L'Oceanogràfic

L'Oceanogràfic

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The Oceanographic is a marine park situated in the east of the city of Valencia, Spain, where different marine habitats are represented. It was designed by the architect Felix Candela
Félix Candela
Félix Candela Outeriño was a Spanish architect known for his significant role in the development of Mexican architecture and structural engineering. Candela’s major contribution to architecture was the development of thin shells made out of reinforced concrete...

 and the structural engineers Alberto Domingo
Alberto Domingo
Alberto Domingo is a Spanish engineer and Doctor of Civil Engineering at the Polytechnic University of Valencia. With his colleague, Carlos Lázaro, he has designed and built a number of significant structures, including Valencia's Oceanographic Park....

 and Carlos Lazaro. It is integrated inside the cultural complex known as the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències
Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències
The City of Arts and Sciences is an entertainment-based cultural and architectural complex in the city of Valencia, Spain. It is the most important modern tourist destination in the city of Valencia....

.

General information


The Oceanographic is the largest complex of its type in Europe with a surface of 111.000 square meters and a capacity of water of 42.000.000 litres. It has 45,000 animals of 500 different species including fish, mammals, birds, reptiles and invertebrates — amongst these are shark
Shark
Sharks are a type of fish with a full cartilaginous skeleton and a highly streamlined body. The earliest known sharks date from more than 420 million years ago....

s, penguin
Penguin
Penguins are a group of aquatic, flightless birds living almost exclusively in the southern hemisphere, especially in Antarctica. Highly adapted for life in the water, penguins have countershaded dark and white plumage, and their wings have become flippers...

s, dolphin
Dolphin
Dolphins are marine mammals that are closely related to whales and porpoises. There are almost forty species of dolphin in 17 genera. They vary in size from and , up to and . They are found worldwide, mostly in the shallower seas of the continental shelves, and are carnivores, mostly eating...

s, sea lions
Sea Lion
Sea lions are pinnipeds characterized by external ear-flaps, long fore-flippers, the ability to walk on all fours, and short thick hair. Together with the fur seal, they comprise the family Otariidae, or eared seals. There are six extant and one extinct species in five genera...

, walrus
Walrus
The walrus is a large flippered marine mammal with a discontinuous circumpolar distribution in the Arctic Ocean and sub-Arctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. The walrus is the only living species in the Odobenidae family and Odobenus genus. It is subdivided into three subspecies: the Atlantic...

es, beluga whales, and more — all inhabiting nine underwater towers. Each tower is structured in two levels and represent the major ecosystems of the planet.

The park is divided into ten areas. The marine areas reflect the Mediterranean habitats, the polar oceans — the Arctic
Arctic
The Arctic is a region located at the northern-most part of the Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean and parts of Canada, Russia, Greenland, the United States, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Iceland. The Arctic region consists of a vast, ice-covered ocean, surrounded by treeless permafrost...

, the islands, the tropical seas, the temperate seas and the Red Sea
Red Sea
The Red Sea is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia. The connection to the ocean is in the south through the Bab el Mandeb strait and the Gulf of Aden. In the north, there is the Sinai Peninsula, the Gulf of Aqaba, and the Gulf of Suez...

. The park also includes a dolphinarium
Dolphinarium
A dolphinarium is an aquarium for dolphins. The dolphins are usually kept in a large pool, though occasionally they may be kept in pens in the open sea, either for research or for public performances...

, an auditorium with a Red Sea aquarium, an area of mangrove swamps and marshland, and a garden with more than 80 different species of plant.

The sea water is pumped from the beach of La Malvarrosa having passed all of the necessary requirements for quality.

The architecture of the complex is a work of the architect Felix Candela
Félix Candela
Félix Candela Outeriño was a Spanish architect known for his significant role in the development of Mexican architecture and structural engineering. Candela’s major contribution to architecture was the development of thin shells made out of reinforced concrete...

 and the engineers Alberto Domingo
Alberto Domingo
Alberto Domingo is a Spanish engineer and Doctor of Civil Engineering at the Polytechnic University of Valencia. With his colleague, Carlos Lázaro, he has designed and built a number of significant structures, including Valencia's Oceanographic Park....

 and Carlos Lazaro, who made the structural design of the concrete coverings of the buildings.

Articles and other references

  • A. Domingo, C. Lázaro; "Ciutat de les Arts i de les Ciéncies: The Expressive Strength of Structures"; International Association of Shell and Spacial Structures (IASS). Madrid 1999.
  • A. Domingo, C. Lázaro, P. Serna; "Design of a thin shell steel fibre reinforced concrete Hypar roof"; International Association of Shell and Spacial Structures (IASS). Madrid 1999.
  • A. Domingo, C. Lázaro; "CIUDAD DE LAS ARTES Y LAS CIENCIAS EN VALENCIA:ARCHITECTURE, ENGINEERING AND LEISURE"; Computational Methods for Shell and Spatial Structures IASS-IACM 2000 M. Papadrakakis, A. Samartin and E. Onate (Eds.) © ISASR-NTUA, Athens,Greece 2000.
  • A. Domingo, C. Lázaro, P. Serna; "USE OF STEEL FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE IN THIN SHELL STRUCTURES: EVALUATION OF FIBER PERFORMANCE THROUGH TESTING OF SHELL SPECIMENS"; Computational Methods for Shell and Spatial Structures IASS-IACM 2000 M. Papadrakakis, A. Samartin and E. Onate (Eds.) © ISASR-NTUA, Athens,Greece 2000.
  • A. Domingo, C. Lázaro, P. Serna; "JChypar. Una lámina delgada de hormigón con fibras de acero" Libro: En Blanco II. Biblioteca TC - Ediciones Generales de la Construcción. (ISBN 84-934444-7-2).
  • A. Domingo, P. Serna, C. Lázaro; "Estudio del comportamiento del hormigón con fibras de acero en elementos laminares de pequeño espesor y su comportamiento post-fisuración"; Revista Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja. Hormigón y Acero ISSN 0439-5689.
  • A. Domingo, C. Lázaro; "Evolution and Trends in Design Analysis and Construction of Shell and Spatial Structures"; Proceedings of the IASS Symposium 2009, Valencia; (ISBN 978-84-8363-461-5)

External links