Leinster

Leinster

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{{about|the Irish province|the professional rugby union team representing this province|Leinster Rugby|the town in Western Australia|Leinster, Western Australia|the ship which was sunk on 10 October 1918 with over 500 deaths|RMS Leinster}} '''Leinster''' ({{IPA-en|ˈlɛnstər|pron}} — {{lang-gle|Laighin / Cúige Laighean}} — {{IPA-ga|ˈl̪ˠaːjɪnʲ|pron}}) is one of the [[Provinces of Ireland]] situated in the east of [[Republic of Ireland|Ireland]]. It comprises the [[Ancient Ireland|ancient]] Kingdoms of [[Kingdom of Mide|Mide]], [[Kingdom of Osraige|Osraige]] and [[Kingdom of Leinster|Leinster]]. Following the [[Norman invasion of Ireland]], the historic fifths of Leinster and Mide gradually merged, mainly due to the impact of [[the Pale]], which straddled both, thereby forming the present-day province of Leinster. The ancient kingdoms were [[shire]]d into a number of [[Counties of Ireland#2.1 Pre-Norman sub-divisions|counties]] for administrative and judicial purposes. In later centuries, local government legislation has seen further sub-division of the historic counties. In modern times, clusters of counties have been attributed to certain provinces but these clusters have no [[Law of Ireland|legal status]]. The province itself, while enjoying common usage and forming a strong part of [[Cultural identity|local identity]], has no official function for local government purposes. The population of Leinster is 2,501,208 according to the 2006 census, making it the most populous province in the country. The traditional flag of Leinster features a golden [[harp]] on a green background. ===Early history=== [[File:Ireland Leinster Hogg 1784 700x1030.jpg|right|thumb|Leinster, province of Ireland (Hogg, 1784)]] The [[Gaels|Gaelic]] [[Kings of Leinster|Kingdom of Leinster]] before 1171 was considerably smaller than today's province. The first part of the [[Place names in Irish|name]] ''Leinster'' derives from ''[[Laigin]]'', the name of a major [[tribe]] that once inhabited the area. The latter part of the name derives either from the [[Irish language|Irish]] ''tír'' or the [[Old Norse]] ''staðr'', both of which translate as "land" or "territory". The tribes of Leinster were united by [[Úgaine Mor]] (Hugony, the Great), who supposedly built the hill-fort of [[Dún Ailinne]], near [[Kilcullen]], [[County Kildare]]. He is a likely, but uncertain candidate as the first historical king of Laigin (Leinster) in the [[7th century BC]]. The kingdom of Laigin was re-founded circa 175/185 AD following a period of [[civil war]]s in Ireland by the legendary [[Cathair Mor]]. Finn Mac Cool, or [[Fionn mac Cumhaill]], was reputed to have built a stronghold at the [[Hill of Allen]], on the edge of the [[Bog of Allen]], in what was then Leinster. In the 4th and 5th centuries, after [[Magnus Maximus]] left [[Great Britain|Britain]] with his [[Roman legion|legion]]s, leaving a power vacuum, colonists from Laigin settled in [[North Wales]], specifically in [[Anglesey]], [[Carnarvonshire]] and [[Denbighshire]]. In [[Wales]] some of the Leinster-Irish colonists left their name on the [[Llŷn Peninsula]], which derives its name from Laigin. By the 8th century, the rulers of Laigin had split into two dynasties: * Northern Leinster [[dynasty]]: Murchad mac Brain (d. 727), King of [[Uí Dúnlainge]], and joint leader of the Laigin * Southern Leinster dynasty: [[Áed mac Colggen]] (d. 738), King of [[Uí Cheinnselaig]], and joint leader of the Laigin After the death of the last Kildare-based King of Laigin, Murchad Mac Dunlainge in 1042, the kingship of Leinster reverted to the [[Uí Cheinnselaig]] sept based in the south east, now [[County Wexford]]. This southern dynasty gave all the later [[Kings of Leinster]]. ===Kingdom of Ireland