Lazarus taxon

Lazarus taxon

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Encyclopedia
In paleontology
Paleontology
Paleontology "old, ancient", ὄν, ὀντ- "being, creature", and λόγος "speech, thought") is the study of prehistoric life. It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms' evolution and interactions with each other and their environments...

, a Lazarus taxon (plural taxa) is a taxon
Taxon
|thumb|270px|[[African elephants]] form a widely-accepted taxon, the [[genus]] LoxodontaA taxon is a group of organisms, which a taxonomist adjudges to be a unit. Usually a taxon is given a name and a rank, although neither is a requirement...

 that disappears from one or more periods of the fossil record, only to appear again later. The term refers to the account in the Gospel of John
Gospel of John
The Gospel According to John , commonly referred to as the Gospel of John or simply John, and often referred to in New Testament scholarship as the Fourth Gospel, is an account of the public ministry of Jesus...

, in which Jesus
Jesus
Jesus of Nazareth , commonly referred to as Jesus Christ or simply as Jesus or Christ, is the central figure of Christianity...

 raised Lazarus
Lazarus of Bethany
Lazarus of Bethany, also known as Saint Lazarus or Lazarus of the Four Days, is the subject of a prominent miracle attributed to Jesus in the Gospel of John, in which Jesus restores him to life four days after his death...

 from the dead. Lazarus taxa are observational artifacts that appear to occur either because of (local) extinction
Extinction
In biology and ecology, extinction is the end of an organism or of a group of organisms , normally a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point...

, later resupplied, or as a sampling artifact
Sampling (statistics)
In statistics and survey methodology, sampling is concerned with the selection of a subset of individuals from within a population to estimate characteristics of the whole population....

. If the extinction is conclusively found to be total (global or worldwide) and the supplanting species is not a lookalike (an Elvis species
Elvis taxon
In paleontology, an Elvis taxon is a taxon which has been misidentified as having re-emerged in the fossil record after a period of presumed extinction, but is not actually a descendant of the original taxon, instead having developed a similar morphology through convergent evolution...

), the observational artifact is overcome. The fossil
Fossil
Fossils are the preserved remains or traces of animals , plants, and other organisms from the remote past...

 record is inherently imperfect (only a very small fraction of organisms become fossilized) and contains gaps not necessarily caused by extinction, particularly when the number of individuals in a taxon becomes very low. If these gaps are filled by new fossil discoveries, a taxon will no longer be classified as a Lazarus taxon.

Terminology


The terms "Lazarus effect" or "Lazarus species" have also found some acceptance in neontology
Neontology
Neontology is the part of biology which – in contrast to paleontology – deals with now living organisms. The term neontologist is usually used only by paleontologists to refer to non-paleontologists...

— the study of extant organisms, as contrasted with paleontology — as an organism that is rediscovered alive after having been widely considered extinct for years (a recurring IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species , founded in 1963, is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species. The International Union for Conservation of Nature is the world's main authority on the conservation status of species...

 species for example). Examples include Jerdon's courser
Jerdon's Courser
The Jerdon's Courser is a nocturnal bird belonging to the pratincole and courser family Glareolidae endemic to India. The bird was discovered by the surgeon-naturalist Thomas C. Jerdon in 1848 but not seen again until its rediscovery in 1986. This courser is a restricted-range endemic found...

, the ivory-billed woodpecker
Ivory-billed Woodpecker
The Ivory-billed Woodpecker is or was one of the largest woodpeckers in the world, at roughly 20 inches in length and 30 inches in wingspan. It was native to the virgin forests of the southeastern United States...

 (disputed), the Mahogany Glider
Mahogany Glider
The mahogany glider is an endangered gliding possum native to a small region of coastal Queensland.-Appearance:A nocturnal arboreal marsupial, the mahogany glider closely resembles the sugar glider, the squirrel glider and the yellow-bellied glider., but is noticeably larger than any of its...

 and the takahē
Takahe
The Takahē or South Island Takahē, Porphyrio hochstetteri is a flightless bird indigenous to New Zealand and belonging to the rail family. It was thought to be extinct after the last four known specimens were taken in 1898...

, a flightless bird endemic
Endemic (ecology)
Endemism is the ecological state of being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. For example, all species of lemur are endemic to the...

 to New Zealand. However, in these cases being "extinct" strongly relates to the sampling intensity of the IUCN, and that such a period of apparent extinction is too short for species to be designated as "Lazarus taxa" (in its paleontological meaning).

Lazarus taxa that reappear in nature after being known only as old enough fossils can be seen as an informal subcategory of the journalist's "living fossil
Living fossil
Living fossil is an informal term for any living species which appears similar to a species otherwise only known from fossils and which has no close living relatives, or a group of organisms which have long fossil records...

s", because a taxon cannot become globally extinct and reappear. If the original taxon went globally extinct, the new taxon must be an Elvis taxon
Elvis taxon
In paleontology, an Elvis taxon is a taxon which has been misidentified as having re-emerged in the fossil record after a period of presumed extinction, but is not actually a descendant of the original taxon, instead having developed a similar morphology through convergent evolution...

. On the other hand, all species "correctly considered living fossils" (with all conditions fulfilled, living and found through a considerable part of the geologic timescale) cannot be Lazarus taxa.

Cryptozoology


Animals that are Lazarus taxa are often cited by Cryptozoologists
Cryptozoology
Cryptozoology refers to the search for animals whose existence has not been proven...

 as former Cryptids.

Reappearing fossil taxa


  • Coelacanth
    Coelacanth
    Coelacanths are members of an order of fish that includes the oldest living lineage of Sarcopterygii known to date....

     (Latimeria), a member of a clade
    Clade
    A clade is a group consisting of a species and all its descendants. In the terms of biological systematics, a clade is a single "branch" on the "tree of life". The idea that such a "natural group" of organisms should be grouped together and given a taxonomic name is central to biological...

