Lake Constance

Lake Constance

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{{About|the European lake|the lake in New Zealand|Lake Constance, New Zealand}} {{Redirect|Constance Lake|the First Nations community in Canada|Constance Lake First Nation}} '''Lake Constance''' ([[German language|German]]: ''Bodensee'') is a lake on the [[Rhine]] at the northern foot of the [[Alps]], and consists of three [[Body of water|bodies of water]]: the ''Obersee'' ("upper lake"), the ''Untersee'' ("lower lake"), and a connecting stretch of the Rhine, called the ''Seerhein''. The lake is situated in [[Germany]], [[Switzerland]] and [[Austria]] near the Alps. Specifically, its shorelines lie in the German federal-states of [[Bavaria]] and [[Baden-Württemberg]], the Austrian federal-state of [[Vorarlberg]], and the Swiss cantons of [[Thurgau]] and [[St. Gallen]]. The [[Rhine]] flows into it from the south following the Austro-Swiss frontier. Lake Constance was first mentioned by the [[Roman Empire|Roman]] geographer [[Pomponius Mela]] about [[43|43AD]]. He noted that the Rhine flows through two lakes, and gave them the [[Latin language|Latin]] names ''Lacus Venetus'' ''(Obersee)'' and ''Lacus Acronius'' ''(Untersee)''. [[Pliny the Elder]] used the name ''Lacus Brigantinus'', after the Roman city of Brigantium (today [[Bregenz]]). The lake is also colloquially known as the ''Swabian Sea'' (''das schwäbische Meer''). The [[freshwater]] lake sits at {{convert|395|m|ft|abbr=on}} above [[sea level]] and is [[Central Europe]]'s third largest, after [[Lake Balaton]] and [[Lake Geneva]]. It is {{convert|63|km|mi|abbr=on}} long, and at its widest point, nearly {{convert|14|km|mi|abbr=on}}. It covers approximately {{convert|571|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}} of total area. The greatest depth is {{convert|252|m|ft}} in the middle of the eastern part (Obersee). Its volume is approximately {{convert|1e10|m3|cuyd|abbr=on}}. The lake has four parts: the main section, called Obersee, {{convert|476|km|sqmi|abbr=on}}; the north section, Überlinger See, {{convert|61|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}}; the west section, Untersee, {{convert|63|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}}; and the northwest section, the Zeller See and Gnadensee. The regulated [[Rhine]] flows into the lake in the southeast, through the Obersee, the city of [[Konstanz]] and the Untersee and flows out near [[Stein am Rhein]]. Lake Constance provides fresh water to many cities in south [[Germany]]. Lake Constance was formed by the [[Rhine Glacier]] during the [[ice age]]. The Rhine, the [[Bregenzer Ache]], and the [[Dornbirner Ache]] carry sediments from the [[Alps]] to the lake, thus gradually decreasing the depth of the lake in the southeast. The lake was frozen in the years 1077 (?), 1326 (partial), 1378 (partial), 1435, 1465 (partial), 1477 (partial), 1491 (partial?), 1517 (partial), 1571 (partial), 1573, 1600 (partial), 1684, 1695, 1709 (partial), 1795, 1830, 1880 (partial), and 1963. Approximately {{convert|1000|t|ST|lk=on}} of fish were caught by 150 professional fishermen in 2001 which was below the previous ten year average of {{convert|1200|t|ST}} per year. The Lake Constance [[Brown trout|trout]] (''Salmo trutta'') was almost extinct in the 1980s due to pollution, but thanks to protective measures has made a significant return. The lake itself is an important drinking water source for southwestern Germany, called ''Bodensee-Wasserversorgung'' ("Lake Constance Water Supply"). Car [[ferry|ferries]] link [[Romanshorn]], Switzerland to [[Friedrichshafen]], and [[Konstanz]] to [[Meersburg]]. ==International borders== There is no legally binding agreement as to where the boundaries lie between Switzerland, Germany and Austria where these three countries meet in Lake Constance. While Switzerland holds the view that the border runs through the middle of the lake, Austria is of the opinion that the lake stands in [[condominium (international law)|condominium]] of all the states on its banks. Germany holds no unambiguous opinion. Legal questions