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Lackland Air Force Base

Lackland Air Force Base

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Lackland Air Force Base is a United States Air Force
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947 under the National Security Act of...

 base located 6 miles (9.7 km) west-southwest of San Antonio, Texas
San Antonio, Texas
San Antonio is the seventh-largest city in the United States of America and the second-largest city within the state of Texas, with a population of 1.33 million. Located in the American Southwest and the south–central part of Texas, the city serves as the seat of Bexar County. In 2011,...

. The base is under the jurisdiction of the 802d Mission Support Group, Air Education and Training Command
Air Education and Training Command
Air Education and Training Command was established July 1, 1993, with the realignment of Air Training Command and Air University. It is one of the U.S. Air Force's ten major commands and reports to Headquarters, United States Air Force....

 (AETC).

Lackland AFB is part of Joint Base San Antonio
Joint Base San Antonio
Joint Base San Antonio is a United States military facility located in San Antonio, Texas. The facility is under the jurisdiction of the United States Air Force 502d Air Base Wing, Air Education and Training Command ....

, an amalgamation of the United States Army
United States Army
The United States Army is the main branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the largest and oldest established branch of the U.S. military, and is one of seven U.S. uniformed services...

 Fort Sam Houston
Fort Sam Houston
Fort Sam Houston is a U.S. Army post in San Antonio, Texas.Known colloquially as "Fort Sam," it is named for the first President of the Republic of Texas, Sam Houston....

, the United States Air Force
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947 under the National Security Act of...

 Randolph Air Force Base
Randolph Air Force Base
Randolph Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located east-northeast of San Antonio, Texas. The base is under the jurisdiction of the 902d Mission Support Group, Air Education and Training Command ....

and Lackland Air Force Base, which were merged on 1 October 2010.

Overview


JBSA was established in accordance with congressional legislation implementing the recommendations of the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure Commission. The legislation ordered the consolidation of the three facilities which were adjoining, but separate military installations, into a single joint base – one of 12 joint bases formed in the United States as a result of the law.

Lackland AFB is named after Brigadier General Frank Lackland. It is the only entry processing station for Air Force enlisted Basic Military Training
Recruit training
Recruit training, more commonly known as Basic Training and colloquially called Boot Camp, is the initial indoctrination and instruction given to new military personnel, enlisted and officer...

 (BMT). It shared this status temporarily with Amarillo Air Force Base
Amarillo Air Force Base
Amarillo Air Force Base, originally Amarillo Army Air Field is a former United States Air Force base located in Potter County, Texas, approximately 6 miles  East of downtown Amarillo within the easternmost city limits...

 during the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of...

 until Amarillo AFB's closure in 1968.

Lackland AFB hosts a collection of vintage military aircraft on static display on its parade grounds, including a B-52 Stratofortress
B-52 Stratofortress
The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is a long-range, subsonic, jet-powered strategic bomber operated by the United States Air Force since the 1950s. The B-52 was designed and built by Boeing, who have continued to provide maintainence and upgrades to the aircraft in service...

, F-4 Phantom II
F-4 Phantom II
The McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II is a tandem two-seat, twin-engined, all-weather, long-range supersonic jet interceptor fighter/fighter-bomber originally developed for the United States Navy by McDonnell Aircraft. It first entered service in 1960 with the U.S. Navy. Proving highly adaptable,...

, SR-71 Blackbird, C-121 Constellation, B-17 Flying Fortress and a B-25 Mitchell
B-25 Mitchell
The North American B-25 Mitchell was an American twin-engined medium bomber manufactured by North American Aviation. It was used by many Allied air forces, in every theater of World War II, as well as many other air forces after the war ended, and saw service across four decades.The B-25 was named...

.

Units

  • 802d Mission Support Group
A unit of the JBSA 502d Air Base Wing
502d Air Base Wing
The 502d Air Base Wing is a United States Air Force unit that provides installation support for Joint Base San Antonio. The 502d activated on 1 August 2009...

, the 802d MSG is the focal point for all base activities, serving and supporting the 37th and 737th Training Groups and all of its mission partners as well as the more than 24,000 retirees living in the local area.

  • 37th Training Wing
    37th Training Wing
    The 37th Training Wing is a wing of the United States Air Force stationed at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas.The 37th TRW provides basic military, professional and technical skills, and English language training for the Air Force, other military services, government agencies, and...

37th Training Group
Provides professional, military and technical training in the knowledge and skills needed for graduates to perform their jobs worldwide. Joint service training for Air Force, Army, Navy and Marine personnel is provided in numerous courses, such as the military working dog program and security and law enforcement

737th Training Group
Provides Air Force Basic Military Training for all enlisted people entering the Air Force, Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard, earning Lackland the nickname, "Gateway to the Air Force."

