Laminate

Laminate

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Laminate'
Start a new discussion about 'Laminate'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia

A laminate is a material that can be constructed by uniting two or more layers of material together. The process of creating a laminate is lamination, which in common parlance refers to the placing of something between layers of plastic and gluing them with heat and/or pressure, usually with an adhesive. However, in electrical engineering, lamination is a construction technique used to reduce unwanted heating effects due to eddy currents in components, such as the magnetic core
Magnetic core
A magnetic core is a piece of magnetic material with a high permeability used to confine and guide magnetic fields in electrical, electromechanical and magnetic devices such as electromagnets, transformers, electric motors, inductors and magnetic assemblies. It is made of ferromagnetic metal such...

s of transformer
Transformer
A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors—the transformer's coils. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying magnetic field...

s.

Materials


There are different lamination processes, depending on the type of materials to be laminated. The materials used in laminates can be the same or different, depending on the processes and the object to be laminated. An example of the type of laminate using different materials would be the application of a layer of plastic
Plastic
A plastic material is any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic solids used in the manufacture of industrial products. Plastics are typically polymers of high molecular mass, and may contain other substances to improve performance and/or reduce production costs...

 film — the "laminate" — on either side of a sheet of glass
Glass
Glass is an amorphous solid material. Glasses are typically brittle and optically transparent.The most familiar type of glass, used for centuries in windows and drinking vessels, is soda-lime glass, composed of about 75% silica plus Na2O, CaO, and several minor additives...

 — the laminated subject.

Vehicle windshields are commonly made by laminating a tough plastic film between two layers of glass. Plywood is a common example of a laminate using the same material in each layer. Glued and laminated dimensioned timber is used in the construction industry to make wooden beams, Glulam
Glued laminated timber
Glued laminated timber, also called Glulam, is a type of structural timber product composed of several layers of dimensioned timber bonded together with durable, moisture-resistant adhesives. This material is called 'laminating stock' or lamstock for short.By laminating several smaller pieces of...

, with sizes larger and stronger than can be obtained from single pieces of wood. Another reason to laminate wooden strips into beams is quality control, as with this method each and every strip can be inspected before it becomes part of a highly stressed component such as an aircraft undercarriage
Undercarriage
The undercarriage or landing gear in aviation, is the structure that supports an aircraft on the ground and allows it to taxi, takeoff and land...

.

Examples of laminate materials include Formica
Formica (plastic)
Formica is a brand of composite materials manufactured by the Formica Corporation now based in Newcastle, Tyne & Wear, a division of the New Zealand company Fletcher Building. In common use, the term refers to the company's classic product, a heat-resistant, wipe-clean, plastic laminate of paper or...

 and plywood
Plywood
Plywood is a type of manufactured timber made from thin sheets of wood veneer. It is one of the most widely used wood products. It is flexible, inexpensive, workable, re-usable, and can usually be locally manufactured...

. Formica, which refers to a specific brand name of materials by its manufacturer with the same name, and similar plastic laminates are used in the production of decorative laminates, using either a high or low pressure thermo-processing system. Decorative laminates
Decorative laminate
Decorative laminates are laminated products primarily used as furniture surface materials or wall paneling. It can be manufactured as either high or low pressure laminate, with the two processes not much different from each other except for the pressure applied in the pressing process.It is said...

 (such as Maica Laminates
Maica Laminates
Maica Laminates Sdn Bhd is the first high-pressure laminate manufacturer in Malaysia. It is one of the earliest local-foreign joint venture manufacturing company in Penang.- History :...

, Wilsonart or Laminart) are produced with kraft papers and decorative papers with a layer of overlay on top of the decorative paper, set before pressing them with thermoprocessing into high-pressure decorative laminates. A new type of HPDL is produced using real wood veneer
Wood veneer
In woodworking, veneer refers to thin slices of wood, usually thinner than 3 mm , that are typically glued onto core panels to produce flat panels such as doors, tops and panels for cabinets, parquet floors and parts of furniture. They are also used in marquetry...

 or multilaminar veneer
Multilaminar veneer
Multilaminar wood veneer uses plantation wood to reproduce decorative effects which are typical of quality wood species . This aids the preservation of biodiversity and complies with the principles of Sustainable forest management....

 as top surface. Alpikord produced by Alpi spa and Veneer-Art, produced by Lamin-Art are examples of these types of laminate. High-pressure laminates consists of laminates "molded and cured at pressures not lower than 1,000 lb per sq in. (70 kg per sq cm) and more commonly in the range of 1,200 to 2,000 lb per sq in. (84 to 140 kg per sq cm). Meanwhile, low Pressure laminate is defined as "a plastic laminate molded and cured at pressures in general of 400 pounds per square inch (approximately 27 atmospheres or 2.8 x 106 pascals).

