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Laramie, Wyoming

Laramie, Wyoming

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Encyclopedia
Laramie is a city in and the county seat
County seat
A county seat is an administrative center, or seat of government, for a county or civil parish. The term is primarily used in the United States....

 of Albany County, Wyoming
Wyoming
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the Western United States. The western two thirds of the state is covered mostly with the mountain ranges and rangelands in the foothills of the Eastern Rocky Mountains, while the eastern third of the state is high elevation prairie known as the High...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. The population was 30,816 at the 2010 Census. Located on the Laramie River
Laramie River
The Laramie River is a tributary of the North Platte River, approximately long, in the U.S. states of Colorado and Wyoming.It rises in northern Colorado, in the Roosevelt National Forest in the Front Range, in western Larimer County...

 in southeastern Wyoming, the city is west of Cheyenne
Cheyenne, Wyoming
Cheyenne is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Wyoming and the county seat of Laramie County. It is the principal city of the Cheyenne, Wyoming, Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Laramie County. The population is 59,466 at the 2010 census. Cheyenne is the...

, at the junction of Interstate 80
Interstate 80
Interstate 80 is the second-longest Interstate Highway in the United States, following Interstate 90. It is a transcontinental artery running from downtown San Francisco, California to Teaneck, New Jersey in the New York City Metropolitan Area...

 and U.S. Route 287
U.S. Route 287
U.S. Route 287 is a north–south United States highway. It is long. It serves as the major truck route between the Texas cities of Fort Worth and Amarillo...

.

Laramie was settled in the mid-19th century along the Union Pacific Railroad
Union Pacific Railroad
The Union Pacific Railroad , headquartered in Omaha, Nebraska, is the largest railroad network in the United States. James R. Young is president, CEO and Chairman....

 line, which crosses the Laramie River at Laramie. It is home to the University of Wyoming
University of Wyoming
The University of Wyoming is a land-grant university located in Laramie, Wyoming, situated on Wyoming's high Laramie Plains, at an elevation of 7,200 feet , between the Laramie and Snowy Range mountains. It is known as UW to people close to the university...

, Wyoming Technical Institute, and a branch of Laramie County Community College
Laramie County Community College
Laramie County Community College is a full-service community college in Laramie County, Wyoming, with campuses in Cheyenne and Laramie and outreach centers at F.E. Warren Air Force Base and in Pine Bluffs. LCCC was established in 1968....

. Laramie Regional Airport
Laramie Regional Airport
Laramie Regional Airport is a public airport located three miles west of the central business district of Laramie, a city in Albany County, Wyoming, United States. It is owned by the Laramie Regional Airport Board....

 serves Laramie. The ruins of Fort Sanders
Fort Sanders (Wyoming)
Fort Sanders was a wooden fort constructed in 1866 on the Laramie Plains in southern Wyoming, near the city of Laramie. Originally named Fort John Buford, it was renamed Fort Sanders after General William P. Sanders who died at the Siege of Knoxville during the American Civil War. This was the...

, an army fort predating Laramie, lie just south of the city along Route 287. Located in the Laramie Valley between the Snowy Range
Medicine Bow Mountains
The Medicine Bow Mountains are a mountain range in the Rocky Mountains that extend for from northern Colorado into southern Wyoming. The northern extent of this range is the sub-range the Snowy Range...

 and the Laramie Range
Laramie Mountains
The Laramie Mountains are a range of moderately high peaks on the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S states of Wyoming and Colorado. The range is the northernmost extension of the line of the ranges along the eastern side of the Rockies, and in particular of the higher peaks of the...

, the city draws outdoor enthusiasts because of its abundance of outdoor activities.

In 2011, Laramie was named as the best city to retire by Money Magazine
Money Magazine
Money Magazine is a business news and financial programme that is broadcast on Sundays at 7:00pm in Hong Kong by television channel TVB Pearl.-Producers and reporters:...

 due to its scenic location, low taxes and educational opportunities.

History


Laramie takes its name from Jacques LaRamie
Jacques La Ramee
Jacques La Ramée was a French or French-Canadian fur trader who lived in what is now the U.S. state of Wyoming after moving there in 1815. In 1820 or 1821, he left for the season to go trapping along what is now known as the Laramie River...

, a French or French-Canadian trapper who disappeared in the Laramie Mountains in the late 1810s and was never heard from again. He was one of the first Europeans to visit the area, and his name was given to a river, mountain range, peak, US Army fort, county, and city. More Wyoming landmarks are named for him than any other trapper but Jim Bridger
Jim Bridger
James Felix "Jim" Bridger was among the foremost mountain men, trappers, scouts and guides who explored and trapped the Western United States during the decades of 1820-1850, as well as mediating between native tribes and encroaching whites...

.

Laramie was founded in the mid-1860s as a tent city near the Overland Stage Line route and the Union Pacific
Union Pacific Railroad
The Union Pacific Railroad , headquartered in Omaha, Nebraska, is the largest railroad network in the United States. James R. Young is president, CEO and Chairman....

 portion of the first transcontinental railroad
First Transcontinental Railroad
The First Transcontinental Railroad was a railroad line built in the United States of America between 1863 and 1869 by the Central Pacific Railroad of California and the Union Pacific Railroad that connected its statutory Eastern terminus at Council Bluffs, Iowa/Omaha, Nebraska The First...

. By May 10, 1868, when the first train entered town, entrepreneurs were building more permanent structures, and Laramie soon had stores, houses, a school, and churches.

Laramie suffered initially from lawlessness. Its first mayor, M.C. Brown, resigned after three turbulent weeks in mid-1868, saying that the town was "ungovernable." This was much due to threats he received from three half-brothers, early Old West gunman "Big" Steve Long
Steve Long
"Big" Steve Long was a western lawman, outlaw, and one of the earliest examples of an Old West gunman, achieving his fame in the Wyoming Territory during the late 1860s.-Early life:...

, Con Moyer and Ace Moyer. Long was Laramie's first marshal
Marshal
Marshal , is a word used in several official titles of various branches of society. The word is an ancient loan word from Old French, cf...