pertaining to ship transport and fishing are regulated in separate treaties. Naturally, disputes arise. One concerns a [[houseboat]] which was moored in two states ([[European Court of Justice|ECJ]] c. 224/97 Erich Ciola), another concerns the rights to fish in the Bay of Bregenz. In relation to the latter, an Austrian family was of the opinion that it alone had the right to fish in broad portions of the bay. However, this was accepted neither by the Austrian courts nor by the organs and courts of the other states. ==Recent floods== * A [[100-year flood]] around June 1999 ([[Pfingsthochwasser 1999]]) raised the level about 2 metres above normal, flooding harbors and many shoreline buildings and hotels. * In late August 2005, heavy rains raised the level by more than 70 cm in a few days. The rains caused widespread flooding and washed out highways and railroads. == Islands in the lake== The three major islands are: *[[Mainau Island]] *[[Reichenau Island]] *[[Lindau, Lake Constance|Lindau]] This is a complete list of the islands in Lake Constance, listed from east to west: {| class="wikitable sortable" |-style="background: #EEE;" !Nr.|| align ="left"|Island || align="right"| Area (m²) ||Population|| Municipality || Coordinates |- |align="right"| 1 ||Galgeninsel ||[[peninsula]] since 19th century ||align="right"| - || [[Lindau, Lake Constance|Lindau]] ([[Reutin]] district) || {{coord|47|33|00|N|09|42|14|E |type:isle_region:DE-BY |name=Galgeninsel}} |- |align="right"| 2 ||Hoy ||align="right"| 53 ||align="right"| - ||[[Lindau, Lake Constance|Lindau]] ([[Reutin]] district) || {{coord|47|32|57.35|N|09|41|48|E |type:isle_region:DE-BY |name=Hoy}} |- |align="right"| 3 || Lindau ||align="right"| 680,000 ||align="right"| 3,000|| [[Lindau, Lake Constance|Lindau]] (Island district) || {{coord|47|32|47|N|09|41|00|E |type:isle_region:DE-BY |name=Lindau}} |- |align="right"| 4 || Wasserburg || align="right"| [[peninsula]] since 1720 || align="right"| 27 || [[Wasserburg (Bodensee)|Wasserburg]] (Island district)|| {{Coord|47|34|02|N|09|37|46|E |type:isle_region:DE-BY |name=Wasserburg}} |- |align="right"| 5 || [[Mainau Island|Mainau]] ||align="right"| 447,584 ||align="right"| 185|| [[Konstanz]] ([[Litzelstetten]] district) || {{coord|47|42|18|N|09|11|46|E |type:isle_region:DE-BW |name=Mainau}} |- |align="right"| 6 ||Dominikanerinsel||align="right"| 18,318 ||align="right"| 21|| [[Konstanz]] (Altstadt district) || {{coord|47|39|51|N|09|10|42|E |type:isle_region:DE-BW |name=Dominikanerinsel}} |- |align="right"| 7 ||Mittlerer Langbohl ||align="right"| 31,254 ||align="right"| -|| [[Konstanz]] (Industriegebiet district) || {{coord|47|40|18|N|09|07|32|E |type:isle_region:DE-BW |name=Mittlerer Langbohl}} |- |align="right"| 8 ||[[Triboldingerbohl]] ||align="right"| 135,570 ||align="right"| -|| [[Konstanz]] (Industriegebiet district) || {{coord|47|40|20|N|09|07|22|E |type:isle_region:DE-BW |name=Triboldingerbohl}} |- |align="right"| 9 || [[Reichenau Island|Reichenau]] ||align="right"| 4,300,000 ||align="right"| 3.200|| [[Reichenau, Baden-Württemberg|Reichenau]] (Unterzell|Mittelzell|Oberzell) || {{coord|47|41|40|N|09|03|48|E |type:isle_region:DE-BW |name=Reichenau}} |- |align="right"| 10 ||Liebesinsel ||align="right"| 300 ||align="right"| -|| [[Radolfzell]] ([[Mettnau]] district) || {{coord|47|43|18|N|09|00|19|E |type:isle_region:DE-BW |name=Liebesinsel}} |- |align="right"| 11 ||[[Werd (Lake Constance)|Werd]] ||align="right"| 15,854 ||align="right"| 9|| [[Eschenz]] (Untereschenz district) || {{coord|47|39|19|N|08|52|00|E |type:isle_region:CH-TG |name=Werd}} |- |align="right"| 12 ||Mittleres Werdli ||align="right"| 4,000 ||align="right"| -|| [[Stein am Rhein]] || {{coord|47|39|24|N|08|51|57|E |type:isle_region:CH-SH |name=Mittleres Werdli}} |- |align="right"| 13 ||Unteres Werdli ||align="right"| 6,000 ||align="right"| -|| [[Stein am Rhein]] || {{coord|47|39|25|N|08|51|50|E |type:isle_region:CH-SH |name=Unteres Werdli}} |-style="background: #CCC;" | class="sortbottom" |align="right"|   ||Lake Constance Islands||align="right"|5,637,079||align="right"| 6,400||6 municipalities||  |} ==Towns and cities at the lake== [[Image:Lake Constance SPOT 1130.