     (Coelacanthimorpha) thought to have gone extinct 65 million years ago; found in 1938.
  • Monoplacophora
    Monoplacophora
    Monoplacophora, meaning "bearing one plate", is a polyphyletic class of mollusks with a cap-like shell, living on the bottom of deep sea. Extant representatives were unknown until 1952; previously they were known only from the fossil record.- Definition :...

    , a class of molluscs believed to have gone extinct in the middle Devonian
    Devonian
    The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic Era spanning from the end of the Silurian Period, about 416.0 ± 2.8 Mya , to the beginning of the Carboniferous Period, about 359.2 ± 2.5 Mya...

     Period (c. 380 million years ago) until living members were discovered in deep water off Costa Rica in 1952.
  • Laotian Rock Rat
    Laotian rock rat
    The Laotian rock rat or kha-nyou , sometimes called the "rat-squirrel", is a rodent species of the Khammouan region of Laos. The species was first described in a 2005 article by Paulina Jenkins and coauthors, who considered the animal to be so distinct from all living rodents that they placed it...

     (Laonastes aenigmamus), a member of a family (Diatomyidae
    Diatomyidae
    Diatomyidae is a family of hystricomorphous, sciurognathous rodents found in Asia. It is currently represented by a single known living species, Laonastes aenigmamus.- "Lazarus effect" :...

    ) thought to have gone extinct 11 million years ago; found in 1996.
  • Monito del Monte
    Monito del Monte
    The Monito del Monte The Monito del Monte The Monito del Monte (Spanish for "little mountain monkey", Dromiciops gliroides, is a diminutive marsupial native only to southwestern South America (Chile and Argentina). It is the only extant species in the ancient order Microbiotheria, and the sole New...

     (Dromiciops), a member of a clade (Microbiotheria
    Microbiotheria
    The Monito del Monte is the only extant member of its family and the only surviving member of an ancient order, the Microbiotheria. The oldest microbiothere currently recognised is Khasia cordillerensis, based on fossil teeth from Early Palaeocene deposits at Tiupampa, Bolivia...

    ) thought to have gone extinct 11 million years ago.
  • Lazarussuchus
    Lazarussuchus
    Lazarussuchus is a genus of basal choristodere, a type of amphibious reptile, from the late Oligocene and early Miocene of France and the Czech Republic. Two species have been named: the type species L. inexpectatus from the late Oligocene of France; and L...

    , an Oligocene
    Oligocene
    The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present . As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the period are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the period are slightly...

     member of a clade of freshwater reptiles (Choristodera
    Choristodera
    Choristodera is an order of semi-aquatic diapsid reptiles which ranged from the Middle Jurassic, or possibly Late Triassic, to at least the early Miocene. Choristoderes have been found in North America, Asia, and Europe. The most common fossils are typically found from the Late Cretaceous to the...

    ) thought to have gone extinct at the end of the Mesozoic
    Mesozoic
    The Mesozoic era is an interval of geological time from about 250 million years ago to about 65 million years ago. It is often referred to as the age of reptiles because reptiles, namely dinosaurs, were the dominant terrestrial and marine vertebrates of the time...

    . As Lazarussuchus is thought to be outside the clade including other choristoderans, it may indicate a ghost lineage
    Ghost lineage
    A ghost lineage is a phylogenetic lineage that is inferred to exist but has no fossil record....

     going back to the Late Triassic
    Late Triassic
    The Late Triassic is in the geologic timescale the third and final of three epochs of the Triassic period. The corresponding series is known as the Upper Triassic. In the past it was sometimes called the Keuper, after a German lithostratigraphic group that has a roughly corresponding age...

    , a span of over 170 million years.
  • Majorcan midwife toad, an Amphibian, first described from the fossil record. Later the species was 'rediscovered' in 1979 when froglets and young frogs where discovered.
  • Gracilidris
    Gracilidris
    Gracilidris is a genus of dolichoderine ants with nocturnal behaviour; thought to have gone extinct 15-20 million years ago, they have been found in Paraguay, Brazil, and Argentina and were described in 2006....

    , a genus of dolichoderine
    Dolichoderinae
    Dolichoderinae is a subfamily of ants, which includes species such as the Argentine ant , the erratic ant, the odorous house ant, and the cone ant. This subfamily is distinguished by having a single petiole and a slit-like orifice, rather than the round acidopore encircled by hairs that typifies...

     ant
    Ant
    Ants are social insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera. Ants evolved from wasp-like ancestors in the mid-Cretaceous period between 110 and 130 million years ago and diversified after the rise of flowering plants. More than...

    s thought to have gone extinct 15-20 million years ago was found in Paraguay
    Paraguay
    Paraguay , officially the Republic of Paraguay , is a landlocked country in South America. It is bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest. Paraguay lies on both banks of the Paraguay River, which runs through the center of the...

    , Brazil
    Brazil
    Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

    , and Argentina
    Argentina
    Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

     and described in 2006.
  • Dawn Redwood
    Metasequoia
    Metasequoia is a fast-growing, deciduous tree, and the sole living species, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, is one of three species of conifers known as redwoods. It is native to the Sichuan-Hubei region of China. Although the least tall of the redwoods, it grows to at least 200 feet in height...

     or Metasequoia, a genus of conifer
    Pinophyta
    The conifers, division Pinophyta, also known as division Coniferophyta or Coniferae, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. Pinophytes are gymnosperms. They are cone-bearing seed plants with vascular tissue; all extant conifers are woody plants, the great majority being...

    , was first described as a fossil from the Mesozoic Era by Shigeru Miki in 1941, but in 1943 a small stand was discovered in China in Modaoxi by Zhan Wang.
  • Wollemi Pine (Wollemia), a species previously known only from fossils from 2 to 90 million years old representing a new genus of Araucariaceae
    Araucariaceae
    Araucariaceae, commonly referred to as araucarians, is a very ancient family of coniferous trees. It achieved its maximum diversity in the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, when it was distributed almost worldwide...