, and with his brothers owned the saloon Bucket of Blood. The three began harassing settlers, forcing them to sign over the deeds to their property to them. Any who refused were killed, usually goaded into a gunfight by Long. By October 1868, Long had killed 13 men.

However, the first Albany County sheriff
Sheriff
A sheriff is in principle a legal official with responsibility for a county. In practice, the specific combination of legal, political, and ceremonial duties of a sheriff varies greatly from country to country....

, rancher N. K. Boswell
N. K. Boswell
Nathaniel Kimball Boswell, aka N. K. Boswell was a frontiersman, rancher, cowboy and lawman of the Old West, best known for building the N. K. Boswell Ranch, considered a historical location of Wyoming today...

, organized a "Vigilance Committee", and on October 28, 1868, Boswell led the committee into the Bucket of Blood, overwhelmed the three brothers, and lynched them at an unfinished cabin down the street. Through a series of other lynchings and other forms of intimidation, the vigilantes reduced the "unruly element" and established a semblance of law and order.

In 1869, Wyoming was organized as Wyoming Territory, the first legislature of which passed a bill granting equal political rights to the women of the territory. In March 1870, five Laramie residents became the first women in the world to serve on a jury. Also, since Laramie was the first town in Wyoming to hold a municipal election, on September 6, 1870, a Laramie resident was the first woman to cast a legal vote in the United States.

Early businesses included rolling mills, a tie treatment plant, a brick yard, a slaughterhouse, a brewery, a glass-blowing plant, and a plaster mill, as well as the railroad yards. In 1886, a plant to produce electricity was built. Several regional railroads were based in Laramie, including the Laramie, North Park and Pacific Railroad and Telegraph Company
Laramie, North Park and Pacific Railroad and Telegraph Company
The Laramie, North Park and Pacific Railroad and Telegraph Company was a short lived railroad line in the U.S. state of Wyoming. In 1880, a group of Albany County businessmen proposed a rail line west from Laramie across the Medicine Bow Range. The railroad only made it to the Soda Lakes, ...

 founded in 1880 and the Laramie, North Park and Western Railroad
Laramie, North Park and Western Railroad
The Laramie, North Park and Western Railroad was a railroad in the U.S. states of Wyoming and Colorado between Laramie, Wyoming and Coalmont, Colorado...

 established in 1901.

A bill signed by Governor Francis E. Warren established the University of Wyoming
University of Wyoming
The University of Wyoming is a land-grant university located in Laramie, Wyoming, situated on Wyoming's high Laramie Plains, at an elevation of 7,200 feet , between the Laramie and Snowy Range mountains. It is known as UW to people close to the university...

 (UW) in 1886, making it the only public university in Wyoming. Laramie was chosen as the site, and UW opened there in 1887. Under the terms of the Morrill Act
Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act
The Morrill Land-Grant Acts are United States statutes that allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges, including the Morrill Act of 1862 and the Morrill Act of 1890 -Passage of original bill:...

, also known as the Land Grant College Act, UW added an agricultural college and experiment station in 1891.

The city was mentioned in worldwide news coverage in 1998 after the murder of Matthew Shepard
Matthew Shepard
Matthew Wayne Shepard was a student at the University of Wyoming who was tortured and murdered near Laramie, Wyoming, in October 1998...

, a gay student at the University of Wyoming. His murder caused an international outcry and became the symbolic focus for a nationwide campaign against gay hate crimes, with federal hate crimes legislation signed into law in 2009. Wyoming still, as of January 2011, lacks a hate crimes law. Shepard's murder was the subject of the award-winning play and movie The Laramie Project
The Laramie Project
The Laramie Project is a play by Moisés Kaufman and members of the Tectonic Theater Project about the reaction to the 1998 murder of University of Wyoming gay student Matthew Shepard in Laramie,...

.

In 2004, Laramie became the first city in Wyoming to prohibit smoking in enclosed workplaces, including bars, restaurants and private clubs. Opponents of the clean indoor air ordinance
Local ordinance
A local ordinance is a law usually found in a municipal code.-United States:In the United States, these laws are enforced locally in addition to state law and federal law.-Japan:...

, funded in part by the R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company
R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company
The R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company , based in Winston-Salem, North Carolina and founded by R. J. Reynolds in 1875, is the second-largest tobacco company in the U.S. . RJR is an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Reynolds American Inc...

, immediately petitioned to have the ordinance repealed. However, the voters upheld the ordinance in a citywide referendum which was conducted concurrently with the 2004 general election. The opponents then challenged the validity of the election in court, claiming various irregularities. However, the judge ruled that the opponents had failed to meet their burden of showing significant problems with the election, and the ordinance, which had become effective in April 2005, remained in effect. In August 2005, Laramie's City Council defeated an attempt to amend the ordinance to allow smoking in bars and private clubs.

Geography and climate


Laramie is located at 41°18′47"N 105°35′14"W (41.312927, -105.587251). According to the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

, the city has a total area of 11.2 square miles (28.9 km²), of which 11.1 square miles (28.8 km²) is land and 0.04 square miles (0.1 km²) (0.18%) is water.

Laramie is on a high plain between two mountain ranges, the Snowy Range
Medicine Bow Mountains
The Medicine Bow Mountains are a mountain range in the Rocky Mountains that extend for from northern Colorado into southern Wyoming. The northern extent of this range is the sub-range the Snowy Range...

, about 30 miles (48 km) to the west, and the Laramie Range
Laramie Mountains
The Laramie Mountains are a range of moderately high peaks on the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S states of Wyoming and Colorado. The range is the northernmost extension of the line of the ranges along the eastern side of the Rockies, and in particular of the higher peaks of the...

, 7 miles (11 km) to the east. The city's elevation above sea level
Sea level
Mean sea level is a measure of the average height of the ocean's surface ; used as a standard in reckoning land elevation...

 is about 7165 feet (2,184 m). The Laramie River
Laramie River
The Laramie River is a tributary of the North Platte River, approximately long, in the U.S. states of Colorado and Wyoming.It rises in northern Colorado, in the Roosevelt National Forest in the Front Range, in western Larimer County...

 runs through Laramie toward its confluence with the North Platte River
North Platte River
The North Platte River is a major tributary of the Platte River and is approximately long counting its many curves, It travels about distance. Its course lies in the U.S...

 east of the Laramie Range.