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Lake Constance seen from Spot satellite.]] [[Image:Hohentwiel04.JPG|300px|thumb|right|Bodensee Steamboat ''Hohentwiel''.]] [[Image:Austria-Bregenz-Pfaender.jpg|thumb|300px|View from mount Pfänder of Bregenz and the lake (with Lindau in the background).]] [[Image:Hegne und Reichenau.jpg|thumb|300px|[[Reichenau island|Reichenau]] seen from the German shore.]] [[Image:Bodenmeer vanaf Lindau foto2 2009-06-01 09.44.JPG|thumb|300px|Lake Constance from Lindau]] [[Image:Bodensee.jpg|thumb|300px|Twilight near Arbon.]] [[Image:Untersee Berlingen.jpg|thumb|300px|The Lower Lake (''Untersee'').]] ===Austria=== *[[Hard, Austria|Hard]] *[[Hörbranz]] *[[Bregenz]] *[[Lochau]] *[[Höchst, Austria|Höchst]] *[[Fussach]] *[[Gaissau]] ===Germany=== From the entry of the Rhine, on the northern or right shore: *On the Upper Lake (''Obersee'') and ''Überlinger See'' **[[Lindau, Lake Constance|Lindau]] (in [[Bavaria]]) **[[Wasserburg am Bodensee|Wasserburg]] **[[Nonnenhorn]] **[[Kressbronn (Bodensee)|Kressbronn]] (in [[Baden-Württemberg]]) **[[Langenargen]] **[[Eriskirch]] **[[Friedrichshafen]] **[[Immenstaad]] **[[Hagnau (Bodensee)|Hagnau]] **[[Stetten (Bodensee)|Stetten]] **[[Meersburg]] **[[Uhldingen-Mühlhofen]] (on ''Überlinger See'') **[[Überlingen]] **[[Sipplingen]] **[[Bodman-Ludwigshafen]] *[[Konstanz]] with suburbs **[[Wallhausen (Bodensee)|Wallhausen]] **[[Dingelsdorf]] **[[Litzelstetten]] *On the lower lake (''Untersee'') **[[Reichenau island|Reichenau]] (including the island with same name) **[[Allensbach]] (on ''Gnadensee'') **[[Radolfzell]] (on ''Zellersee'') **[[Moos]] **[[Gaienhofen]] **[[Öhningen]] ===Switzerland=== From the entry of the Rhine, on the southern or left shore: *On the Upper Lake (''Obersee'') **[[Altenrhein]], [[Canton of St. Gallen|St. Gallen]] **[[Rorschach, St. Gallen]] **[[Horn, Switzerland|Horn]], [[Thurgau]] **[[Steinach, St. Gallen|Steinach]], [[Canton of St. Gallen|St. Gallen]] **[[Arbon, Switzerland|Arbon]], [[Thurgau]] (as all the following) **[[Frasnacht]] **[[Egnach]] **[[Romanshorn]] **[[Uttwil]] **[[Kesswil]] **[[Güttingen]] **[[Altnau]] **[[Landschlacht]] **[[Münsterlingen]] **[[Bottighofen]] **[[Kreuzlingen]] (and [[Konstanz]], Germany) *On the Rhine **[[Gottlieben]] *On the Lower Lake (''Untersee'') **[[Ermatingen]] **[[Mannenbach]] **[[Berlingen]] **[[Steckborn]] **[[Mammern]] **[[Eschenz]] **[[Stein am Rhein]], [[Schaffhausen]] ==See also== *[[2002 Überlingen Mid-Air Collision]] *[[Württembergischer Yacht Club]] *''Lake Constance'' is also the title of a track from [[Mike Oldfield]]'s ''[[The Millennium Bell]]'' album ==Literature== * Rolf Zimmermann: ''A look at Lake Constance.'' Stadler Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. Konstanz 2004. ISBN 3-7977-0507-7. (Pictures and texts of the cities around Lake Constance). ==External links== {{commons category|Lake Constance}} *[http://www.bodensee-hochwasser.info Bodensee-Hochwasser] {{de icon}} waterlevels *[http://www.bodenseekonferenz.org Internationale Bodenseekonferenz] *[http://www.statistik-bodensee.org/index.php/home.html Regio Bodensee Statistics] *[http://www.badische-seiten.de/bodensee/bilder.php Lake Constance: pictures] *[http://english.konstanz-magazin.de/picture_galleries.php Photos of Lake Constance] *[http://www.ppl.nl/index.php?option=com_wrapper&view=wrapper&Itemid=82 Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law] Peace Palace Library * [http://www.grenzraumsee.uni-tuebingen.de/ GrenzRaumSee: A project from the ''Ludwig-Uhland-Institut für Empirische Kulturwissenschaft'' (Ludwig-Uhland-Department of European Ethnology / Empirical Cultural Science) of the University of Tübingen ] *[http://www.worldlakes.org/uploads/constance_30sep04.pdf Lake Constance/Bodensee Lessons learned managing the lake] *[http://www.gastgeberverzeichnis-bodensee.com/ Tourist Information Lake Constance] {{Lakes Germany 2004|Bodensee|Baden-Württemberg|page=4}} {{Lakes of Switzerland}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Constance}}