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Larry O'Brien

Larry O'Brien

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Lawrence Francis "Larry" O'Brien, Jr. (July 7, 1917 – September 28, 1990) was one of the United States Democratic Party
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

's leading electoral strategist
Strategist
A design strategist has the ability to combine the innovative, perceptive and holistic insights of a designer with the pragmatic and systemic skills of a planner to guide strategic direction in context of business needs, brand intent, design quality and customer values...

s when, for more than two decades, he helped reshape American politics
American politics
American politics is an area of study within the academic discipline of political science. It is primarily, but not exclusively, studied by researchers in the United States...

. He served as Postmaster General
United States Postmaster General
The United States Postmaster General is the Chief Executive Officer of the United States Postal Service. The office, in one form or another, is older than both the United States Constitution and the United States Declaration of Independence...

 in the cabinet
United States Cabinet
The Cabinet of the United States is composed of the most senior appointed officers of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States, which are generally the heads of the federal executive departments...

 of President Lyndon Johnson.

He also served as commissioner
Commissioner of the NBA
The Commissioner of the NBA is the chief executive of the National Basketball Association. He is elected by the NBA owners.-Maurice Podoloff :Maurice Podoloff was the first president of the National Basketball Association...

 of the National Basketball Association
National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in North America. It consists of thirty franchised member clubs, of which twenty-nine are located in the United States and one in Canada...

 from 1975 to 1984.

O'Brien, son of Irish
Ireland
Ireland is an island to the northwest of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth...

 immigrants, was born in Springfield, Massachusetts
Springfield, Massachusetts
Springfield is the most populous city in Western New England, and the seat of Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States. Springfield sits on the eastern bank of the Connecticut River near its confluence with three rivers; the western Westfield River, the eastern Chicopee River, and the eastern...

. When he wasn't working in politics, O'Brien managed his family's real estate and did public relations work as well.

Politics


O'Brien learned about politics at a young age when his father was a local leader of the Democratic Party
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

 and had recruited 11-year-old Lawrence to serve locally as a volunteer in the 1928 presidential campaign
United States presidential election, 1928
The United States presidential election of 1928 pitted Republican Herbert Hoover against Democrat Al Smith. The Republicans were identified with the booming economy of the 1920s, whereas Smith, a Roman Catholic, suffered politically from Anti-Catholic prejudice, his anti-prohibitionist stance, and...

 of Al Smith
Al Smith
Alfred Emanuel Smith. , known in private and public life as Al Smith, was an American statesman who was elected the 42nd Governor of New York three times, and was the Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928...

. O'Brien became a passionate Democrat before earning a bachelor's degree
Bachelor's degree
A bachelor's degree is usually an academic degree awarded for an undergraduate course or major that generally lasts for three or four years, but can range anywhere from two to six years depending on the region of the world...

 in law in 1942 at Northeastern University - Springfield Division now known as Western New England College School of Law
Western New England College School of Law
Western New England University School of Law is a private, American Bar Association-accredited law school in Western Massachusetts, the only ABA-accredited law school in Massachusetts outside the greater Boston area....

.

He was appointed in 1946, 1948 and 1950 by his friend Foster Furcolo
Foster Furcolo
John Foster Furcolo was a member of the Democratic Party who served as the 60th Governor of Massachusetts, a member of the United States House of Representatives, and in other government offices in Massachusetts. He was the first Italian-American governor of Massachusetts.-Life and career:Furcolo...

 to serve locally as the director of his U.S. House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is one of the two Houses of the United States Congress, the bicameral legislature which also includes the Senate.The composition and powers of the House are established in Article One of the Constitution...

 election campaigns.

