Lüshunkou

Lüshunkou

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Encyclopedia
Lüshunkou is a district in the municipality of Dalian
Dalian
Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It faces Shandong to the south, the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's...

, Liaoning
Liaoning
' is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northeast of the country. Its one-character abbreviation is "辽" , a name taken from the Liao River that flows through the province. "Níng" means "peace"...

 province, China. Also called Lüshun City or (more literally) Lüshun Port, it was formerly known as both Port Arthur and Ryojun.

Lüshunkou is located at the extreme southern tip of the Liaodong Peninsula. It has an excellent natural harbour, the possession and control of which became a casus belli
Casus belli
is a Latin expression meaning the justification for acts of war. means "incident", "rupture" or indeed "case", while means bellic...

 of the Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
The Russo-Japanese War was "the first great war of the 20th century." It grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and Japanese Empire over Manchuria and Korea...

 (1904–1905). Japanese and then Soviet administration would continue until 1953. During the first decade of that period, it was world famous and was more significant than the other port on the peninsula, Dalian proper. In Western diplomatic, news, and historical writings, it was known as Port Arthur, and during the period when the Japanese controlled and administered the Liaodong (formerly Liaotung) Peninsula it was called Ryojun (旅順), the Japanese
Japanese language
is a language spoken by over 130 million people in Japan and in Japanese emigrant communities. It is a member of the Japonic language family, which has a number of proposed relationships with other languages, none of which has gained wide acceptance among historical linguists .Japanese is an...

 pronunciation of the Chinese characters in the city's name.

Geography


Dalian City, a sub-provincial city
Sub-provincial city
A sub-provincial divisions in the People's Republic of China, is like a prefecture-level city that is ruled by a province, but is administered independently in regard to economy and law....

 and prefectural capital, is some 40 miles farther up the coast, sprawling around the narrowest neck of the Liaodong Peninsula, whereas Lüshun occupies its southern tip. (See Landsat Map below Zoomed – Lushun City surrounds the lake-like structure clearly visible near the peninsular tip—the lake-like feature is the inner natural harbour of the port, a very well-sheltered and fortifiable harbor to 19th century eyes.)

Clearly seen on the map (above right) are the Liaodong Peninsula and its relation to Korea
Korea
Korea ) is an East Asian geographic region that is currently divided into two separate sovereign states — North Korea and South Korea. Located on the Korean Peninsula, Korea is bordered by the People's Republic of China to the northwest, Russia to the northeast, and is separated from Japan to the...

, the Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
The Yellow Sea is the name given to the northern part of the East China Sea, which is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. It is located between mainland China and the Korean Peninsula. Its name comes from the sand particles from Gobi Desert sand storms that turn the surface of the water golden...

 to its southeast, the Korea Bay
Korea Bay
The Korea Bay is a northern extension of the Yellow Sea, between Liaoning Province of China and North P'yŏngan Province of North Korea.It is separated from the Bohai Sea by the Liaodong Peninsula, with Dalian at its southernmost point...

 to its due east, and the Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea , also known as Bohai Gulf, Bohai, or Bo Hai, is the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea on the coast of Northeastern and North China. It is approximately 78,000 km2 Bohai Sea , also known as Bohai Gulf, Bohai, or Bo Hai, is the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea on the coast of...

 (or Gulf
Headlands and bays
Headlands and bays are two related features of the coastal environment.- Geology and geography :Headlands and bays are often found on the same coastline. A bay is surrounded by land on three sides, whereas a headland is surrounded by water on three sides. Headlands are characterized by high,...

) to its west. Beijing
Beijing
Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

 (Peking) is almost directly (due west-northwest) across the Bo Hai Gulf from the port city.

Earlier history


Surrounded by ocean on three sides, this strategic seaport was known as Port-Artur (Порт-Артур) under Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

n administration and later Ryojun (旅順) under Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

ese administration. Port Arthur took its name from a Royal Navy
Royal Navy
The Royal Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Founded in the 16th century, it is the oldest service branch and is known as the Senior Service...

 Lieutenant named William C. Arthur
William C. Arthur
William C. Arthur was a Royal Navy Lieutenant who was the namesake of the English name for Lüshunkou, Port Arthur, which changed hands between China, Imperial Russia, Japan, and the Soviet Union between 1894 and 1945....

, but was known to the Chinese as Lüshun. In August 1860, during the Second Opium War
Second Opium War
The Second Opium War, the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war pitting the British Empire and the Second French Empire against the Qing Dynasty of China, lasting from 1856 to 1860...

, Arthur had towed his crippled frigate into the harbor at Lüshun (at that time an unfortified fishing village) for repairs. The Russians and other Western powers then adopted the British name. After World War II, the region found itself under Russian and finally Chinese rule. These and additional geo-historical name changes and recent history are delineated in the related article on Dalian
Dalian
Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It faces Shandong to the south, the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's...

.