The city is about 41 miles (66 km) west of Cheyenne, Wyoming
Cheyenne, Wyoming
Cheyenne is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Wyoming and the county seat of Laramie County. It is the principal city of the Cheyenne, Wyoming, Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Laramie County. The population is 59,466 at the 2010 census. Cheyenne is the...

, and 113 miles (182 km) miles north of Denver, Colorado
Denver, Colorado
The City and County of Denver is the capital and the most populous city of the U.S. state of Colorado. Denver is a consolidated city-county, located in the South Platte River Valley on the western edge of the High Plains just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains...

. Laramie lies along U.S. Route 30
U.S. Route 30
U.S. Route 30 is an east–west main route of the system of United States Numbered Highways, with the highway traveling across the northern tier of the country. It is the third longest U.S. route, after U.S. Route 20 and U.S. Route 6. The western end of the highway is at Astoria, Oregon; the...

, Interstate 80, and U.S. Route 287, and it remains an important junction on the Union Pacific Railroad line.

Laramie's total precipitation averages only about 10 inches (254 mm) a year, and the average number of rainy days per year is about 26. The city experiences a day that is 90 °F (32 °C) or warmer about once a year. The average temperature in January is 21 °F (-6 °C), and in July it is 64 °F (18 °C). Annual snowfall averages 42 inches (107 cm). Because of the high elevation, winters are long, and summers are short and relatively cool.

Laramie has a semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 BSk) with long, cold, dry winters and short, warm, somewhat wetter summers.

Demographics


As of the census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

of 2000, there were 27,204 people, 11,336 households, and 5,611 families residing in the city. The population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 was 2,442.5 people per square mile (942.9/km²). There were 11,994 housing units at an average density of 1,076.9 per square mile (415.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 90.81% White, 1.24% African American, 0.89% Native American, 1.92% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 2.89% from other races
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, and 2.19% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.94% of the population.

There were 11,336 households out of which 23.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.3% were married couples
Marriage
Marriage is a social union or legal contract between people that creates kinship. It is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually intimate and sexual, are acknowledged in a variety of ways, depending on the culture or subculture in which it is found...

 living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 50.5% were non-families. 33.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.83.

In the city the population was spread out with 17.5% under the age of 18, 31.8% from 18 to 24, 25.8% from 25 to 44, 16.8% from 45 to 64, and 8.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 25 years. For every 100 females there were 107.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.7 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $27,319, and the median income for a family was $43,395. Males had a median income of $30,888 versus $22,009 for females. The per capita income
Per capita income
Per capita income or income per person is a measure of mean income within an economic aggregate, such as a country or city. It is calculated by taking a measure of all sources of income in the aggregate and dividing it by the total population...

 for the city was $16,036. About 11.1% of families and 22.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.7% of those under age 18 and 8.3% of those age 65 or over.

Annual cultural events


Laramie Jubilee Days started in 1940 to celebrate Wyoming Statehood Day on July 10. Known as Laramie's Hometown Celebration, Laramie Jubilee Days has been a yearly event ever since. Over the years, Jubilee Days has evolved to include a number of different events, many are still in existence today. Jubilee Days is celebrated each year for several days around the Fourth of July
Independence Day (United States)
Independence Day, commonly known as the Fourth of July, is a federal holiday in the United States commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain...

. Events typically include free food, live music, games, carnival
Funfair
A funfair or simply "fair" is a small to medium sized travelling show primarily composed of stalls and other amusements. Larger fairs such as the permanent fairs of cities and seaside resorts might be called a fairground, although technically this should refer to the land where a fair is...

 rides, a street fair
Fair
A fair or fayre is a gathering of people to display or trade produce or other goods, to parade or display animals and often to enjoy associated carnival or funfair entertainment. It is normally of the essence of a fair that it is temporary; some last only an afternoon while others may ten weeks. ...

, a parade, a softball tournament, and rodeo
Rodeo
Rodeo is a competitive sport which arose out of the working practices of cattle herding in Spain, Mexico, and later the United States, Canada, South America and Australia. It was based on the skills required of the working vaqueros and later, cowboys, in what today is the western United States,...

 events.

Museums, concert halls


The Geological Museum at the University of Wyoming
University of Wyoming
The University of Wyoming is a land-grant university located in Laramie, Wyoming, situated on Wyoming's high Laramie Plains, at an elevation of 7,200 feet , between the Laramie and Snowy Range mountains. It is known as UW to people close to the university...

 is open to the public and houses more than 50,000 catalogued mineral, rock, and fossil specimens, including a dinosaur exhibit. The university's art museum offers gallery exhibits, lectures, workshops, classes, and public tours year-round. The Fine Arts Concert Hall on campus presents frequent concerts and recitals during the school year. Housed in the Ivinson Mansion near the center of town is the Laramie Plains Museum. The Wyoming Children's Museum and Nature Center has interactive exhibits and pottery classes for children aged 3 and older.

Libraries


The central library of the Albany County Library system, with a wide range of materials for adults and children, is near downtown Laramie; the system's branch libraries are in Centennial
Centennial, Wyoming
Centennial is a census-designated place in Albany County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 191 at the 2000 census.-History:As the Union Pacific Railroad was pushing west to link up with the Central Pacific Railroad, as part of the First Transcontinental Railroad, they sent logging crews...

, 28 miles (45 km) west of Laramie and Rock River
Rock River, Wyoming
Rock River is a town in Albany County, Wyoming, in the United States. As of the 2000 census, the town population was 235.-Geography:Rock River is located at ....

, 32 miles (51 km) northwest of Laramie. William Robertson Coe Library, the main library of the University of Wyoming, has materials for general research in business, education, fine arts, science, humanities, and the social sciences as well as audio visual and government documents collections. The Brinkerhoff Geology Library specializes in geology, geophysics, physical geography, mining and petroleum geology, and geological engineering. Also at the university are the George W. Hooper Law Library, the Library Annex, a high-density storage facility located in the basement of the UW Science Complex, the Rocky Mountain Herbarium Library, a learning resources center with materials for teachers and children, and an archives, rare book, and manuscript repository known as the American Heritage Center.