O'Brien was appointed in 1952 by John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy , often referred to by his initials JFK, was the 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963....

 to serve in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. It is bordered by Rhode Island and Connecticut to the south, New York to the west, and Vermont and New Hampshire to the north; at its east lies the Atlantic Ocean. As of the 2010...

 as the director of his successful U.S. Senate
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the United States, and together with the United States House of Representatives comprises the United States Congress. The composition and powers of the Senate are established in Article One of the U.S. Constitution. Each...

 election campaign and, in 1958, to serve in Massachusetts as the director of his successful reelection campaign. His elections were largely attributed to O'Brien's recruitment and use of volunteers, and his development of a statewide election campaign.

He began in 1959 to build the foundation for Senator Kennedy's 1960 presidential campaign
United States presidential election, 1960
The United States presidential election of 1960 was the 44th American presidential election, held on November 8, 1960, for the term beginning January 20, 1961, and ending January 20, 1965. The incumbent president, Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower, was not eligible to run again. The Republican Party...

 by touring the United States.

O'Brien was appointed in 1960 by Sen. Kennedy to serve nationally as the director of his presidential campaign. His election planning in key primary states such as Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States and is part of the Midwest. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, and Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin's capital is...

 and West Virginia
West Virginia
West Virginia is a state in the Appalachian and Southeastern regions of the United States, bordered by Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest, Pennsylvania to the northeast and Maryland to the east...

 convinced many in the party that Sen. Kennedy's Catholicism
Catholicism
Catholicism is a broad term for the body of the Catholic faith, its theologies and doctrines, its liturgical, ethical, spiritual, and behavioral characteristics, as well as a religious people as a whole....

 wasn't a problem.

O'Brien developed a new presidential campaign strategy for the Democratic National Convention
Democratic National Convention
The Democratic National Convention is a series of presidential nominating conventions held every four years since 1832 by the United States Democratic Party. They have been administered by the Democratic National Committee since the 1852 national convention...

 (DNC) which became the standard for both parties. He collected information about each convention delegate and alternate delegate, and communicated frequently the liaison of every delegation.

O'Brien was appointed in 1964 by President Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon Baines Johnson , often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States after his service as the 37th Vice President of the United States...

 to serve nationally as the director of his presidential campaign.

In 1968, O'Brien was appointed by Vice President
Vice President of the United States
The Vice President of the United States is the holder of a public office created by the United States Constitution. The Vice President, together with the President of the United States, is indirectly elected by the people, through the Electoral College, to a four-year term...

 Hubert Humphrey
Hubert Humphrey
Hubert Horatio Humphrey, Jr. , served under President Lyndon B. Johnson as the 38th Vice President of the United States. Humphrey twice served as a United States Senator from Minnesota, and served as Democratic Majority Whip. He was a founder of the Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party and...

 to serve nationally as the director of his presidential campaign and by Howard Hughes
Howard Hughes
Howard Robard Hughes, Jr. was an American business magnate, investor, aviator, engineer, film producer, director, and philanthropist. He was one of the wealthiest people in the world...

 to serve in Washington as his public-policy lobbyist.

Committed to the principle that political parties are fundamental to the American political process, O'Brien was elected in 1968 and 1970 by the DNC to serve nationally as its chairman. His office was the primary target of the break-in at DNC headquarters
Watergate first break-in
The Watergate burglaries, which took place on May 28 and June 17, 1972, were the focus of the Watergate scandal that ultimately led to the resignation of United States President Richard Nixon...

 in 1972, leading to the ensuing Watergate scandal
Watergate scandal
The Watergate scandal was a political scandal during the 1970s in the United States resulting from the break-in of the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C., and the Nixon administration's attempted cover-up of its involvement...

. John H. Meier
John H. Meier
John H. Meier is an American financier and business consultant now living in Vancouver, Canada. He is noted for working as a business adviser for Howard Hughes and for his behind-the-scenes involvement in events that precipitated President Richard M. Nixon's resignation...

, a former business advisor to Hughes, collaborated with Hubert Humphrey and others to use Donald Nixon
Donald Nixon
Francis Donald Nixon was a brother of United States President, Richard Nixon.He was the third of five children:*Harold Nixon *Richard Nixon *Donald Nixon...

 to feed misinformation to his brother the President.