  • Inter-American Air Forces Academy
Fostering enduring Inter-American engagement through education and training. Teaches 37 technical courses, in Spanish and in English, to students from more than 22 countries every year.

  • Defense Language Institute
    Defense Language Institute
    The Defense Language Institute is a United States Department of Defense educational and research institution, which provides linguistic and cultural instruction to the Department of Defense, other Federal Agencies and numerous and varied other customers...

Primary mission was to teach English to Allied pilot candidates. In 1966, its mission expanded to include other career fields, and the school moved under the DoD with the U.S. Army as the executive agent.

Training Mission


Lackland Air Force Base is home to the 37th Training Wing
37th Training Wing
The 37th Training Wing is a wing of the United States Air Force stationed at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas.The 37th TRW provides basic military, professional and technical skills, and English language training for the Air Force, other military services, government agencies, and...

 (37 TRW) which operates a variety of training squadrons. Within the 37th TRW is the 37th Training Group (37 TRG) which oversees the 5 technical training schools on the base, and the 737 TRG which oversees the Basic Military Training squadrons.

Basic training





Lackland is best known for its role in being the sole location for U. S. Air Force enlisted Basic Military Training (BMT) for the Active Duty Air Force, Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard. BMT is organized into 9 basic training squadrons, each with their own training site on the base. Each squadron is equipped with either a dining facility or a medical clinic. Some BMT squadrons share dining facilities if they are located close enough together and the same is true for medical clinics. Each squadron also has a specific exercise area where basic trainees conduct physical readiness training (PRT). Also , AFOSI anti-terrorism teams are trained here.

In October 2008 the BMT was expanded an extra two weeks to implement and increased demand for more air base defense training as well as other rudimentary skills. It is now sitting even with the Navy's Basic course at 8½ weeks.

Technical training


Lackland, like many other Air Education and Training Command
Air Education and Training Command
Air Education and Training Command was established July 1, 1993, with the realignment of Air Training Command and Air University. It is one of the U.S. Air Force's ten major commands and reports to Headquarters, United States Air Force....

 (AETC) bases, trains enlisted airmen out of basic training in a specific specialty via various "tech schools." Lackland currently has six technical training squadrons on base training multiple airmen in various Air Force Specialty Codes (AFSCs).
  • The 37th TRG supports the following five training squadrons and also trains technical training instructors, military training instructors and military training leaders.
  • The 341st TRS trains military working dogs and handlers for the entire Department of Defense
    United States Department of Defense
    The United States Department of Defense is the U.S...

     and several federal agencies.
  • The 342nd TRS teaches Pararescuemen
    Air Force Pararescue
    Pararescuemen are United States Air Force Special Operations Command and Air Combat Command operatives tasked with recovery and medical treatment of personnel in humanitarian and combat environments...

    , Combat Controllers
    Combat Control Team
    United States Air Force Combat Controllers are ground combat forces specialized in a traditional pathfinder role while having a heavy emphasis on simultaneous air traffic control, fire support and command, control, and communications in covert or austere environments...

    , Special Operations Weathermen
    Air Force Special Operations Weather Technician
    Special Operations Weather Team specialists are tactical observer/forecasters with ground combat capabilities and fall under the 720th Special Tactics Group within the Air Force Special Operations Command...

    , Tactical Air Control Party
    Tactical Air Control Party
    The Tactical Air Control Party, commonly abbreviated TACP, is a small team of Army, Marine or Air Force personnel who provide airspace deconfliction and terminal control of Close Air Support at battle group level or below...

     members, Survival, Evasion, Resistance and Escape (SERE) Specialists, Explosive Ordance Disposal
    Bomb disposal
    Bomb disposal is the process by which hazardous explosive devices are rendered safe. Bomb disposal is an all encompassing term to describe the separate, but interrelated functions in the following fields:*Military:...

     and a variety of advanced Security Forces courses.
  • The 343rd TRS
    343rd Training Squadron
    The 343rd Training Squadron is a United States military training facility used for the instruction of United States Air Force Security Forces....

     trains airmen to become Security Forces
    Air Force Security Forces
    United States Air Force Security Forces are the Military Police, Base Security and Air Base Ground Defense forces of the United States Air Force...

     members in a 13 week academy.
  • The 344th TRS provides the Enlisted Aircrew Undergraduate Course, Services, all 1A career fields.
  • The 345th TRS provides advanced contracting/acquisition, logistics plans, recruiting, supply, and transportation courses.