South-Northtown


The neighborhood just to the north of the University of Wyoming campus, known as South-Northtown, is densely populated by University students. Almost nightly the casual pedestrian in the area may stumble upon any of several happenings in the neighborhood, from stoop-parties to lawn bowling in the local park or even one of many frequent open forums on topics including philosophy, anthropology, the character of the town, or the planning of future events.
The area is characterized by many medium-sized apartment complexes and houses converted for renting as separate apartments. In addition, the concentration of pedestrian traffic is very high in the area owing to the high student population and modest amounts of on-street parking, so that students are at most hours commuting by foot between South-Northtown and the University campus.

National Register sites



Twenty sites in Laramie, including the Wyoming Territorial Prison, are included on the National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation...

 (NRHP). The prison site includes buildings and other exhibits from a frontier community of the late 19th century. The other sites are the Downtown Laramie Historic District, the Ivinson Mansion and Grounds, Old Main
Old Main (University of Wyoming)
Old Main, built in 1886, was the first and is the oldest remaining building on the University of Wyoming campus, in Laramie, Wyoming. The building currently houses University administration.- History :...

 on the University of Wyoming campus, the Barn at Oxford Horse Ranch, Bath Ranch, Bath Row, Charles E. Blair House, John D. Conley House, Cooper Mansion, East Side School, Fort Sanders Guardhouse
Fort Sanders (Wyoming)
Fort Sanders was a wooden fort constructed in 1866 on the Laramie Plains in southern Wyoming, near the city of Laramie. Originally named Fort John Buford, it was renamed Fort Sanders after General William P. Sanders who died at the Siege of Knoxville during the American Civil War. This was the...

, William Goodale House, Lehman-Tunnell Mansion, Lincoln School, Richardson's Overland Trail Ranch, St. Matthew's Cathedral Close, St. Paulus Kirche
St. Paul's United Church of Christ of Laramie
St. Paul's United Church of Christ of Laramie was founded in 1886 as the first German language congregation in Wyoming. The church building has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1983. The cornerstone was laid on July 13, 1890, three days after statehood...

, Union Pacific Athletic Club, and the Vee Bar Ranch Lodge
Vee Bar Ranch Lodge
The Vee Bar Ranch Lodge was built in 1891 as the home of Lionel C.G. Sartoris, a prominent Wyoming rancher. The ranch was later owned by Luther Filmore, a Union Pacific Railroad official, and the Wright family, who operated the ranch as a dude ranch...

.

Two other Albany County sites near Laramie are on the NRHP. About 20 miles (32 km) east of the city is the Ames Monument
Ames Monument
The Ames Monument is a large pyramid in Albany County, Wyoming, designed by Henry Hobson Richardson and dedicated to brothers Oakes Ames and Oliver Ames, Jr., Union Pacific Railroad financiers. The brothers garnered credit for connecting the nation by rail upon completion of the United States'...

, a large granite pyramid dedicated to brothers Oakes Ames, a Republican
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP . The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S...

 member of the United States House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is one of the two Houses of the United States Congress, the bicameral legislature which also includes the Senate.The composition and powers of the House are established in Article One of the Constitution...

 from Massachusetts
Massachusetts
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. It is bordered by Rhode Island and Connecticut to the south, New York to the west, and Vermont and New Hampshire to the north; at its east lies the Atlantic Ocean. As of the 2010...

, and Oliver Ames, Jr.
Oliver Ames, Jr.
Oliver Ames, Jr. was president of Union Pacific Railroad when the railroad met the Central Pacific Railroad in Utah for the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in North America.-Biography:...

, who were influential in building the Union Pacific portion of the First Transcontinental Railroad
First Transcontinental Railroad
The First Transcontinental Railroad was a railroad line built in the United States of America between 1863 and 1869 by the Central Pacific Railroad of California and the Union Pacific Railroad that connected its statutory Eastern terminus at Council Bluffs, Iowa/Omaha, Nebraska The First...

. Oakes Ames was also implicated in the Credit Mobilier scandal
Crédit Mobilier of America scandal
The Crédit Mobilier scandal of 1872 involved the Union Pacific Railroad and the Crédit Mobilier of America construction company in the building of the First Transcontinental Railroad. The distribution of Crédit Mobilier shares of stock by Congressman Oakes Ames along with cash bribes to...

 and censured by the U.S. House. The other site is Como Bluff
Como Bluff
Como Bluff is a long ridge extending east-west, located between the towns of Rock River and Medicine Bow, Wyoming. The ridge is an anticline, formed as a result of compressional geological folding. Three geological formations, the Sundance, the Morrison, and the Cloverly Formations, containing...

, a long ridge extending east-west between Rock River
Rock River, Wyoming
Rock River is a town in Albany County, Wyoming, in the United States. As of the 2000 census, the town population was 235.-Geography:Rock River is located at ....

, 32 miles (51 km) northwest of Laramie, and Medicine Bow
Medicine Bow, Wyoming
Medicine Bow is a town in Carbon County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 304 at the 2010 census.-Geography:Medicine Bow is located at ....

. Geologic formations in the ridge contain fossils, including dinosaurs, from the Late Jurassic
Late Jurassic
The Late Jurassic is the third epoch of the Jurassic Period, and it spans the geologic time from 161.2 ± 4.0 to 145.5 ± 4.0 million years ago , which is preserved in Upper Jurassic strata. In European lithostratigraphy, the name "Malm" indicates rocks of Late Jurassic age...

.

Outdoor sports


Sports enthusiasts find much to do in and near Laramie, nestled at 7165 feet (2,184 m) above sea level between the Laramie Range (Laramie Mountains
Laramie Mountains
The Laramie Mountains are a range of moderately high peaks on the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S states of Wyoming and Colorado. The range is the northernmost extension of the line of the ranges along the eastern side of the Rockies, and in particular of the higher peaks of the...