According to Meier, he told Donald that he was sure the Democrats would win the election since they had a lot of information on Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
Richard Milhous Nixon was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. The only president to resign the office, Nixon had previously served as a US representative and senator from California and as the 36th Vice President of the United States from 1953 to 1961 under...

’s illicit dealings with Howard Hughes that had never been released, and that Larry O’Brien had the information (O’Brien didn’t actually have any documents but Meier wanted Richard Nixon to think he did). Donald then called his brother and told him that Meier gave the Democrats all the Hughes information that could destroy him (Richard Nixon) and that O’Brien has it.

This provided the President with the motivation to break into O’Brien’s office, as he wanted to see if anything was going to break before the election, and which led to the Watergate scandal.

During the 1972 Presidential election, O'Brien was a top adviser to George McGovern
George McGovern
George Stanley McGovern is an historian, author, and former U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator, and the Democratic Party nominee in the 1972 presidential election....

. During the Thomas Eagleton
Thomas Eagleton
Thomas Francis Eagleton was a United States Senator from Missouri, serving from 1968–1987. He is best remembered for briefly being the Democratic vice presidential nominee under George McGovern in 1972...

 affair, his name was mentioned as a possible Vice-Presidential replacement. This later went to Sargent Shriver
Sargent Shriver
Robert Sargent Shriver, Jr., known as Sargent Shriver, R. Sargent Shriver, or, from childhood, Sarge, was an American statesman and activist. As the husband of Eunice Kennedy Shriver, he was part of the Kennedy family, serving in the Kennedy and Johnson administrations...

.

The DNC Lawrence O'Brien Award
Lawrence O'Brien Award
The Democratic National Committee Lawrence O'Brien Award was created in 1992 by the family of Lawrence Francis "Larry" O'Brien Jr. and Democratic Party leaders to recognize the many years of service he gave to the party and his belief in the contribution of party volunteers...

 was created in 1992 by his family and Democratic Party leaders to acknowledge the many years of service he gave to the party and his belief in the important contribution of volunteers.

Government


His first post in Washington was given to him by Rep. Foster Furcolo
Foster Furcolo
John Foster Furcolo was a member of the Democratic Party who served as the 60th Governor of Massachusetts, a member of the United States House of Representatives, and in other government offices in Massachusetts. He was the first Italian-American governor of Massachusetts.-Life and career:Furcolo...

 in 1948 to serve in Washington as his administrative assistant and in 1960 he was appointed by President-elect
President-elect
An -elect is a political candidate who has been elected to an office but who has not yet been sworn in or officially taken office. These may include an incoming president, senator, representative, governor and mayor.Analogously, the term "designate" An -elect is a political candidate who has been...

 Kennedy to recruit staff for his administration.

O'Brien was appointed in 1961 by President Kennedy to serve in Washington as his special assistant to the president for congress
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C....

ional relations and personnel. O'Brien was also responsible for awarding patronage
Patronage
Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another. In the history of art, arts patronage refers to the support that kings or popes have provided to musicians, painters, and sculptors...

.

He lobbied successfully during President Kennedy's first year for the expansion of the U.S. House of Representatives Standing Committee on rules to ensure a liberal and moderate majority. O'Brien lobbied also for a majority in support of increasing the minimum wage
Minimum wage
A minimum wage is the lowest hourly, daily or monthly remuneration that employers may legally pay to workers. Equivalently, it is the lowest wage at which workers may sell their labour. Although minimum wage laws are in effect in a great many jurisdictions, there are differences of opinion about...

.

He managed President Kennedy's activities in 1962 on behalf of the Democratic Party during its election campaigns.