World War II


Construction on Lackland Air Force Base began in 1941, and it was originally part of Kelly Field. One year later, it became an independent organization—the San Antonio Aviation Cadet Center. On 8 January 1943, the War Department constituted and activated the 78th Flying Training Wing (Preflight) at San Antonio and assigned it to the AAF Central Flying Training Command. The 78th provided aviation cadets the mechanics and physics of flight and required the cadets to pass courses in mathematics and the hard sciences. Then the cadets were taught to apply their knowledge practically by teaching them aeronautics, deflection shooting, and thinking in three dimensions. Once completed, the graduates were designated as aviation cadets and were sent to one of the primary flight schools for pilot training.

Cold War


In 1947, the facility was named Lackland AFB after Brigadier General Frank Lackland.

As a result of the Korean War
Korean War
The Korean War was a conventional war between South Korea, supported by the United Nations, and North Korea, supported by the People's Republic of China , with military material aid from the Soviet Union...

, training populations at Lackland soared to 28 basic military training squadrons (BMTS) within the 3700th Military Training Wing. Temporary facilities, to include 129 "I dormitories", were hastily erected as a quick fix to replace tents cities housing recruits. In 1955 the number of BMTS was reduced to 16, where it remained for the next two decades.

The Vietnam War
Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of...

 buildup necessitated a "split-phase" training from August 1965 to April 1966. This program provided for 22 days at Lackland and 8 days at a technical school, with directed duty assignees receiving the full 30 days at Lackland. When BMT returned to a single phase on 1 April 1966, it was briefly cut back to 24 days from April to July 1966. After that, basic training stabilized at a length of six weeks. This was the same length as the program used by the Army Air Forces when Lackland opened as a basic training base 20 years before. Training requirements also expanded to include teaching English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 to Allied military members from foreign countries.

No other item in the 1960s compared to the incident that occurred at Lackland in February 1966 with the death of a basic trainee. An airman died of spinal meningitis and while ten other cases were confirmed, no other deaths were reported. Virtually all non-essential activities requiring gatherings of basic trainees were canceled. To control the issue further, a cadre of personnel was assigned to activate the 3330th Basic Military Training School at Amarillo Air Force Base
Amarillo Air Force Base
Amarillo Air Force Base, originally Amarillo Army Air Field is a former United States Air Force base located in Potter County, Texas, approximately 6 miles  East of downtown Amarillo within the easternmost city limits...

, Texas, in February 1966. As a result of the continuing expansion of the USAF, Amarillo AFB continued to conduct basic training until December 1968.

During the 1960s, more permanent facilities were constructed, including four 1,000-person steel and brick Recruit Housing and Training (RH&T) dormitories built between 1966 and 1970 for basic military training by the Lackland Military Training Center. These state-of-the-art buildings included living space, dining halls, and training areas for four basic training squadrons under one roof. Eventually six full-size dormitories, and two 600-person facilities, were constructed, enabling excess space to be converted to classroom use.

Air Defense Command


In late 1951 Air Defense Command selected Lackland Air Force Base as one of twenty-eight radar stations built as part of the second segment of the permanent radar surveillance network. Prompted by the start of the Korean War
Korean War
The Korean War was a conventional war between South Korea, supported by the United Nations, and North Korea, supported by the People's Republic of China , with military material aid from the Soviet Union...

, on July 11, 1950, the Secretary of the Air Force asked the Secretary of Defense for approval to expedite construction of the second segment of the permanent network. Receiving the Defense Secretary’s approval on July 21, the Air Force directed the Corps of Engineers to proceed with construction.

On 1 February 1953 the 741st Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron
741st Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron
The 741st Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron is an inactive United States Air Force unit. It was last assigned to the 31st Air Division, Aerospace Defense Command, stationed at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas...

 was activated at Lackland (P-75) with an AN/FPS-3 search radar and an AN/FPS-4 height-finder radar. In 1958 the AN/FPS-4 height-finder radar was replaced by AN/FPS-6 and AN/FPS-6A sets.

By late 1959 Lackland was also performing air-traffic-control duties for the Federal Aviation Administration
Federal Aviation Administration
The Federal Aviation Administration is the national aviation authority of the United States. An agency of the United States Department of Transportation, it has authority to regulate and oversee all aspects of civil aviation in the U.S...

. At this time the site hosted an AN/FPS-20A radar. One AN/FPS-6 was retired by 1963. On 31 July 1963, the site was redesignated as NORAD ID Z-75.

n addition to the main facility, Lackland operated an AN/FPS-14 Gap Filler site:
  • Schulenburg, TX (P-75A): 30°33′45"N 099°26′50"W


In 1965 AN/FPS-20A was upgraded to an AN/FPS-91A radar, then in 1969 it was modified to an AN/FPS-66A. The 741st Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron was deactivated in December 1969, and the FAA assumed control of the radar site.

