischbein
    Johann Friedrich August Tischbein
    Johann Friedrich August Tischbein was a German painter. He was the most notable painter from the second generation of the Tischbein family of portrait painters and was known as the Leipziger Tischbein...

     (1750–1812) - Painter
  • Stan Valckx
    Stan Valckx
    Stanislaus "Stan" Henricus Christina Valckx is a retired Dutch footballer who played as a central defender.-Club career:...

     (1963) - Soccer player
  • Mark van Bommel
    Mark van Bommel
    Mark Peter Gertruda Andreas van Bommel is a Dutch footballer who currently plays for Milan and captains the Netherlands national team as a midfielder....

     (1977) - Soccer player
  • Max van Heeswijk
    Max van Heeswijk
    Max Lambert Peter van Heeswijk is a Dutch retired professional road racing cyclist.- Major achievements :2000...

     - Former cyclist
  • Arnold Vanderlyde
    Arnold Vanderlyde
    Arnold Petrus Maria Vanderlyde is a former boxer from the Netherlands, who participated in three Summer Olympics and won three bronze medals in the heavyweight division , starting in 1984 in Los Angeles, California. He started boxing at age fifteen...

     - Boxing
  • Jos Verstappen
    Jos Verstappen
    Johannes Franciscus "Jos" Verstappen nicknamed "Jos the Boss" is a Dutch racing driver. He is the most successful Dutch Formula One driver, and has also won races in A1 Grand Prix and Le Mans Series LMP2 races...

     - Racing driver
  • Ad Wijnands
    Ad Wijnands
    Ad Wijnands was a Dutch professional road bicycle racer, who won two stages in the 1981 Tour de France.- Palmarès :198019801981...

     (1959) - Former cyclist
  • Peter Winnen
    Peter Winnen
    Peter Johannes Gertrudis Winnen is a Dutch former road racing cyclist. He was professional from 1980 until 1991. Among his 14 victories were two stages at Alpe d'Huez in the Tour de France and a national championship. He came third in the Tour de France in 1983.-Results:1981...

     - Former cyclist
  • Boudewijn Zenden (1976) - Soccer player


Belgium
  • Famous Limburgians (Belgium)

See also

  • Limburgian Beer
  • Goat riders
    Goat riders
    The Buckriders is a legend of Limburg. There are however as many versions of the legend as there are story tellers.- The legend :...

  • Mining in Limburg
    Mining in Limburg
    Coal mining in Limburg, a province of the Netherlands, has taken place since the 16th century.Near the Augustinian Abbey of Rolduc, coal is found very close to the surface. The abbey owned the coal, and beginning in the 16th century hired local miners to extract the coal for sale as fuel...

  • Limburg (Belgium)
    Limburg (Belgium)
    Limburg is the easternmost province of modern Flanders, which is one of the three main political and cultural sub-divisions of modern Belgium. It is located west of the river Meuse . It borders on the Dutch provinces of North Brabant and Limburg and the Belgian provinces of Liège, Flemish Brabant...

  • Duchy of Limburg
    Duchy of Limburg
    The Duchy of Limburg, situated in the Low Countries between the river Meuse and the city of Aachen, was a state of the Holy Roman Empire. Its territory is now divided between the Belgian provinces of Liège and Limburg , the Dutch province of Limburg , and a small part of North Rhine-Westphalia in...


External links