) and the Snowy Range (Medicine Bow Mountains
Medicine Bow Mountains
The Medicine Bow Mountains are a mountain range in the Rocky Mountains that extend for from northern Colorado into southern Wyoming. The northern extent of this range is the sub-range the Snowy Range...

). Popular activities include skiing, snowmobiling
Snowmobile
A snowmobile, also known in some places as a snowmachine, or sled,is a land vehicle for winter travel on snow. Designed to be operated on snow and ice, they require no road or trail. Design variations enable some machines to operate in deep snow or forests; most are used on open terrain, including...

, mountain biking
Mountain bike
A mountain bike or mountain bicycle is a bicycle created for off-road cycling. This activity includes traversing of rocks and washouts, and steep declines,...

, hunting
Hunting
Hunting is the practice of pursuing any living thing, usually wildlife, for food, recreation, or trade. In present-day use, the term refers to lawful hunting, as distinguished from poaching, which is the killing, trapping or capture of the hunted species contrary to applicable law...

, fishing, and hiking.

Volunteers from the Medicine Bow Nordic Association, in cooperation with the Forest Service
United States Forest Service
The United States Forest Service is an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 155 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass...

, maintain groomed cross-country ski
Cross-country skiing
Cross-country skiing is a winter sport in which participants propel themselves across snow-covered terrain using skis and poles...

 trails in a sector of the Laramie Range about 10 miles (16 km) east of the city. To the west, Snowy Range cross-country trails run through the national forest west of Centennial
Centennial, Wyoming
Centennial is a census-designated place in Albany County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 191 at the 2000 census.-History:As the Union Pacific Railroad was pushing west to link up with the Central Pacific Railroad, as part of the First Transcontinental Railroad, they sent logging crews...

, and other trails follow gentle terrain 32 miles (51 km) southwest of Laramie near Woods Landing
Woods Landing-Jelm, Wyoming
Woods Landing-Jelm is a census-designated place in Albany County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 100 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Woods Landing-Jelm is located at ....

. Miles of snowmobile trails wind through the forests, and many forest areas are open to travel by snowshoe
Snowshoe
A snowshoe is footwear for walking over the snow. Snowshoes work by distributing the weight of the person over a larger area so that the person's foot does not sink completely into the snow, a quality called "flotation"....

.
The Snowy Range Ski Area, about 30 miles (48 km) west of Laramie off Wyoming Highway 130, offers downhill skiing
Downhill
Downhill is an alpine skiing discipline. The rules for the Downhill were originally developed by Sir Arnold Lunn for the 1921 British National Ski Championships....

 and snowboarding
Snowboarding
Snowboarding is a sport that involves descending a slope that is covered with snow on a snowboard attached to a rider's feet using a special boot set onto mounted binding. The development of snowboarding was inspired by skateboarding, sledding, surfing and skiing. It was developed in the U.S.A...

 on 27 trails ranging in difficulty from beginner to expert.

Laramie is a center for mountain biking. Mountain bike trails meander through forests in the Laramie Range and the Snowy Range. The Medicine Bow Mountain Bike Patrol, part of the Laramie Bicycling Network, is a non-profit volunteer organization that works with the Forest Service to patrol and maintain biking trails east of Laramie. The Medicine Bow Rail–Trail is a mountain bike trail, 21 miles (34 km) long, built between 2005 and 2007 on the bed of an abandoned railroad southwest of Laramie. It starts near the town of Albany and Lake Owen and extends south to the town of Mountain Home near the Wyoming-Colorado border. The Laramie Enduro 111K, an endurance mountain bike race of 111 kilometres (69 mi) is held annually on Laramie Range trails.

Other annual events include the Poker Run recreational ski race held in the Snowy Mountains each February, and the Tour De Laramie, a bicycle rally with stops at local pubs held in April. The Wyoming Marathon Races, a series of running and ultra-running events held in Medicine Bow National Forest, are held annually each Memorial Day
Memorial Day
Memorial Day is a United States federal holiday observed on the last Monday of May. Formerly known as Decoration Day, it originated after the American Civil War to commemorate the fallen Union soldiers of the Civil War...

 weekend.

Trout fishing is another popular sport in and near Laramie. The Laramie River, which flows north into Wyoming from Colorado, is fished as are the smaller streams in both mountain ranges and the many small plains lakes in the Laramie Basin.

Rock climbing, hiking, and camping are among the attractions of Vedauwoo
Vedauwoo
Vedauwoo is an area of rocky outcrops located in south-eastern Wyoming, United States, north of Interstate 80, between Laramie and Cheyenne. Its name is an anglicized version of the Arapaho word "bito'o'wu" meaning "earth-born"...

, an assemblage of weathered granite slabs, boulders, and cliffs covering 10 square miles (25.9 km²) in the Medicine Bow–Routt National Forest, about 16 miles (26 km) east of Laramie off Interstate 80.

Other outdoor activities popular near Laramie include camping, picnicking, rafting on the Laramie River and the North Platte River
North Platte River
The North Platte River is a major tributary of the Platte River and is approximately long counting its many curves, It travels about distance. Its course lies in the U.S...

, viewing of wildlife such as mule deer, elk, moose, and pronghorn antelope, and general sightseeing. For 27 miles (43 km) of its length as it crosses the Snowy Range, the Highway 130 corridor has been designated a National Forest Scenic Byway.