In September 1972, the Houston-based 630th Radar Squadron
630th Radar Squadron
The 630th Radar Squadron is a previous designation of a provisional United States Air Force unit. It is assigned to Air Combat Command, and was last stationed at Howard AFB, Panama...

 sent a detachment (OL-D) to this FAA-operated site to set up an AN/FPS-6 height-finder radar to join the AN/FPS-66A search radar already in place (Z-241). The Air Force ceased using the Lackland AFB radar site on 30 September 1976.

Today the Lackland ADC site has been taken over by the FAA (also known as 'San Antonio') and remains in operation. This now-FAA long-range radar site is now data-tied into the Joint Surveillance System
Joint Surveillance System
The Joint Surveillance System is a joint United States Air Force and Federal Aviation Administration system for the atmospheric air defense of North America...

. The site still operates the AN/FPS-66A search radar.

Modern era


From the Cold War
Cold War
The Cold War was the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Communist World—primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies—and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States...

 demise, base realignment and closure (BRAC) actions in the 1990s relocated several specialized training programs at Lackland. This included Air Education and Training Command
Air Education and Training Command
Air Education and Training Command was established July 1, 1993, with the realignment of Air Training Command and Air University. It is one of the U.S. Air Force's ten major commands and reports to Headquarters, United States Air Force....

's relocation of Air Force Officer Training School (OTS) from Lackland to Maxwell Air Force Base
Maxwell Air Force Base
Maxwell Air Force Base , officially known as Maxwell-Gunter Air Force Base, is a United States Air Force installation under the Air Education and Training Command . The installation is located in Montgomery, Alabama, US. It was named in honor of Second Lieutenant William C...

, Alabama.

Lackland gained a flying mission when adjacent Kelly Air Force Base
Kelly Air Force Base
Kelly Field Annex and is a former United States Air Force facility located in San Antonio, Texas. In 2001, the runway and land west of the runway became "Kelly Field Annex" and control of it was transferred to the adjacent Lackland Air Force Base, part of Joint Base San Antonio...

 closed in 2001. The two-mile-long runway is now a joint-use facility between Lackland AFB and the city of San Antonio. The portion of the former Kelly AFB still under USAF control is now known as Lackland AFB/Kelly Field Annex and its permanently based flying units include the Air Force Reserve Command
Air Force Reserve Command
The Air Force Reserve Command is a major command of the U.S. Air Force with its headquarters at Robins AFB, Georgia.It stood up as a major command of the Air Force on 17 February 1997....

's (AFRC) 433d Airlift Wing
433d Airlift Wing
The 433d Airlift Wing is a unit of the United States Air Force Reserve assigned to Fourth Air Force. It is stationed at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas...

, an Air Mobility Command
Air Mobility Command
Air Mobility Command is a Major Command of the U.S. Air Force. AMC is headquartered at Scott AFB, Illinois, east of St. Louis....

 (AMC)-gained unit flying the C-5 Galaxy
C-5 Galaxy
The Lockheed C-5 Galaxy is a large military transport aircraft built by Lockheed. It provides the United States Air Force with a heavy intercontinental-range strategic airlift capability, one that can carry outsize and oversize cargos, including all air-certifiable cargo. The Galaxy has many...

 and the 149th Fighter Wing
149th Fighter Wing
The United States Air Force's 149th Fighter Wing is a Texas Air National Guard unit located at Kelly Field Annex, Lackland AFB, in San Antonio, Texas.-Mission:...

 of the Texas Air National Guard
Texas Air National Guard
The Texas Air National Guard is the air force militia of the U.S. state of Texas and a component of the Texas Military Forces...

, an AETC-gained unit flying the F-16 Fighting Falcon
F-16 Fighting Falcon
The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a multirole jet fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics for the United States Air Force . Designed as an air superiority day fighter, it evolved into a successful all-weather multirole aircraft. Over 4,400 aircraft have been built since...

. The civilian side of the former Kelly AFB is now known as Port San Antonio
Port San Antonio
Port San Antonio is a multi-purpose, facility in San Antonio, Texas established to serve as an aerospace complex, international airport and industrial hub with two railroads and close access to three interstate highways...

 and hosts numerous major DoD defense contractors such as Boeing
Boeing
The Boeing Company is an American multinational aerospace and defense corporation, founded in 1916 by William E. Boeing in Seattle, Washington. Boeing has expanded over the years, merging with McDonnell Douglas in 1997. Boeing Corporate headquarters has been in Chicago, Illinois since 2001...

 and Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin is an American global aerospace, defense, security, and advanced technology company with worldwide interests. It was formed by the merger of Lockheed Corporation with Martin Marietta in March 1995. It is headquartered in Bethesda, Maryland, in the Washington Metropolitan Area....