O'Brien remained at the White House
White House
The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the president of the United States. Located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D.C., the house was designed by Irish-born James Hoban, and built between 1792 and 1800 of white-painted Aquia sandstone in the Neoclassical...

 after President Kennedy's assassination
Assassination of John F. Kennedy
John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, was assassinated at 12:30 p.m. Central Standard Time on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dealey Plaza, Dallas, Texas...

 when he was appointed in 1963 to serve in Washington as President Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon Baines Johnson , often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States after his service as the 37th Vice President of the United States...

's special assistant to the president for congressional relations and personnel. O'Brien continued this service through 1965.

O'Brien was appointed in 1965 by President Johnson to serve in Washington, D.C. as the U.S. Postmaster General
United States Postmaster General
The United States Postmaster General is the Chief Executive Officer of the United States Postal Service. The office, in one form or another, is older than both the United States Constitution and the United States Declaration of Independence...

. O'Brien continued this service through 1968.

The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration
National Archives and Records Administration
The National Archives and Records Administration is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives...

 Lawrence F. O'Brien Gallery was named and opened in 2004 in his memory.

NBA Commissioner


He was appointed in 1975
1975-76 NBA season
The 1975–76 NBA season was the 30th season of the National Basketball Association. The season ended with the Boston Celtics winning the NBA Championship, beating the Phoenix Suns 4 games to 2 in the NBA Finals.-Notable occurrences:...

 by the National Basketball Association
National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in North America. It consists of thirty franchised member clubs, of which twenty-nine are located in the United States and one in Canada...

 to serve nationally as its commissioner
Commissioner
Commissioner is in principle the title given to a member of a commission or to an individual who has been given a commission ....

, where he directed the successful ABA-NBA merger
ABA-NBA merger
The ABA–NBA merger was the merger of the American Basketball Association with the National Basketball Association, which after multiple attempts over several years finally occurred in 1976.- Origins of ABA-NBA competition :...

 that brought the American Basketball Association
American Basketball Association
The American Basketball Association was a professional basketball league founded in 1967. The ABA ceased to exist with the ABA–NBA merger in 1976.-League history:...

 into the NBA, negotiated television-broadcast agreements with CBS Television, and saw game attendance increase significantly. He continued this service through 1984
1983-84 NBA season
-Statistics leaders:-Yearly awards:*Most Valuable Player: Larry Bird, Boston Celtics*Rookie of the Year: Ralph Sampson, Houston Rockets*Defensive Player of the Year: Sidney Moncrief, Milwaukee Bucks...

. The NBA Championship Trophy was renamed in 1984 the Larry O'Brien NBA Championship Trophy
Larry O'Brien Championship Trophy
The Larry O'Brien NBA Championship Trophy is a trophy awarded to the National Basketball Association team that wins the NBA Finals at the conclusion of every NBA season....

in honor of his service to the sport of basketball
Basketball
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

.

However, his league was troubled by public relations issues through his tenure, especially after the merger. The NBA was looked down on by many fans and reporters who believed, rightly or wrongly, that most NBA players used illegal drugs. O'Brien also pushed for the league to move its TV contract from ABC to CBS; in the aftermath of this, ABC Sports chief Roone Arledge
Roone Arledge
Roone Pickney Arledge, Jr. was an American sports broadcasting pioneer who was chairman of ABC News from 1977 until several years before his death, and a key part of the company's rise to competition with the two other main television networks, NBC and CBS, in the 1960s, '70s, and '80s.-Early...

 decimated CBS' NBA ratings via counter-programming, and CBS later used a new contract to move around, show on tape-delayed coverage (most famously Game 6 of the 1980 NBA Finals), or simply ignore NBA postseason games. He was also generally pushed by his staff into many of his good decisions, such as the expanded All-Star Weekend, most notably by current NBA commissioner David Stern
David Stern
David Joel Stern is the commissioner of the National Basketball Association. He started with the Association in 1966 as an outside counsel, joined the NBA in 1978 as General Counsel, and became the league's Executive Vice President in 1980. He became Commissioner in 1984 succeeding Larry O'Brien...