    , was discovered in 1994.
  • Nightcap Oak
    Eidothea hardeniana
    Eidothea hardeniana, commonly known as the Nightcap Oak, is a tree to 40 m tall in the family Proteaceae discovered as a new species in 2000 by botanist Robert Kooyman. The species is listed as Critically Endangered on the Australian Commonwealth EPBC Act and Endangered on the NSW Threatened...

     (Eidothea
    Eidothea
    Eidothea is a genus of two species of rainforest tree in New South Wales and Queensland in eastern Australia, which belongs to the plant family Proteaceae, which also includes more familiar members such as the waratahs, grevilleas, banksias, macadamias and proteas...

     hardeniana
    and E. zoexylocarya), representing a genus previously known only from fossils 15 to 20 million years old, were recognized in 2000 and 1995, respectively.
  • Chacoan Peccary
    Chacoan peccary
    The Chacoan peccary or Tagua is a species of peccary found in the Gran Chaco of Paraguay, Bolivia and Argentina. About 3000 exist in the world...

     (Catagonus wagneri), known to scientists only from fossils before its discovery in 1975.
  • Mountain Pygmy Possum
    Mountain Pygmy Possum
    The Mountain Pygmy Possum is a small, mouse-sized nocturnal marsupial of Australia found in dense alpine rock screes and boulder fields, mainly southern Victoria and around Mount Kosciuszko in Kosciuszko National Park in New South Wales at elevations from 1300 to 2230 m...

     (Burramys parvus), Australia's only truly hibernating marsupial
    Marsupial
    Marsupials are an infraclass of mammals, characterized by giving birth to relatively undeveloped young. Close to 70% of the 334 extant species occur in Australia, New Guinea, and nearby islands, with the remaining 100 found in the Americas, primarily in South America, but with thirteen in Central...

    , known originally from the fossil record and then discovered in 1966.

Plants


  • Mount Diablo buckwheat
    Mount Diablo buckwheat
    Eriogonum truncatum, the Mount Diablo buckwheat, is a small pink wildflower, believed to have been extinct since 1936 until its rediscovery in 2005. The species is only known to live on Mount Diablo in Contra Costa County, northern California....

     (Eriogonom truncatum) — Thought extinct around 1935 but found again in 2005.
  • Franciscan Manzanita (Arctostaphylos hookeri
    Arctostaphylos hookeri
    Arctostaphylos hookeri is a species of manzanita known by the common name Hooker's manzanita.-Description:Arctostaphylos hookeri is a low shrub which is variable in appearance and has several subspecies...

    ) — Thought to be extinct in the wild since 1942, rediscovered in 2009.
  • Café marron
    Café marron
    Café marron or Ramosmania rodriguesii is native to the island of Rodrigues in the Indian Ocean.-History:It was thought Ramosmania rodriguesii was extinct until a single surviving tree was spotted by a schoolboy in 1980, who was shown a drawing of the plant by his teacher. The only image of the...

     (Ramosmania rodriguesii) — Thought extinct in the 1950s but rediscovered in 1980.
  • Furbish's lousewort (Pedicularis furbishiae) - Canadian species identified as an extinct species in 1880, rediscovered in the 1970s.
  • Camellia piquetiana, long known only from the 19th century herbarium specimens labeled as Thea piquetiana until it was rediscovered in Vietnam in 2003.
  • Blunt Chaff Flower (Achyranthes mutica)
  • Climbing Alsinidendron (Alsinidendron viscosum)
  • Jellyfish tree
    Jellyfish tree
    The jellyfish tree is a critically endangered and unusual tree endemic to the island of Mahé, of the Seychelles. It is the sole member of the genus Medusagyne...

     (Medusagyne oppositifolia)
  • She cabbage tree (Lachanodes arborea)
  • Virginia Round-leaf Birch (Betula uber)
  • Sicilian Fir
    Sicilian Fir
    Sicilian Fir is a fir native to the Nebrodi and Madonie mountains in northern Sicily. It is a medium-size evergreen coniferous tree growing to 15-25 m tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 1 m. It occurs at altitudes of 1400-1,600 m...

     (Abies nebrodensis)
  • Afrothismia pachyantha
    Afrothismia pachyantha
    Afrothismia pachyantha is a species of plant in the Burmanniaceae family. It is endemic to Cameroon. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. It is threatened by habitat loss.-Source:...

  • Antirhea tomentosa
    Antirhea tomentosa
    Antirhea tomentosa is a species of plant in the Rubiaceae family. It is endemic to Jamaica. It is threatened by habitat loss.-Source:* World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1998. . Downloaded on 20 August 2007....

  • Asplundia clementinae
    Asplundia clementinae
    Asplundia clementinae is a species of plant in the Cyclanthaceae family. It is endemic to Ecuador. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.-Source:* Montúfar, R. & Pitman, N. 2004. . Downloaded on 20 August 2007....

    )
  • Badula platyphylla
    Badula platyphylla
    Badula platyphylla is a species of plant in the Myrsinaceae family. It is endemic to Mauritius. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical dry forests.-Source:* Rutty, R. 2000. . Downloaded on 20 August 2007....

  • Bulbophyllum filiforme
    Bulbophyllum filiforme
    Bulbophyllum filiforme is a species of epiphytic plant in the Orchidaceae family, found in Cameroon and Nigeria, where its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical dry, lowland evergreen forests. It was botanically described in 1895, and is currently threatened by habitat loss due to the clearing...

  • Cyanea dunbariae
    Cyanea dunbariae
    Cyanea dunbariae is a rare species of flowering plant in the bellflower family known by the common name ravine cyanea. It is endemic to Molokai, where there were sixteen plants remaining in the wild as of 2005. It is a federally listed endangered species of the United States...

  • Cyanea procera
    Cyanea procera
    Cyanea procera is a rare species of flowering plant in the bellflower family known by the common name Molokai cyanea. It is endemic to Hawaii, where it is known only from the island of Molokai. It is a federally listed endangered species of the United States. Like other Cyanea it is known as haha...