Parks and recreation


Laramie has 14 city parks that, among them, include playgrounds, seasonal wading pools, jogging and biking paths, baseball and softball fields, a skateboard
Skateboard
A skateboard is typically a specially designed plywood board combined with a polyurethane coating used for making smoother slides and stronger durability, used primarily for the activity of skateboarding. The first skateboards to reach public notice came out of the surfing craze of the early 1960s,...

 park, horseshoe
Horseshoe
A horseshoe, is a fabricated product, normally made of metal, although sometimes made partially or wholly of modern synthetic materials, designed to protect a horse's hoof from wear and tear. Shoes are attached on the palmar surface of the hooves, usually nailed through the insensitive hoof wall...

 pits, tennis courts, volleyball
Volleyball
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules.The complete rules are extensive...

 courts, a fitness
Physical fitness
Physical fitness comprises two related concepts: general fitness , and specific fitness...

 circuit court, soccer
Football (soccer)
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball...

 fields, picnic tables, river fishing, and a seasonally stocked fishing pond. Laramie residents also have access to the University of Wyoming's 18-hole golf course as well as a wide variety of university recreation sites including squash
Squash (sport)
Squash is a high-speed racquet sport played by two players in a four-walled court with a small, hollow rubber ball...

 courts, handball
American handball
American handball is a sport in which players hit a small rubber ball against a wall using their hands.- History :...

 courts, baseball diamonds, basketball courts, a climbing wall
Climbing wall
A climbing wall is an artificially constructed wall with grips for hands and feet, usually used for indoor climbing, but sometimes located outdoors as well. Some are brick or wooden constructions, but on most modern walls, the material most often used is a thick multiplex board with holes drilled...

, and fields for football, soccer, and track.

The Community Recreation Center has an outdoor swimming pool, an indoor pool, an eight-lane lap pool, water slide
Water slide
A water slide is a type of slide designed for warm-weather or indoor recreational use at water parks. Water slides differ in their riding method and therefore size...

s, a full-court gymnasium, cardio equipment, circuit weights, and an indoor playground, and it offers programs in adult fitness, youth volleyball, junior basketball, and aquatics. The Community Ice Arena is open for ice skating, skating lessons, hockey
Hockey
Hockey is a family of sports in which two teams play against each other by trying to maneuver a ball or a puck into the opponent's goal using a hockey stick.-Etymology:...

, synchronized skating, adult co-ed broomball
Broomball
Broomball is a recreational ice game originating in Canada and played around the world. It is played in a hockey rink, either indoors or outdoors, depending on climate and location. Broomball is popular in the Canadian province of Manitoba, where Glenella is the Broomball Capital of the World...

, and other ice-related activities from October through mid-March. A children's hockey club, a figure skating club, university hockey teams, and adult non-check
Checking (ice hockey)
Checking in ice hockey is any one of a number of defensive techniques. It is usually not a penalty.- Types :There are various types of checking:...

 hockey teams as well as the general public use the ice arena.

Government


Laramie has a council-manager
Council-manager government
The council–manager government form is one of two predominant forms of municipal government in the United States; the other common form of local government is the mayor-council government form, which characteristically occurs in large cities...

 form of government. The council, the city's legislative body, consists of nine members who serve overlapping four-year terms. The council members set policy, approve budgets, pass ordinances, appoint citizen volunteers to advisory boards, and oversee the city staff.

Two members of the council hold at-large seats, and seven are elected from city wards, one per ward. The council picks a mayor and vice-mayor once every two years at the first council meeting in January. The mayor as of 2011 is Scott Mullner, and Karl McCraken is the vice-mayor.

Laramie is the county seat of Albany County and houses county offices, courts, and the county library.

Owing to the presence of the University of Wyoming, voters in Albany County and the City of Laramie support the Democratic Party
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

 in elections with much more frequency than does the state of Wyoming as a whole.

Education


Albany County School District #1
Albany County School District Number 1
Albany County School District #1 is a public school district based in Laramie, Wyoming, United States.-Geography:Albany County School District #1 serves all of Albany County, including the following communities:*Incorporated places**City of Laramie...

, headquartered in Laramie, governs 19 public schools in an area of 4000 square miles (10,360 km²) including Laramie, Centennial, Rock River, and rural locations. A total of about 3,400 students attend these schools, the Laramie fraction of which includes seven elementary schools, two middle schools, Laramie High School
Laramie High School (Wyoming)
Laramie High School is a high school in Laramie, Albany County, Wyoming, United States. In the Albany County School District, high school begins in the 10th grade ; 9th grade students attend a three-year Junior High School...

, and Whiting High School. Snowy Range Academy, a charter school, serves children in grades K
Kindergarten
A kindergarten is a preschool educational institution for children. The term was created by Friedrich Fröbel for the play and activity institute that he created in 1837 in Bad Blankenburg as a social experience for children for their transition from home to school...

–7, and St. Laurence, a Catholic school, serves children in grades K–6.

The main campus of the University of Wyoming
University of Wyoming
The University of Wyoming is a land-grant university located in Laramie, Wyoming, situated on Wyoming's high Laramie Plains, at an elevation of 7,200 feet , between the Laramie and Snowy Range mountains. It is known as UW to people close to the university...

 is in Laramie. In 2009, about 13,400 students were enrolled there at the undergraduate, graduate, and professional levels. The Laramie County Community College
Laramie County Community College
Laramie County Community College is a full-service community college in Laramie County, Wyoming, with campuses in Cheyenne and Laramie and outreach centers at F.E. Warren Air Force Base and in Pine Bluffs. LCCC was established in 1968....

 is also in Laramie. WyoTech
Wyoming Technical Institute (WyoTech)
WyoTech, formerly known as Wyoming Technical Institute, is a for-profit college system founded in Laramie, Wyoming, in 1966. Initially an automotive-themed school, under the ownership of Corinthian Colleges, Inc., WyoTech has grown to six campuses nationwide and now offers degree and diploma...

 also has a campus in Laramie, offering career training in the automotive, diesel, and collision-repair industries.

Media


The Laramie Boomerang
Laramie Boomerang
The Laramie Boomerang is the only daily newspaper in Laramie, Wyoming. It was established in 1881 by Edgar Wilson Nye, who named the paper after his mule, Boomerang...

is Laramie's main newspaper. The Branding Iron is a student-run newspaper at the University of Wyoming. The Laramie Free Press is an online only community news site. Wyoming Public Television station KCWC-TV
KCWC-TV
Wyoming PBS is the Public Broadcasting Service member network in the state of Wyoming. It currently consists of flagship KCWC-TV, channel 4 in Riverton ; full-power satelites KWYP-TV, channel 8 in Laramie and KPTW, channel 6 in Casper; and 35 low-power translator stations across the state.The...