. Many consider Stern the driving force behind expanded (and non-haphazard) TV contracts with CBS and cable networks and the rise in game attendance, as well as several crucial issues that predicated the rise of the NBA in the early 1980s.

O'Brien was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, located in his birthplace, Springfield, Massachusetts
Springfield, Massachusetts
Springfield is the most populous city in Western New England, and the seat of Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States. Springfield sits on the eastern bank of the Connecticut River near its confluence with three rivers; the western Westfield River, the eastern Chicopee River, and the eastern...

.

NBA career highlights

  • League expanded from 18 to 23 teams under O'Brien
  • Coordinated the NBA's richest TV contract to date (1982
    1982-83 NBA season
    -Statistics leaders:-NBA awards:*Most Valuable Player: Moses Malone, Philadelphia 76ers*Rookie of the Year: Terry Cummings, San Diego Clippers*Defensive Player of the Year: Sidney Moncrief, Milwaukee Bucks...

    )
  • Brought the NBA to cable television
    Cable television
    Cable television is a system of providing television programs to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted to televisions through coaxial cables or digital light pulses through fixed optical fibers located on the subscriber's property, much like the over-the-air method used in traditional...

     (ESPN and USA
    NBA on USA
    The NBA on USA is the de facto name is for the USA Network's National Basketball Association television coverage. The program ran from the season through the season.-Manhattan Cable and HBO:...

    ) in 1982
    1982-83 NBA season
    -Statistics leaders:-NBA awards:*Most Valuable Player: Moses Malone, Philadelphia 76ers*Rookie of the Year: Terry Cummings, San Diego Clippers*Defensive Player of the Year: Sidney Moncrief, Milwaukee Bucks...

    , establishing the league as a cable TV pioneer
  • Negotiated two landmark collective bargaining
    Collective bargaining
    Collective bargaining is a process of negotiations between employers and the representatives of a unit of employees aimed at reaching agreements that regulate working conditions...

     agreements (1976
    1976-77 NBA season
    The 1976–77 NBA season was the 31st season of the National Basketball Association. The season ended with the Portland Trail Blazers winning the NBA Championship, beating the Philadelphia 76ers 4 games to 2 in the NBA Finals.-Notable occurrences:...

    , 1983
    1983-84 NBA season
    -Statistics leaders:-Yearly awards:*Most Valuable Player: Larry Bird, Boston Celtics*Rookie of the Year: Ralph Sampson, Houston Rockets*Defensive Player of the Year: Sidney Moncrief, Milwaukee Bucks...

    )
  • Modified the college draft
    NBA Draft
    The NBA Draft is an annual event in which the thirty teams from the National Basketball Association can draft players who are eligible and wish to join the league. These players are usually amateur U.S. college basketball players, but international players are also eligible to be drafted...

     and restored peace to a league in the midst of legal turmoil (1976
    1976-77 NBA season
    The 1976–77 NBA season was the 31st season of the National Basketball Association. The season ended with the Portland Trail Blazers winning the NBA Championship, beating the Philadelphia 76ers 4 games to 2 in the NBA Finals.-Notable occurrences:...

    )
  • Negotiated the ABA-NBA merger
    ABA-NBA merger
    The ABA–NBA merger was the merger of the American Basketball Association with the National Basketball Association, which after multiple attempts over several years finally occurred in 1976.- Origins of ABA-NBA competition :...

     as the Denver Nuggets
    Denver Nuggets
    The Denver Nuggets are a professional basketball team based in Denver, Colorado. They play in the National Basketball Association . They were founded as the Denver Rockets in 1967 as a charter franchise of the American Basketball Association, and became one of that league's more successful teams...

    , San Antonio Spurs
    San Antonio Spurs
    The San Antonio Spurs are an American professional basketball team based in San Antonio, Texas. They are part of the Southwest Division of the Western Conference in the National Basketball Association ....