  • Eugenia bojeri
    Eugenia bojeri
    Eugenia bojeri is a species of plant in the Myrtaceae family. It is endemic to Mauritius.-Source:* Page, W. 1998. . Downloaded 21 August 2007....

  • Mammillaria schwarzii
    Mammillaria schwarzii
    Mammillaria schwarzii is a species of plant in the Cactaceae family.It is endemic to Mexico.Its natural habitat is hot deserts.-Source:* Fitz Maurice, W.A. & Fitz Maurice, B. 2002. . Downloaded on 22 August 2007....

  • Medemia argun
    Medemia argun
    Medemia argun is a rare palm tree species of flowering plant, in the Arecaceae family native to Africa.The palm's dried dates have been found in ancient Egyptian tombs.-Distribution:...

  • Pittosporum tanianum
    Pittosporum tanianum
    Pittosporum tanianum is a species of plant in the Pittosporaceae family. It is endemic to New Caledonia. Its natural habitat is temperate forests. It is threatened by habitat loss.-References:* Suprin, B. 2004. . Downloaded on 23 August 2007....

  • Takhtajania perrieri
  • Turbinicarpus gielsdorfianus
    Turbinicarpus gielsdorfianus
    Turbinicarpus gielsdorfianus is a species of plant in the Cactaceae family. It is endemic to Mexico. Its natural habitat is hot deserts.-Source:...

  • Bulbostylis neglecta
    Bulbostylis neglecta
    Bulbostylis neglecta, neglected tuft sedge locally, is an endemic member of the Cyperaceae of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic. It was first collected by William John Burchell in 1806...


Protostomes

  • Discus guerinianus
    Discus guerinianus
    Discus guerinianus is a species of small air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial gastropod mollusk in the family Discidae, the disk snails.-Distribution:This species is endemic to in Madeira, Portugal.-Shell description:...

    , a Madeiran land snail thought extinct in 1996 but found again in 1999.
  • Lord Howe Island stick insect (Dryococelus australis); thought to be extinct by 1930 — rediscovered in 2001.
  • Giant Palouse earthworm
    Giant Palouse earthworm
    The giant Palouse earthworm or Washington giant earthworm is a species of earthworm belonging to the genus Driloleirus found in the Palouse region of Eastern Washington state as well as parts of Idaho in the United States. The worm was discovered in 1897 by Frank Smith near Pullman, Washington...

     (Driloleirus americanus); thought extinct in 1980s, but found again in 2006.
  • Xylotoles costatus
    Xylotoles costatus
    Xylotoles costatus, Pitt Island longhorn beetle, is a species of beetle in the family Cerambycidae. It is endemic to New Zealand. While thought to be extinct from 1986 up until 1996, where it was found again on South East Island/Rangatira in the Chatham Islands; the species is now considered a...

    , New Zealand longhorn beetle
    Longhorn beetle
    The longhorn beetles are a cosmopolitan family of beetles, typically characterized by extremely long antennae, which are often as long as or longer than the beetle's body...

    , considered extinct from 1986 to 1996, found again on Chatham Islands
    Chatham Islands
    The Chatham Islands are an archipelago and New Zealand territory in the Pacific Ocean consisting of about ten islands within a radius, the largest of which are Chatham Island and Pitt Island. Their name in the indigenous language, Moriori, means Misty Sun...

  • Nothomyrmecia macrops, Australian ant discovered in 1931, not seen again until 1977.
  • Canterbury knobbed weevil
    Karocolens tuberculatus
    Hadramphus tuberculatus is a rare weevil endemic to the Christchurch area in the South Island of New Zealand. It was thought to be extinct from 1922 to 2004...

     (Karocolens tuberculatus), last seen in 1922 until it was rediscovered near Lake Tekapo
    Lake Tekapo
    Lake Tekapo is the second-largest of three roughly parallel lakes running north–south along the northern edge of the Mackenzie Basin in the South Island of New Zealand...

     in December 2004.

Fish

  • black kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka kawamurae) Believed extinct in 1940, rediscovered in 2010

Amphibians

  • Armoured Frog
    Armoured Frog
    The Armoured Frog , Litoria lorica, is a species of tree frog that is in the Torrent Frog complex , a group that is restricted to north-eastern Queensland, Australia.-Distribution:...

     (Litoria lorica)
  • Painted frog
    Atelopus ebenoides
    The painted frog , a species of true toad, lives only in Colombia. It consists of two populations: the southern population lives in the southern Colombian Andes in the Cauca and Huila Departments...

     (Atelopus ebenoides marinkellei) Believed extinct 1995, rediscovered in 2006.
  • Large-crested toad
    Large-crested toad
    The large-crested toad is a critically endangered species of true toad that is endemic to cloud forests in the central Sierra Madre Oriental in Puebla and Veracruz, Mexico. Once feared extinct, it has recently been rediscovered at two sites in Puebla where it is uncommon...

     (Bufo cristatus)
  • Northern Tinker Frog
    Northern Tinker Frog
    The Northern Tinker Frog or Tinkling Frog is a species of frog in the Myobatrachidae family. It is endemic to humid mountainous areas of north-eastern Queensland in Australia. It lives among rocks and logs at small fast-flowing streams...

     (Taudactylus rheophilus)
  • Sumatra Toad
    Sumatra Toad
    The Sumatra Toad, Bufo sumatranus is a species of toad endemic to Indonesia. It is listed as a critical endangered species due to a restricted range caused by habitat loss and water pollution....

     (Bufo sumatranus)
  • Lake Hula Painted Frog
    Israel painted frog
    The Israel painted frog, or Hula painted frog is an amphibian, thought to be extinct until one female specimen was found on 16 November 2011...