Laminating paper, such as photograph
Photograph
A photograph is an image created by light falling on a light-sensitive surface, usually photographic film or an electronic imager such as a CCD or a CMOS chip. Most photographs are created using a camera, which uses a lens to focus the scene's visible wavelengths of light into a reproduction of...

s, can prevent it from becoming creased, sun damaged, wrinkled, stained, smudged, abraded and/or marked by grease, fingerprints and environmental concerns. Photo identification
Photo identification
Photo identification is generally used to define any form of identity document that includes a photograph of the holder.Some countries use a government issued card as a proof of age or citizenship.Types of photo ID cards include:*Passports...

 cards and credit card
Credit card
A credit card is a small plastic card issued to users as a system of payment. It allows its holder to buy goods and services based on the holder's promise to pay for these goods and services...

s are almost always laminated with plastic film. Boxes and other containers are also laminated using a UV coating
UV Coating
"UV coating" refers to surface treatments which are either cured by ultraviolet radiation, or protect the underlying material from its harmful effects.-Ultra-violet coating of paper:...

. Lamination is also used in sculpture using wood or resin. An example of an artist who used lamination in his work is the American, Floyd Shaman
Floyd Shaman
Floyd Shaman was a prominent twentieth century American sculptor.-Life:Born in Wyoming, Shaman lived in several parts of the state in his early years and briefly in Seattle, Washington where his parents worked in the aircraft industry as part of the war effort. He graduated high school from...

.

Further, laminates can be used to add properties to a surface, usually printed paper, that would not have them otherwise. Sheets of vinyl
Vinyl
A vinyl compound is any organic compound that contains a vinyl group ,which are derivatives of ethene, CH2=CH2, with one hydrogen atom replaced with some other group...

 impregnated with ferro-magnetic
Magnetism
Magnetism is a property of materials that respond at an atomic or subatomic level to an applied magnetic field. Ferromagnetism is the strongest and most familiar type of magnetism. It is responsible for the behavior of permanent magnets, which produce their own persistent magnetic fields, as well...

 material can allow portable printed images to bond to magnets, such as for a custom bulletin board or a visual presentation. Specially surfaced plastic sheets can be laminated over a printed image to allow them to be safely written upon, such as with dry erase markers or chalk
Chalk
Chalk is a soft, white, porous sedimentary rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite. Calcite is calcium carbonate or CaCO3. It forms under reasonably deep marine conditions from the gradual accumulation of minute calcite plates shed from micro-organisms called coccolithophores....

. Multiple translucent printed images may be laminated in layers to achieve certain visual effects or to hold holographic images. Many printing businesses that do commercial lamination keep a variety of laminates on hand, as the process for bonding many types is generally similar when working with arbitrarily thin material.

Invention


Lamination was invented by Dr. Morris M. Blum, DDS, a dentist in 1938. Although it may sound surprising, it turns out that dental laminate was the inspiration for the first lamination of a photograph. Dr. Blum used clear resin that was normally used for capping and bonding teeth to laminate a photograph of his wife. He is recognized to this date for his contributions with a special scholarship fund at the University of Minnesota.

Types of laminators


Three types of laminators are used most often in digital imaging:
  • Pouch laminators
    Pouch laminators
    A pouch laminator uses a lamination pouch that is usually sealed on one side. The inside of the lamination pouch is coated with a heat-activated film that adheres to the product being laminated as it runs through the laminator. The substrate side of the board contains a heat-activated adhesive that...

  • Heated roll laminators
  • Cold roll laminators
    Cold roll laminators
    Cold Roll Laminators use a plastic film which is coated with an adhesive and glossy backing which does not adhere to the glue. When the glossy backing is removed, the adhesive is exposed, which then sticks directly onto the item which needs to be laminated...


Film types


Laminate film is generally categorized into these five categories:
  • Standard thermal laminating films
  • Low-temperature thermal laminating films
  • Heatset (or heat-assisted) laminating films
  • Pressure-sensitive films
  • Liquid laminate

See also

  • Lamination paper
    Lamination paper
    Lamination paper is a paper used for laminates. Normally on particle or fiberboards giving a good-looking and resistant surface for use as furniture, decoration panels and flooring..-Properties:...

  • Laminated bow
    Laminated bow
    A laminated bow is an archery bow in which different materials are laminated together to form the bow stave itself. Traditional composite bows are normally not included, although their construction with horn, wood, and sinew might bring them within the above definition. This term usually refers to...

  • Composite laminates
    Composite laminates
    In materials science, Composite laminates are assemblies of layers of fibrous composite materials which can be joined to provide required engineering properties, including in-plane stiffness, bending stiffness, strength, and coefficient of thermal expansion....

  • Carbon-fibre reinforced plastic
  • Composite material
    Composite material
    Composite materials, often shortened to composites or called composition materials, are engineered or naturally occurring materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties which remain separate and distinct at the macroscopic or...

  • Epoxy
    Epoxy
    Epoxy, also known as polyepoxide, is a thermosetting polymer formed from reaction of an epoxide "resin" with polyamine "hardener". Epoxy has a wide range of applications, including fiber-reinforced plastic materials and general purpose adhesives....

  • Glass-reinforced plastic
    Glass-reinforced plastic
    Fiberglass , is a fiber reinforced polymer made of a plastic matrix reinforced by fine fibers of glass. It is also known as GFK ....

  • Sandwich structured composite
    Sandwich structured composite
    A sandwich-structured composite is a special class of composite materials that is fabricated by attaching two thin but stiff skins to a lightweight but thick core...

  • Wood
    Wood
    Wood is a hard, fibrous tissue found in many trees. It has been used for hundreds of thousands of years for both fuel and as a construction material. It is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers embedded in a matrix of lignin which resists compression...


External links