Law enforcement in Afghanistan

Law enforcement in Afghanistan

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Law enforcement in Afghanistan is one of three major components of the nation's criminal justice
Criminal justice
Criminal Justice is the system of practices and institutions of governments directed at upholding social control, deterring and mitigating crime, or sanctioning those who violate laws with criminal penalties and rehabilitation efforts...

 system, along with courts and corrections
Corrections
In criminal justice, particularly in North America, correction, corrections, and correctional, are umbrella terms describing a variety of functions typically carried out by government agencies and involving the punishment, treatment, and supervision of persons who have been convicted of crimes....

. The National Directorate of Security (NDS) is the domestic intelligence agency
Intelligence agency
An intelligence agency is a governmental agency that is devoted to information gathering for purposes of national security and defence. Means of information gathering may include espionage, communication interception, cryptanalysis, cooperation with other institutions, and evaluation of public...

 of the government of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

, which operates similar to that of the United States Department of Homeland Security
United States Department of Homeland Security
The United States Department of Homeland Security is a cabinet department of the United States federal government, created in response to the September 11 attacks, and with the primary responsibilities of protecting the territory of the United States and protectorates from and responding to...

 (DHS). The Afghan National Police
Afghan National Police
The Afghan National Police - ANP - is the primary national police force in Afghanistan. It serves as a single law enforcement agency all across the country. The Afghan police force was first created with the establishment of the Afghan nation in the early 18th century...

, which includes the Afghan Border Police
Afghan Border Police
The Afghan Border Police secure Afghanistan's border and international airports. The ABP is also responsible to administer the country's immigration process and administer customs regulations. The ABP's anti-narcotic efforts are a prominent concern to the international community at present...

 and the Afghan National Civil Order Police
Afghan National Civil Order Police
Afghan National Civil Order Police is a special police unit developed in July 2006 by Colonel Jack Stankiewicz, US Army, Police Reformation Directorate, CSTC-A of the law enforcement agency in Afghanistan.- Role :...

, is the police force of Afghanistan with jurisdiction
Jurisdiction
Jurisdiction is the practical authority granted to a formally constituted legal body or to a political leader to deal with and make pronouncements on legal matters and, by implication, to administer justice within a defined area of responsibility...

 that covers the entire 34 provinces of the country
Provinces of Afghanistan
The provinces of Afghanistan are the primary administrative divisions of Afghanistan. As of 2004, there are thirty-four provinces in the country. Each province is further divided into smaller districts....

.

The Afghan Border Police (ABP) is responsible for securing and maintaining the nation's borders with neighboring states as well as all international airports within the country. The mission of the Afghan National Civil Order Police (ANCOP) is to provide civil order presence patrols, prevent violent public incidents, and provide crisis and anti-terror response in urban and metropolitan environments. Like the ABP, ANCOP is also under the control of the Afghan National Police (ANP), which is under the nation's Ministry of the Interior. ANCOP is divided into five Brigades, each commanded by a Brigadier General. These brigades are stationed in Kabul
Kabul
Kabul , spelt Caubul in some classic literatures, is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan. It is also the capital of the Kabul Province, located in the eastern section of Afghanistan...

, Paktia, Kandahar
Kandahar
Kandahar is the second largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of about 512,200 as of 2011. It is the capital of Kandahar Province, located in the south of the country at about 1,005 m above sea level...

, Herat
Herat
Herāt is the capital of Herat province in Afghanistan. It is the third largest city of Afghanistan, with a population of about 397,456 as of 2006. It is situated in the valley of the Hari River, which flows from the mountains of central Afghanistan to the Karakum Desert in Turkmenistan...

, and Mazar-i-Sharif.

All the law enforcement agencies of Afghanistan are set up and trained by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) states, mainly by the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. In 2003 the mandate of the International Security Assistance Force
International Security Assistance Force
The International Security Assistance Force is a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan established by the United Nations Security Council on 20 December 2001 by Resolution 1386 as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement...

 (ISAF), under the command of NATO, was extended and expanded beyond the Kabul Province
Kabul Province
Kābul , situated in the east of the country, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. The capital of the province is Kabul City, which is also Afghanistan's capital. The population of Kabul province is 3.5 million people as of 2009, of which almost 80 percent live in the urban areas...

 so that all parts of the country live by the rule of law. In some areas unoccupied by ISAF forces, local militias maintained control until they were gradually unarmed under programs that were started by the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs
United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs
The UN Office for Disarmament Affairs is a department of the United Nations Secretariat established in January 1998 as the Department for Disarmament Affairs as part of the United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan's plan to reform the UN as presented in his report to the General Assembly in...

.

In 2007 the US military began supervising most police development, in conjunction with the U.S. Department of State
United States Department of State
The United States Department of State , is the United States federal executive department responsible for international relations of the United States, equivalent to the foreign ministries of other countries...

, as well as coalition partners. This includes supervising recruiting, training, and operations. The United States armed forces
United States armed forces
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard.The United States has a strong tradition of civilian control of the military...

, primarily from the National Guard, as well as other branches, began mentoring the Afghan police commanders at every level of command. This police mentoring initiative is headquartered in Camp Phoenix
Camp Phoenix
Camp Phoenix is a NATO military installation in Afghanistan, maintained by the United States Army. It is located in Kabul, about six miles from the Kabul International Airport . Camp Phoenix is administered by the 26th "YANKEE" Maneuver Enhancement Brigade , Massachusetts Army National Guard...

 as part of CJTF Phoenix. As of May 2011, the Afghan National Police has 126,000 members while the NDS has between 15,000 to 30,000 employees.

See also

  • National Directorate of Security
  • Afghan National Police
    Afghan National Police
    The Afghan National Police - ANP - is the primary national police force in Afghanistan. It serves as a single law enforcement agency all across the country. The Afghan police force was first created with the establishment of the Afghan nation in the early 18th century...

  • Crime in Afghanistan
    Crime in Afghanistan
    Crime in Afghanistan is present in various forms, and may include the following offenses: murder, contract killing, assassination, kidnapping, drug trafficking, money laundering, fraud, corruption, black marketeering, and other usual crimes...

  • Law of Afghanistan
    Law of Afghanistan
    The legal system of Afghanistan consists of Islamic, statutory and customary rules. It has developed over centuries and is currently changing in the context of the reconstruction of the Afghan state. The supreme law of the land is the Constitution of the Islamic Republic Afghanistan of 2004. Beside...