, licensed to Central Wyoming College in Riverton
Riverton, Wyoming
Riverton is a city in Fremont County, Wyoming, United States. It is both the largest city in the county and the largest within the historical boundaries of the Wind River Indian Reservation. The city's population was 9,310 at the 2000 census...

, has a transmitter near Laramie known as KWYP-DT. In addition, many radio stations broadcast from Laramie, as follows:
  • KUWR, 91.9 FM
    Frequency modulation
    In telecommunications and signal processing, frequency modulation conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its instantaneous frequency. This contrasts with amplitude modulation, in which the amplitude of the carrier is varied while its frequency remains constant...

    , Wyoming Public Radio
    Wyoming Public Radio
    Wyoming Public Radio is a non-profit, commercial free radio network licensed to the University of Wyoming.-Programming and Operation:Wyoming Public Radio was founded in 1966, and the station's format is similar to that of many other American public radio stations. Although licensed to the...

  • KUWY, 88.5 FM, Wyoming Public Radio, all Classical
  • KUWL, 90.1 FM, Wyoming Public Radio, Jazz.
  • KOCA-LP
    KOCA-LP
    KOCA-LP is a low-power FM radio station broadcasting a Spanish variety format. Licensed to Laramie, Wyoming, USA, the station is currently owned by La Radio Montanesa: Voz de la Gente.-History:...

    , 93.5 FM, Spanish radio.
  • KCGY
    KCGY
    KCGY is a radio station broadcasting a Country music format. Licensed to Laramie, Wyoming, USA, the station serves the Cheyenne/Laramie area...

    , 95.1 FM, country
    Country music
    Country music is a popular American musical style that began in the rural Southern United States in the 1920s. It takes its roots from Western cowboy and folk music...

  • KIMX
    KIMX
    KIMX is a radio station broadcasting a Top 40 format. The station is licensed to Laramie, Wyoming, USA. The station is currently owned by Appaloosa Broadcasting Company, Inc.-History:...

    , 96.7 FM, Top 40 (CHR)
    Contemporary hit radio
    Contemporary hit radio is a radio format that is common in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and Australia that focuses on playing current and recurrent popular music as determined by the Top 40 music charts...

  • KRQU
    KRQU
    KAAZ is an American radio station broadcasting an active rock format. Licensed to Laramie, Wyoming, USA, the station serves the Cheyenne area. The station is currently owned by Murray Grey Broadcasting, Inc...

    , 98.7 FM, Classic rock
    Classic rock
    Classic rock is a radio format which developed from the album-oriented rock format in the early 1980s. In the United States, the classic rock format features music ranging generally from the late 1960s to the late 1980s, primarily focusing on the hard rock genre that peaked in popularity in the...

  • KARS
    KARS-FM
    KARS-FM is a commercial radio station licensed for Laramie, Wyoming and broadcasting to the Cheyenne, Wyoming and Fort Collins-Greeley, Colorado areas. KARS-FM airs a classic rock music format branded as "Rock 102.9"...

    , 102.9 FM, Classic Rock
  • KHAT
    KHAT
    KHAT is a radio station broadcasting a Sports format. Licensed to Laramie, Wyoming, USA. The station is currently owned by Appaloosa Broadcasting Company, Inc. and features programing from ESPN Radio.-History:...

    , 1210 AM
    Amplitude modulation
    Amplitude modulation is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. AM works by varying the strength of the transmitted signal in relation to the information being sent...

    , sports radio
    Sports radio
    Sports radio is a radio format devoted entirely to discussion and broadcasting of sporting events. A popular format with an almost exclusively male demographic in most areas, sports radio is characterized by an often-boisterous on-air style and extensive debate and analysis by both hosts and...

  • and KOWB
    KOWB
    KOWB is a radio station broadcasting a news talk information format licensed to operate in Laramie, Wyoming, USA. The station is currently owned by Townsquare Media and features programing from Fox News Radio, Fox Sports Radio and Premiere Radio Networks.-History:The station went on the air as KOWB...

    , 1290 AM, news and talk radio
    Talk radio
    Talk radio is a radio format containing discussion about topical issues. Most shows are regularly hosted by a single individual, and often feature interviews with a number of different guests. Talk radio typically includes an element of listener participation, usually by broadcasting live...

    .

Transportation


Great Lakes Airlines
Great Lakes Airlines
Great Lakes Airlines , is an American regional airline operating domestic scheduled and charter services. Corporate headquarters are located in Cheyenne, Wyoming, with hubs at Denver International Airport, Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport, Los Angeles International Airport, McCarran...

 provides daily commercial flights between Laramie Regional Airport
Laramie Regional Airport
Laramie Regional Airport is a public airport located three miles west of the central business district of Laramie, a city in Albany County, Wyoming, United States. It is owned by the Laramie Regional Airport Board....

 and Denver, Colorado
Denver, Colorado
The City and County of Denver is the capital and the most populous city of the U.S. state of Colorado. Denver is a consolidated city-county, located in the South Platte River Valley on the western edge of the High Plains just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains...

. The airport, 3 miles (5 km) west of the central business district, is operated and financed by the City of Laramie and Albany County. In addition to commercial flights, the airport serves private and corporate planes and atmospheric research aircraft from the University of Wyoming. Laramie is also served by Greyhound Lines
Greyhound Lines
Greyhound Lines, Inc., based in Dallas, Texas, is an intercity common carrier of passengers by bus serving over 3,700 destinations in the United States, Canada and Mexico, operating under the well-known logo of a leaping greyhound. It was founded in Hibbing, Minnesota, USA, in 1914 and...

, which maintains a bus depot in the city.

Utilities


The Utility Division of the City of Laramie provides the city's drinking water, which comes from the Big Laramie River, the largest single source, and wellfields in the Casper Aquifer
Aquifer
An aquifer is a wet underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. The study of water flow in aquifers and the characterization of aquifers is called hydrogeology...

, and it is treated in a modern plant. The Utility Division treats the city's wastewater in a plant that, replacing an older plant, began operation in 1998. The Solid Waste Division operates the city-owned landfill, about 1 miles (1.6 km) north of the city. Collections generally occur twice a week for most residential units. The Street Division repairs and maintains Laramie's 135 miles (217.3 km) of streets and 31 miles (49.9 km) of alleys.