     (Discoglossus nigriventer)
  • Telmatobufo venustus
    Telmatobufo venustus
    Telmatobufo venustus is a species of frog in the Leptodactylidae family.It is found in Chile and Argentina.Its natural habitats are temperate forests and rivers.It is threatened by habitat loss.-References:...

    was not seen from 1899 until 1999.
  • Atelopus laetissimus
    Atelopus laetissimus
    Atelopus laetissimus is a species of toad in the Bufonidae family.It is endemic to Colombia.Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montanes and rivers.It is threatened by habitat loss.-Source:...

  • Atelopus nahumae
    Atelopus nahumae
    Atelopus nahumae is a species of toad in the Bufonidae family.It is endemic to Colombia.Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montanes and rivers.It is threatened by habitat loss.-Source:...

  • Isthmohyla rivularis
    Isthmohyla rivularis
    Isthmohyla rivularis is a rare species of frog in the Hylidae family. It is found on along fast-moving, clear streams of the lower and pre-montane rainforest slopes in Costa Rica and western Panama, from ....

  • Ixalotriton niger
    Ixalotriton niger
    Ixalotriton niger is a species of salamander in the Plethodontidae family.It is endemic to Mexico.Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montanes and rocky areas.It is threatened by habitat loss.-Source:...

  • Philautus chalazodes
    Philautus chalazodes
    Philautus chalazodes is a species of frog in the Rhacophoridae family.It is endemic to India.Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and heavily degraded former forest.It is threatened by habitat loss.-References:...

  • Thorius minutissimus
    Thorius minutissimus
    Thorius minutissimus is a species of salamander in the Plethodontidae family.It is endemic to Mexico.Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montanes.It is threatened by habitat loss.-References:...


Mammals

  • Fernandina rice rat (Nesoryzomys fernandinae) — Thought extinct in 1996 (last seen 1980) but found again in late 1990s.
  • Santiago Galápagos Mouse
    Santiago Galapagos Mouse
    Nesoryzomys swarthi, also known as the Santiago Nesoryzomys or Santiago Galápagos Mouse, is a species of rodent in the genus Nesoryzomys of family Cricetidae....

     (Nesoryzomys swarthi ) Thought extinct and last recorded in 1906, but was rediscovered in 1997.
  • Bavarian pine vole
    Bavarian pine vole
    The Bavarian pine vole is a vole from the Austrian, Italian, and Bavarian Alps of Europe. It lived in moist meadows at elevations of 600-1,000 metres...

     (Microtus bavaricus) - believed extinct in the 1960s, but rediscovered in 2000.
  • Woolly flying squirrel
    Woolly Flying Squirrel
    The Woolly Flying Squirrel is the sole species placed in the genus Eupetaurus. Until recently scientific knowledge of this rare species was limited to 11 skins collected in the late nineteenth century. However, recent research has confirmed that it is still extant in Pakistani Kashmir...

     (Eupetaurus cinereus) - known only from pelts collected in Pakistan
    Pakistan
    Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

     in the late 19th century, until live specimens were collected in the 1990s.
  • Yellow-tailed woolly monkey
    Yellow-tailed Woolly Monkey
    The yellow-tailed woolly monkey is a New World monkey endemic to Peru. It is a rare primate species found only in the Peruvian Andes, in the departments of Amazonas and San Martin as well as bordering areas of La Libertad, Huanuco and Loreto...

     (Lagothrix flavicauda)
  • Gilbert's Potoroo
    Gilbert's Potoroo
    Gilbert's Potoroo is an Australian marsupial, sometimes called a rat-kangaroo, that is critically endangered. It is described as pointed in the face and about the size of a rabbit. It lives in a restricted area on the southwest coast of Western Australia. Gilbert's Potoroos now exist on Bald...

     (Potorous gilbertii), extremely rare Australian mammal presumed extinct from the 19th century until 1994.
  • Central Rock Rat
    Central Rock Rat
    The Central Rock Rat, Central Thick-tailed Rock-rat, Macdonnell Range Rock-rat, is a species of rodent in the family Muridae. It is found only in Australia....

     (Zyzomys pedunculatus)
  • New Holland Mouse
    New Holland Mouse
    The New Holland Mouse is a species of rodent in the family Muridae. It was first described by George Waterhouse in 1843. It vanished from view for over a century before its rediscovery in Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park north of Sydney in 1967...

     (Pseudomys novaehollandiae) described by George Waterhouse in 1843, it was re-discovered in Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park
    Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park
    Ku-ring-gai Chase is a national park in New South Wales, Australia, 25 km north of Sydney located largely within the Ku-ring-gai, Hornsby, Warringah and Pittwater municipal areas. Ku-ring-gai Chase is also officially classed as a suburb by the Geographical Names Board of New South Wales...

    , North of Sydney, in 1967.
  • Brazilian Arboreal Mouse
    Brazilian Arboreal Mouse
    The Brazilian Arboreal Mouse, Rhagomys rufescens, is a rodent species from South America. It is found in the Atlantic Forest of southeast Brazil....

     (Rhagomys rufescens)
  • Philippine bare-backed fruit bat
    Philippine bare-backed fruit bat
    The Philippine Naked-backed Fruit Bat or Philippine bare-backed fruit bat is a megabat that lives on Negros Island and Cebu Island in the Philippines. Like other bare-backed fruit bats, its wings meet along the midline of their bodies, making it a very agile flier. It roosted in caves, in areas...

     (Dobsonia chapmani)
  • Flat-Headed Myotis
    Flat-headed Myotis
    The Flat-Headed Myotis is a species of vesper bat in the Vespertilionidae family. It is found exclusively in Mexico.-Source:* Chiroptera Specialist Group 2000. . Downloaded on 09 July 2007....

     (Myotis planiceps)
  • Tammar Wallaby
    Tammar Wallaby
    The Tammar Wallaby , also known as the Dama Wallaby or Darma Wallaby, is a small member of the kangaroo family and is the model species for research on kangaroos and marsupials. It is found on offshore islands on the South Australian and Western Australian coast...