period=== The ancient Kingdom of Mide today encompasses much of counties [[County Meath|Meath]] and [[County Westmeath|Westmeath]]. The parishes of [[Annally]] and [[Lusmagh]] in [[County Offaly]] were formerly part of [[Connacht]]. [[County Louth]] was formerly part of [[Ulster]]. The last major boundary changes occurred with the formation of [[County Wicklow]] (1603–1606), from lands in the north of [[Carlow]] (which previously extended to the sea) and most of southern Dublin. The provincial borders were redrawn by [[Oliver Cromwell|Cromwell]] for administration and military reasons. Later minor changes dealt with "islands" of one county in another. By the late 18th century, Leinster looked as shown in the above map of 1784. Leinster represents the extended "English Pale", counties controlled directly from Dublin, at the beginning of the seventeenth century. The other Provinces had their own regional Presidency systems, based on a Welsh model of administration, in theory if not in fact from the 1570s and 1580s up to the 1670s, and were considered separate entities. Gradually "Leinster" subsumed the term of "[[The Pale]]", as the difference between the old Pale area and the wider province, now under English administration, grew less distinct. ===Counties and Counties Corporate=== {{main|Counties of Ireland}} Following the abolition of [[County Dublin]], three successor counties were created that cover the same area. They are [[Dún Laoghaire]], [[Fingal]] and [[South Dublin]]. To these may be added the historic [[County Corporate]] of the city of [[Dublin]], which, under the terms of the [[Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898]] was abolished to be succeeded by the [[County borough]] of Dublin. This was is in turn abolished under the terms of the [[Local Government Act 2001]] and the area is now under the jurisdiction of [[Dublin City Council]]. The remaining counties of the province are [[County Kildare|Kildare]], [[County Offaly|Offaly]], [[County Laois|Laois]], [[County Wexford|Wexford]], [[County Carlow|Carlow]], [[County Wicklow|Wicklow]], [[County Louth|Louth]], [[County Meath|Meath]], [[County Westmeath|Westmeath]], [[County Longford|Longford]] and [[County Kilkenny|Kilkenny]]. While [[Kilkenny]] city was once a county corporate, by the terms of the 1898 Act it became part of the administrative county. although it retains the privilege of calling itself a city. ==Leinster today== The main urban areas in order of size (2006 census figures; urban areas with over 10,000 inhabitants) are: {{Div col|cols=2|small=yes}} *[[Dublin]] (1,045,769) *[[Drogheda]] (35,090) *[[Dundalk]] (35,085) *[[Swords, Dublin|Swords]] (33,998) *[[Bray]] (31,901) *[[Navan]] (24,851) *[[Kilkenny]] (22,179) *[[Carlow]] (20,724) *[[Naas]] (20,044) *[[Newbridge, County Kildare|Newbridge]] (18,520) *[[Mullingar]] (18,416) *[[Wexford]] (18,163) *[[Athlone]] (17,544) *[[Celbridge]] (17,262) *[[Balbriggan]] (15,559) *[[Malahide]] (14,937) *[[Leixlip]] (14,676) *[[Portlaoise]] (14,613) *[[Greystones]] (14,569) *[[Tullamore]] (12,927) *[[Arklow]] (11,759) *[[Maynooth]] (10,715) *[[Wicklow]] (10,070) {{Div col end}} According to the CSO regional income report, GDP for the province of Leinster in 2004 was estimated to be over 75 billion Euro. ==See also== * [[Kings of Leinster]] * [[Duke of Leinster]] * [[Leinster (European Parliament constituency)]] * [[Leinster House]] * [[Leinster GAA]] * [[Leinster Rugby]] == External links == * [http://www.world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&dat=32&srt=npan&col=aohdq&geo=-102 2006 Town population estimates] * [http://www.cso.ie/releasespublications/documents/economy/current/regincome.pdf CSO Irish Regional Income/GDP 2004 Report] {{Ireland counties}} {{coord missing|Ireland}} {{Use dmy dates|date=November 2010}}