Notable people

  • Craig Arnold
    Craig Arnold
    Craig Arnold was an American poet and professor. His first book of poems, Shells , was selected by W. S. Merwin for the Yale Series of Younger Poets...

    , poet
  • Thurman Arnold
    Thurman Arnold
    Thurman Wesley Arnold was an iconoclastic Washington, D.C. lawyer. He was best known for his trust-busting campaign as Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Antitrust Division in Franklin Delano Roosevelt's Department of Justice from 1938 to 1943...

    , attorney
  • Jim Beaver
    Jim Beaver
    James Norman "Jim" Beaver, Jr. is an American stage, film, and television actor, playwright, screenwriter, and film historian...

    , actor
  • Larry Birleffi
    Larry Birleffi
    Larry V. Birleffi was a Wyoming broadcaster known as the original "Voice of the University of Wyoming Cowboys", having announced all UW football and basketball games from 1947—1986. He helped to build the UW sports program in Laramie and was a vigorous promoter of its athletic teams...

    , broadcaster who announced all Wyoming Cowboys
    Wyoming Cowboys
    Wyoming Cowboys is the name given to the sports teams of the University of Wyoming. The women's teams use the name Cowgirls. The University is a member of the Mountain West Conference and competes in NCAA Division I, fielding 17 NCAA-sanctioned sports. Wrestling is the only varsity sport that is...

     football
    College football
    College football refers to American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities, colleges, and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities...

     and basketball
    Basketball
    Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

     games from 1947 to 1986
  • Jesseca Cross
    Jesseca Cross
    Jesseca Cross is a former track and field athlete from the United States who specialized in throwing events. She attended the University of Wyoming on a basketball scholarship, and then competed for the United States in the hammer throw and shot put at the 2000 Summer Olympics...

    , Olympic athlete
  • Francois Dickman, United States Ambassador to Kuwait
    United States Ambassador to Kuwait
    This is a list of United States ambassadors, or lower-ranking diplomatic heads, to Kuwait.* Dayton S. Mak – Chargé d'Affaires* Parker T. Hart – First ambassador* Howard Rex Cottam * John Patrick Walsh...

     1979–83
  • Sheridan H. Downey
    Sheridan Downey
    Sheridan Downey was a lawyer and a Democratic U.S. Senator from California from 1939 to 1950.-Early life:...

    , Democratic
    Democratic Party (United States)
    The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

     U.S. Senator
    United States Senate
    The United States Senate is the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the United States, and together with the United States House of Representatives comprises the United States Congress. The composition and powers of the Senate are established in Article One of the U.S. Constitution. Each...

     from California
    California
    California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

    , 1939–51
  • George Frison
    George Carr Frison
    George Carr Frison is an internationally-recognized archaeologist and recipient of many prestigious awards including: American Archaeology Lifetime Achievement Award, Paleoarchaeologist of the Century Award, and was elected to the National Academy of Sciences...

    , Wyoming archaeologist
  • Grace Raymond Hebard
    Grace Raymond Hebard
    Grace Raymond Hebard gained prominence as a Wyoming historian, suffragist, pioneering scholar, prolific writer, political economist and noted University of Wyoming educator. Hebard's standing as a historian in part rose from her years trekking Wyoming's high plains and mountains seeking first-hand...

    , Western history author and former University of Wyoming trustee, professor
  • H.L. (Harvey) Hix, poet and academic
  • Richard Honaker
    Richard Honaker
    Richard Henderson Honaker is a lawyer in Rock Springs, Wyoming who was nominated on March 19, 2007, by U.S. President George W. Bush to serve as one of three U.S. District Judges for the District of Wyoming. The nomination was given the highest "well qualified" rating by the judicial evaluation...

    , attorney, former legislator, nominee for U.S. District Judge
  • Anosua Mukhopadhyay, noted software designer
  • Timothy Mellon
    Timothy Mellon
    Timothy Mellon is chairman and majority owner of Pan Am Systems, a transportation holding company.The son of Paul Mellon and his first wife, Mary Conover Brown, Timothy Mellon holds a degree in city planning from Yale University...

    , chairman and majority owner of Pan Am Systems
  • William Mulloy
    William Mulloy
    William Thomas Mulloy, Jr. was an American anthropologist. While his early research established him as a formidable scholar and skillful fieldwork supervisor in the province of North American Plains archaeology, he is best known for his studies of Polynesian prehistory, especially his...

    , Rapa Nui and Plains
    Plains Indians
    The Plains Indians are the Indigenous peoples who live on the plains and rolling hills of the Great Plains of North America. Their colorful equestrian culture and resistance to White domination have made the Plains Indians an archetype in literature and art for American Indians everywhere.Plains...

     archaeologist
  • Chip Rawlins
    Chip Rawlins
    Chip Rawlins is the co-author of The Complete Walker IV with Colin Fletcher. He also publishes under the name, C. L. Rawlins . Rawlins is a non-fiction writer, poet, outdoor guide and instructor. Previous jobs include: firefighter, science editor, and field hydrologist.-Biography:Rawlins was born...

    , writer, outdoorsman
  • Matthew Shepard
    Matthew Shepard
    Matthew Wayne Shepard was a student at the University of Wyoming who was tortured and murdered near Laramie, Wyoming, in October 1998...

    , University of Wyoming
    University of Wyoming
    The University of Wyoming is a land-grant university located in Laramie, Wyoming, situated on Wyoming's high Laramie Plains, at an elevation of 7,200 feet , between the Laramie and Snowy Range mountains. It is known as UW to people close to the university...

     student murdered in a hate crime for his sexual orientation.
  • Gerry Spence
    Gerry Spence
    Gerry Spence is a trial lawyer in the United States. In 2008, he announced he would retire, at age 79, at the end of the Geoffrey Fieger trial in Detroit, MI. Spence states that he "has never lost a criminal case either as a prosecutor or a defense attorney...

    , attorney and writer

External links