     (Macropus eugenii eugenii), this Australia
    Australia
    Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

    n subspecies was presumed extinct from 1925 until genetically matched with imported species in New Zealand
    New Zealand
    New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

     in 1998.
  • Cuban Solenodon
    Cuban Solenodon
    The Cuban Solenodon or Almiqui , is a species of soricomorph that is endemic to Cuba. It belongs to the family Solenodontidae along with a similar species, the Hispaniolan Solenodon...

     (Atopogale cubanus), thought to have been extinct until a live specimen was found in 2003.
  • Leadbeater's Possum
    Leadbeater's Possum
    Leadbeater's Possum is an endangered possum restricted to small pockets of remaining old growth mountain ash forests in the central highlands of Victoria north-east of Melbourne...

     (Gymnobelideus leadbeateri), thought to be extinct until 1965
  • Caspian Pony
    Caspian pony
    The Caspian is a small horse breed native to Northern Iran. Although its original height probably ranged between 9 and 11.2 hands high, it is termed a horse rather than a pony because, size apart, it has much in common with horses...

     - thought to be descended from Mesopotamian horses which became extinct in the 7th century, but was rediscovered in the 1960s.
  • Mahogany Glider
    Mahogany Glider
    The mahogany glider is an endangered gliding possum native to a small region of coastal Queensland.-Appearance:A nocturnal arboreal marsupial, the mahogany glider closely resembles the sugar glider, the squirrel glider and the yellow-bellied glider., but is noticeably larger than any of its...

     (Petaurus gracilis) which was described in 1883 and not recorded between 1886 and 1973. An expedition by the Queensland Museum
    Queensland Museum
    The Queensland Museum is the state museum of Queensland. The museum currently operates four separate campuses; at South Brisbane, Ipswich, Toowoomba and Townsville.The museum is funded by the State Government of Queensland.-History:...

     in 1989 found a living population.

Reptiles

  • La Palma Giant Lizard
    La Palma Giant Lizard
    The La Palma Giant Lizard is a giant lacertid historically living in the island of La Palma ; its habitat ranged from sea level up to altitudes of 800 m....

     (Gallotia auaritae) Thought to have been extinct since 1500, but rediscovered in 2007.
  • La Gomera Giant Lizard
    La Gomera Giant Lizard
    The La Gomera Giant Lizard is a lacertid species that can be found on the island of La Gomera, one of the Canary Islands....

     (Gallotia bravoana), rediscovered in 1999
  • El Hierro Giant Lizard
    El Hierro Giant Lizard
    Gallotia simonyi is a species of lacertid that can be found on the island of El Hierro, one of the Canary Islands. The species was once present throughout much of the island and on the small offshore Roque Chico de Salmor, but is now confined to a few small areas of cliff with sparse vegetation...

     (Gallotia simonyi), rediscovered in 1974
  • Terror Skink
    Terror Skink
    The Terror Skink is a skink only found on the Île des Pins in New Caledonia. Its scientific name is Phoboscincus bocourti....

     (Phoboscincus bocourti) a 50-cm-long lizard, was previously known from a single specimen captured around 1870 and was long presumed extinct. In 2003, on a tiny islet, it was rediscovered.
  • New Caledonian Crested Gecko
    New Caledonian Crested Gecko
    The Crested Gecko, New Caledonian Crested Gecko, Guichenot's Giant Gecko or Eyelash Gecko, Rhacodactylus ciliatus, is a species of gecko native to southern New Caledonia. This species was thought extinct until it was rediscovered in 1994...

     (Rhacodactylus ciliatus)
  • Arakan Forest Turtle
    Arakan Forest Turtle
    The Arakan forest turtle is an extremely rare turtle species which lives only in the Arakan hills of western Myanmar....

     (Heosemys depressa) was last seen in 1908 but found again in 1994.
  • Gray's monitor
    Gray's monitor
    Gray's monitor is a large monitor lizard known only from lowland dipterocarp forest in the east of Luzon and a few smaller adjacent islands in the Philippines such as Polillo Island, where it is locally known as the butaan. It belongs to the subgenus Philippinosaurus. It is largely arboreal and...

     (Varanus olivaceus), was described in 1845, and not seen again by scientists for 130 years

Birds
  • Ivory-billed woodpecker
    Ivory-billed Woodpecker
    The Ivory-billed Woodpecker is or was one of the largest woodpeckers in the world, at roughly 20 inches in length and 30 inches in wingspan. It was native to the virgin forests of the southeastern United States...

     (Campephilus principalis) — Thought extinct circa 1987 before unconfirmed sightings in 1999 and 2004.
  • Jerdon's Courser
    Jerdon's Courser
    The Jerdon's Courser is a nocturnal bird belonging to the pratincole and courser family Glareolidae endemic to India. The bird was discovered by the surgeon-naturalist Thomas C. Jerdon in 1848 but not seen again until its rediscovery in 1986. This courser is a restricted-range endemic found...

     (Rhinoptilus bitorquatus) — A wader
    Wader
    Waders, called shorebirds in North America , are members of the order Charadriiformes, excluding the more marine web-footed seabird groups. The latter are the skuas , gulls , terns , skimmers , and auks...

     from India
    India
    India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

    , assumed extinct until 1986.
  • Madagascar serpent-eagle
    Madagascar Serpent-eagle
    The Madagascar Serpent Eagle, Serpentaire de Madagascar, or Culebrera Azor is a species of bird of prey in the Accipitridae family...

     (Eutriorchis astur) - rediscovered in 1993, sixty years since the previous sighting.
  • Grand Comoro scops-owl (Otus pauliani).
  • Takahe
    Takahe
    The Takahē or South Island Takahē, Porphyrio hochstetteri is a flightless bird indigenous to New Zealand and belonging to the rail family. It was thought to be extinct after the last four known specimens were taken in 1898...

     (Porphyrio hochstetteri) — Assumed extinct in 1898 but found again in 1948.
  • New Zealand storm-petrel
    New Zealand Storm-petrel
    The New Zealand Storm Petrel is a small seabird of the tubenose family. Previously thought to be extinct since 1850, a series of sightings from 2003 to the present indicate the presence of a previously unknown colony. it is ranked on the IUCN Red List as critically endangered...