    , Indiana Pacers
    Indiana Pacers
    The Indiana Pacers are a professional basketball team based in Indianapolis, Indiana. They are members of the Central Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Basketball Association...

    , and New Jersey Nets
    New Jersey Nets
    The New Jersey Nets are a professional basketball team based in Newark, New Jersey. They are members of the Atlantic Division of the Eastern Conference in the National Basketball Association...

     joined the league and the Kentucky Colonels
    Kentucky Colonels
    The Kentucky Colonels were a member of the American Basketball Association for all of the league's nine years. The name is derived from the historic Kentucky colonels. The Colonels won the most games and had the highest winning percentage of any franchise in the league's history, but the team did...

     and Spirits of St. Louis
    Spirits of St. Louis
    The Spirits of St. Louis were one of two teams still in existence at the end of the American Basketball Association that did not survive the ABA-NBA merger. They were a member of the ABA in its last two seasons, 1974–75 and 1975–76, while playing their home games at the St...

     were bought out and Virginia Squires
    Virginia Squires
    The Virginia Squires were a basketball franchise in the former American Basketball Association from 1970 until just before the ABA-NBA merger in 1976.-In Oakland :...

     folded
  • Introduced salary cap
    NBA Salary Cap
    The NBA salary cap is the limit to the total amount of money that National Basketball Association teams are allowed to pay their players. This limit is subject to a complex system of rules and exceptions and as such is considered a "soft" cap....

     (1983
    1983-84 NBA season
    -Statistics leaders:-Yearly awards:*Most Valuable Player: Larry Bird, Boston Celtics*Rookie of the Year: Ralph Sampson, Houston Rockets*Defensive Player of the Year: Sidney Moncrief, Milwaukee Bucks...

    )
  • Orchestrated the 1976 settlement of the Oscar Robertson suit
    Oscar Robertson suit
    Robertson v. National Basketball Association, 556 F.2d 682 , was an antitrust lawsuit filed by American basketball player Oscar Robertson against the National Basketball Association.- Overview :...

    , creating a fair and equitable system of free agency
    Free agent
    In professional sports, a free agent is a player whose contract with a team has expired and who is thus eligible to sign with another club or franchise....

     for veterans
  • Annual NBA attendance reached 10 million during his tenure
  • Gate receipts doubled and television revenue tripled during his time as commissioner
  • Established NBA College Scholarship program (1980
    1980-81 NBA season
    -Statistics leaders:-NBA awards:*Most Valuable Player: Julius Erving, Philadelphia 76ers*Rookie of the Year: Darrell Griffith, Utah Jazz*Coach of the Year: Jack McKinney, Indiana Pacers*All-NBA First Team:**Larry Bird, Boston Celtics...

    )
  • Reached a stringent anti-drug agreement with the NBA Players Association (1983
    1983-84 NBA season
    -Statistics leaders:-Yearly awards:*Most Valuable Player: Larry Bird, Boston Celtics*Rookie of the Year: Ralph Sampson, Houston Rockets*Defensive Player of the Year: Sidney Moncrief, Milwaukee Bucks...

    )
  • Oversaw the adoption of the three-point field goal in the NBA (1979
    1979-80 NBA season
    -Statistics leaders:-NBA awards:*Most Valuable Player: Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, Los Angeles Lakers*Rookie of the Year: Larry Bird, Boston Celtics*Coach of the Year: Bill Fitch, Boston Celtics*All-NBA First Team:**Paul Westphal, Phoenix Suns...

    )

Quotations

  • "Volunteers are essential to the success of any political campaign. There is no such thing as having a surplus of volunteers," O'Brien, 1960 campaign manual of President Kennedy.
  • "I'm proud to be a politician. Politics is the art of the possible and it is an intensely personal art," O'Brien memoirs, No Final Victories.

External links