, many of which directly or indirectly support major overhaul and repair of military aircraft previously conducted, and in facilities previously occupied, by the Air Force's former San Antonio Air Logistics Center (SA-ALC) when Kelly was an active Air Force Logistics Command
Air Force Logistics Command
Air Force Logistics Command was a United States Air Force command. Its headquarters was located at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio...

 (AFLC) and Air Force Material Command (AFMC) installation.

In addition, with the closure of Kelly AFB
Kelly Air Force Base
Kelly Field Annex and is a former United States Air Force facility located in San Antonio, Texas. In 2001, the runway and land west of the runway became "Kelly Field Annex" and control of it was transferred to the adjacent Lackland Air Force Base, part of Joint Base San Antonio...

 Lackland gained the section of base known as Security Hill. Security Hill is home to numerous units such as Air Force Space Command
Air Force Space Command
Air Force Space Command is a major command of the United States Department of the Air Force, with its headquarters at Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado. AFSPC supports U.S. military operations worldwide through the use of many different types of satellite, launch and cyber operations....

's 24th Air Force and 67th Network Warfare Wing
67th Network Warfare Wing
The 67th Network Warfare Wing , Lackland Air Force Base, Texas, was reactivated October 1, 1993 as the 67th Intelligence Wing. The wing was re-designated the 67th Information Operations Wing on February 1, 2001...

 and the Air Force Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Agency. All units on Security Hill are considered tenant units.

Lackland now consists of the Kelly airstrip, Security Hill, main base Lackland, and the old Medina officer training base now named Medina/Lackland Training Annex. With the exception of a few buildings most of the old Kelly air base including the housing has been turned over to civilian jurisdiction.

On May 15, 2009, Air Force officials announced that Lackland is the preferred alternative location for the 24th Air Force.

In winter of 2009 it was decided to combine all the military bases in San Antonio into one large base named Joint Base San Antonio.

Census information




The following information is from the 2000 census, which treats the base as a town.

As of the census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

of 2000, there are 7,123 people, 174 households, and 152 families residing on the base. The population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 is 642.6/km² (1,662.6/mi²). There are 412 housing units at an average density of 37.2/km² (96.2/mi²). The racial makeup of the town is 65.20% White, 19.01% Black or African American, 0.86% Native American, 3.64% Asian, 0.32% Pacific Islander, 2.20% from other races, and 8.77% from two or more races. 13.77% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There are 174 households out of which 79.9% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 73.0% are married couples
Marriage
Marriage is a social union or legal contract between people that creates kinship. It is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually intimate and sexual, are acknowledged in a variety of ways, depending on the culture or subculture in which it is found...

 living together, 9.2% have a female householder with no husband present, and 12.6% are non-families. 12.1% of all households are made up of individuals. The average household size is 3.49 and the average family size is 3.78.

On the base the population is spread out with 5.3% under the age of 18, 79.8% from 18 to 24, 14.5% from 25 to 44, 0.4% from 45 to 64, and none who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 20 years. For every 100 females there are 256 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 267.3 males.

The median income for a household in the base is $32,250, and the median income for a family is $31,923. Males have a median income of $16,435 versus $15,572 for females. The per capita income
Per capita income
Per capita income or income per person is a measure of mean income within an economic aggregate, such as a country or city. It is calculated by taking a measure of all sources of income in the aggregate and dividing it by the total population...

 for the base is $10,048. 7.3% of the population and 6.9% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 7.3% of those under the age of 18 are living below the poverty line.

See also

  • Texas Cryptology Center
    Texas Cryptology Center
    The United States National Security Agency has a satellite campus at the Medina Annex, Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas, which some in the media have called the Texas Cryptology Center...

  • Texas World War II Army Airfields
    Texas World War II Army Airfields
    In today's United States Air Force, many personnel have spent some of their military service being trained in Texas during World War II. Be it basic military training at Lackland Air Force Base, technical training, officer training, or flight training at other facilities across the state...

  • Air Training Command
    Air Training Command
    Air Training Command is a former major command of the United States Army Air Forces and United States Air Force. ATC came into being as a redesignation of the Army Air Forces Training Command on July 1, 1946...

  • Twenty-Fourth Air Force
  • List of USAF Aerospace Defense Command General Surveillance Radar Stations

External links