     (Oceanites maorianus) Believed extinct from 1850 but sighted again in 2003.
  • Bermuda Petrel
    Bermuda Petrel
    The Bermuda Petrel, Pterodroma cahow, is a gadfly petrel. Commonly known in Bermuda as the Cahow, a name derived from its eerie cries, this nocturnal ground-nesting seabird is the national bird of Bermuda, and a symbol of hope for nature conservation. It was thought extinct for 330 years...

     or "Cahow" (Pterodroma cahow) — Thought extinct since 1620 until 18 nesting pairs were found in 1951 on an uninhabited rock outcropping in Bermuda.
  • Forest Owlet
    Forest Owlet
    The Forest Owlet is an owl that is endemic to the forests of central India. This species belongs to the typical owls family, Strigidae. After it was described in 1873 and last seen in the wild in 1884, it was considered extinct until it was rediscovered 113 years later in 1997 by Pamela Rasmussen...

     (Heteroglaux blewitti) — Assumed extinct in the 19th century, but rediscovered in central India
    India
    India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

     in 1997.
  • Night Parrot
    Night Parrot
    The Night Parrot is a small broad-tailed parrot endemic to the continent of Australia. The species was originally placed within its own genus , but most authors now prefer to place it within the genus Pezoporus together with the two ground parrots.No known sightings of the bird were made between...

     (Pezoporus occidentalis), extremely rare Australian bird presumed extinct from 1880s until 1990.
  • Edwards's Pheasant
    Edwards's Pheasant
    Edwards's Pheasant, Lophura edwardsi, is a bird of the pheasant family Phasianidae and is endemic to the rainforests of Vietnam. It is named after the French ornithologist Alphonse Milne-Edwards and first described to science in 1896 The bird's length is and has red legs and facial skin. The male...

     (Lophura edwardii), a Vietnam
    Vietnam
    Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

    ese pheasant
    Pheasant
    Pheasants refer to some members of the Phasianinae subfamily of Phasianidae in the order Galliformes.Pheasants are characterised by strong sexual dimorphism, males being highly ornate with bright colours and adornments such as wattles and long tails. Males are usually larger than females and have...

     presumed extinct from 1928 was rediscovered in 1998.
  • Bruijn's Brush-turkey
    Bruijn's Brush-turkey
    The Waigeo Brushturkey or Bruijn's Brushturkey, Aepypodius bruijnii, is a large brownish-black megapode with a bare red facial skin, red comb, maroon rump and chestnut brown below. There are two elongated red wattles on the back of the head and a long wattle on the foreneck. Both sexes are similar...

     (Aepypodius bruijnii)
  • Madagascar Pochard
    Madagascar Pochard
    The Madagascar Pochard is an extremely rare diving duck of the genus Aythya, previously thought extinct. Prior to a rediscovery in 2006, the last confirmed sighting of the species was at Lake Alaotra on the Central Plateau of Madagascar in 1991...

     (Aythya innotata), thought extinct since 1991 until a small group were spotted in 2006.
  • Kaempfer's Woodpecker
    Kaempfer's Woodpecker
    The Kaempfer's Woodpecker , also known as Piauí Woodpecker, is a species of woodpecker from Brazil. The type specimen, a female, was collected in the Brazilian state of Piauí in 1926...

     (Celeus obrieni), a Brazil
    Brazil
    Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

    ian woodpecker feared extinct after no specimen had been found since its discovery in 1926. Rediscovered in 2006.
  • Cone-billed Tanager
    Cone-billed Tanager
    The Cone-billed Tanager is a species of bird in the Thraupidae family.It is endemic to Brazil.It was described on the basis of a single male specimen collected in Mato Grosso, Brazil, in 1938...

     (Conothraupis mesoleuca) a Tanager
    Tanager
    The tanagers comprise the bird family Thraupidae, in the order Passeriformes. The family has an American distribution.There were traditionally about 240 species of tanagers, but the taxonomic treatment of this family's members is currently in a state of flux...

     species that was undetected from 1938 to 2003, but was then rediscovered in gallery forest in Emas National Park
    Emas National Park
    The Emas National Park |Rhea]] National Park") is a national park and a UNESCO World Heritage Sitein the states of Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil.-Description:...

    .
  • White-winged Guan
    White-winged Guan
    The White-winged Guan, Penelope albipennis, is a bird in the chachalaca, guan and curassow family Cracidae.This species survives in Lambayeque, Cajamarca and Piura, north-west Peru. These are large birds, 70 cm in length, and similar in general appearance to turkeys, with thin necks and small...

     (Penelope albipennis)
  • Large-billed Reed-warbler
    Large-billed Reed-warbler
    The Large-billed Reed-warbler is an Old World warbler in the genus Acrocephalus. The species has been dubbed as "the world's least known bird". It was known from a single specimen collected in India in 1867 and rediscovered in the wild in Thailand in 2006...

     (Acrocephalus orinus), a warbler rediscovered in Thailand
    Thailand
    Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

     in 2006, previous known only from a specimen collected in India
    India
    India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

     in 1867.
  • Utila Chachalaca (Ortalis vetula deschauenseei), subspecies of the Plain Chachalaca
    Plain Chachalaca
    The Plain Chachalaca, Ortalis vetula, is a large bird in the Cracidae family. It breeds in tropical and subtropical environments from mezquital thickets in the Rio Grande Valley in southernmost Texas, United States to northernmost Costa Rica....

     from Honduras
    Honduras
    Honduras is a republic in Central America. It was previously known as Spanish Honduras to differentiate it from British Honduras, which became the modern-day state of Belize...

    , not recorded between 1963 and 2000 and confirmed with a photograph in 2005
  • São Tomé Fiscal
    São Tomé Fiscal
    The São Tomé Fiscal is a species of bird in the Laniidae family. It is endemic to São Tomé and Príncipe. It is 20 to 21 centimeters long...

     (Lanius newtoni)
  • Stresemann's Bristlefront
    Stresemann's Bristlefront
    The Stresemann's Bristlefront is a species of bird in the Rhinocryptidae family.It is endemic to Brazil.Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.It is threatened by habitat loss.-References:...

     (Merulaxis stresemanni)
  • Banggai Crow
    Banggai Crow
    The Banggai Crow, Corvus unicolor, is a member of the crow family from Banggai in Indonesia. It is listed as critically endangered by IUCN and was even feared extinct, but was finally rediscovered during surveys on Peleng Island by Indonesian ornithologist Mochamad Indrawan in 2007 and 2008.It was...

     (Corvus unicolor) not recorded since 1884/1885, confirmed with a photograph in 2008
  • White-collared Kite
    White-collared Kite
    The White-collared Kite, Leptodon forbesi, is a South American raptor. It breeds in north eastern Brazil.The White-collared Kite is 50 cm in length. The adult has a grey head with white hindneck, black upperparts, white underparts, and a grey tail with a very broad, black subterminal band and...

     (Leptodon forbesi)
  • São Tomé Grosbeak
    São Tomé Grosbeak
    The São Tomé Grosbeak, Neospiza concolor, is a large, chunky finch with a massive bill. It is endemic to the island of São Tomé.Until recently this bird was known only from three nineteenth century specimens. It was rediscovered in 1991. The current population is estimated at less than 50. The main...

     (Neospiza concolor)
  • Long-legged Warbler
    Long-legged Warbler
    The Long-legged Thicketbird, Trichocichla rufa, is a small Old World warbler endemic to Fiji. The species is sometimes known as the Long-legged Warbler. It is the sole representative of the genus Trichocichla....

     (Trichocichla rufa)
  • Bahia Tapaculo
    Bahia Tapaculo
    The Bahia Tapaculo is a species of bird in the Rhinocryptidae family. It is endemic to lowland Atlantic forests in Bahia, Brazil. Until recently, it was feared extinct, but has since been rediscovered and is now known from the municipalities of Ilhéus, Maraú, Taperoá, Valença...

     (Eleoscytalopus psychopompus)
  • Cebu Flowerpecker
    Cebu Flowerpecker
    The Cebu Flowerpecker is a small passerine bird. It is endemic to Cebu Island in the Philippines.The Cebu Flowerpecker is a critically endangered breeding bird...

     (Dicaeum quadricolor)
  • Berlepsch's Parotia
    Berlepsch's Parotia
    The Bronze Parotia , also known as Berlepsch's Parotia or Berlepsch's Six-wired Bird of Paradise, is a medium-sized black bird of paradise with bronze-tinged upperparts, conspicuous white flank plumes, iridescent coppery-greenish breast plumes, and six flag-tipped head wires...

     (Parotia berlepschi)
  • Golden-fronted Bowerbird
    Golden-fronted Bowerbird
    The Golden-fronted Bowerbird, Amblyornis flavifrons is a medium-sized, approximately 24 cm long, brown bowerbird. The male is rufous brown with an elongated golden crest extending from its golden forehead, dark grey feet and buffish yellow underparts...

     (Amblyornis flavifrons)
  • Noisy Scrub-bird
    Noisy Scrub-bird
    The Noisy Scrub-bird is a species of bird in the Atrichornithidae family. It is endemic to Australia.-Distribution and habitat:...

     (Atrichornis clamosus)
  • Beck's Petrel
    Beck's Petrel
    Beck’s Petrel, Pseudobulweria becki, is a small, recently rediscovered shearwater. It is dark brown above and on the head and throat. It is dark underneath the wings with a fairly distinct white wingbar. The belly and breast are white...

     (Pseudobulweria beckii), not seen between 1929 and 2007
  • Fiji Petrel
    Fiji Petrel
    The Fiji Petrel , also known as MacGillivray's Petrel, is a small, dark gadfly petrel.The Fiji Petrel was originally known from one immature specimen found in 1855 on Gau Island, Fiji by naturalist John MacGillivray on board 'HMS Herald' who took the carcass to the British Museum in London...

     (Pseudobulweria macgillivrayi), first rediscovered on land in 1983, at the sea in 2009
  • Silvery Pigeon
    Silvery Pigeon
    The Silvery Pigeon , also known as Silvery Wood-pigeon or Grey Wood-pigeon is a species of pigeon found in Indonesia and Malaysia...

     (Columba argentina), confirmed with a photograph in 2008
  • Cuban Kite
    Cuban Kite
    The Cuban Kite, Chondrohierax wilsonii, is a bird of prey in the family Accipitridae which also includes many other diurnal raptors such as kites, eagles and harriers. It is endemic to Cuba....

     (Chondrohierax wilsonii), confirmed with a photograph in 2009

See also

  • Elvis taxon
    Elvis taxon
    In paleontology, an Elvis taxon is a taxon which has been misidentified as having re-emerged in the fossil record after a period of presumed extinction, but is not actually a descendant of the original taxon, instead having developed a similar morphology through convergent evolution...

  • Signor-Lipps effect
    Signor-Lipps effect
    The Signor–Lipps effect is a paleontological principle proposed by Philip W. Signor and Jere H. Lipps which states that, since the fossil record of organisms is never complete, neither the first nor the last organism in a given taxon will be recorded as a fossil.One famous example is the...

  • Living fossil
    Living fossil
    Living fossil is an informal term for any living species which appears similar to a species otherwise only known from fossils and which has no close living relatives, or a group of organisms which have long fossil records...

  • List of extinct animals
  • List of fossil sites (with link directory)
  • Zombie taxon
    Zombie taxon
    In paleontology, a zombie taxon or the zombie effect refers to a fossil such as a dinosaur tooth that was washed out of sediments and re-deposited in rocks and/or sediments millions of years younger. This basic mistake in the interpretation of the age of the fossil leads to its title...

  • Cryptozoology
    Cryptozoology
    Cryptozoology refers to the search for animals whose existence has not been proven...