As a focal point in history



In the late 1880s, the German company Krupp
Krupp
The Krupp family , a prominent 400-year-old German dynasty from Essen, have become famous for their steel production and for their manufacture of ammunition and armaments. The family business, known as Friedrich Krupp AG Hoesch-Krupp, was the largest company in Europe at the beginning of the 20th...

 was contracted by the Chinese government to build a series of fortifications around Port Arthur. Reportedly, this was after local contractors had "made an extensive bungle of the job."

Port Arthur first came into international prominence during the First Sino-Japanese War
First Sino-Japanese War
The First Sino-Japanese War was fought between Qing Dynasty China and Meiji Japan, primarily over control of Korea...

 (1894–1895). Following Japan’s defeat of Chinese troops at Pyongyang
Pyongyang
Pyongyang is the capital of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, commonly known as North Korea, and the largest city in the country. Pyongyang is located on the Taedong River and, according to preliminary results from the 2008 population census, has a population of 3,255,388. The city was...

 in Korea in September 1894, the Japanese First and Second Armies converged on the Liaodong Peninsula by land and sea. Japanese war planners, ambitious for control of the Liaodong Peninsula and Port Arthur and also cognizant of that port’s strategic position controlling the northern Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
The Yellow Sea is the name given to the northern part of the East China Sea, which is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. It is located between mainland China and the Korean Peninsula. Its name comes from the sand particles from Gobi Desert sand storms that turn the surface of the water golden...

 routes and the passage to Tianjin
Tianjin
' is a metropolis in northern China and one of the five national central cities of the People's Republic of China. It is governed as a direct-controlled municipality, one of four such designations, and is, thus, under direct administration of the central government...

, were determined to seize it.

Following only token resistance during the day and night of November 20–21, 1894, Japanese troops entered the city on the morning of November 21. Several Western newspaper correspondents present at the time related the widespread massacre of Chinese inhabitants of the city by the victorious Japanese troops, apparently in response to the murderous treatment the Chinese had shown Japanese prisoners of war
Prisoner of war
A prisoner of war or enemy prisoner of war is a person, whether civilian or combatant, who is held in custody by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict...

 at Pyongyang and elsewhere. Foremost among the correspondents was James Creelman
James Creelman
James Creelman , was a reporter during the height of yellow journalism. He was born in Montreal, Province of Canada, the son of a boiler inspector, Matthew Creelman, and homemaker, Martha Dunwoodie....

 of the New York World
New York World
The New York World was a newspaper published in New York City from 1860 until 1931. The paper played a major role in the history of American newspapers...

. Though at least one American
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 correspondent present completely contradicted Creelman’s account, there is "little doubt" that the Japanese troops "indiscriminately killed" thousands of Chinese soldiers and civilians, and the story of a Japanese massacre soon spread among the Western public, damaging Japan’s public image and the movement in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 to renegotiate the unequal treaties
Unequal Treaties
“Unequal treaty” is a term used in specific reference to a number of treaties imposed by Western powers, during the 19th and early 20th centuries, on Qing Dynasty China and late Tokugawa Japan...

 between that country and Japan. The event came to be known as the Port Arthur massacre
Port Arthur massacre (1894)
The Port Arthur massacre occurred during the First Sino-Japanese War from 21 November 1894 for two or three days, when advanced elements of the First Division of the Japanese Second Army under command of the one-eyed General Yamaji Motoharu killed somewhere between 1,000 to 20,000 Chinese...

.
An account of a US sailor who visited the port in the weeks prior to the attack commented that the Chinese soldiers were "ridiculous". They lacked any semblance of military bearing, their dress was unkempt and untidy, and they wandered about the place with little in the way of direction or smartness associated with professional soldiers. He stated that at the time, the garrison numbered approximately 20,000 soldiers, but from his estimation, it should have had between 30,000 and 40,000 men stationed there. He opined that the Japanese could have taken the port with one third of its force, but that against disciplined soldiers, the place should have been impenetrable.

Japan went on to occupy Port Arthur and to seize control of the whole Liaodong Peninsula as spoils of war. As part of the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki
Treaty of Shimonoseki
The Treaty of Shimonoseki , known as the Treaty of Maguan in China, was signed at the Shunpanrō hall on April 17, 1895, between the Empire of Japan and Qing Empire of China, ending the First Sino-Japanese War. The peace conference took place from March 20 to April 17, 1895...

 concluding the war, Japan was granted the Liaodong Peninsula but had to cede back the territory when threatened jointly with war by France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 and Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 in what is called the Triple Intervention
Triple Intervention
The was a diplomatic intervention by Russia, Germany, and France on 23 April 1895 over the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki signed between Japan and Qing dynasty China that ended the First Sino-Japanese War.-Treaty of Shimonoseki:...

 of 1895. This was seen as a great humiliation in Japan for reasons discussed at length in the article Treaty of Shimonoseki
Treaty of Shimonoseki
The Treaty of Shimonoseki , known as the Treaty of Maguan in China, was signed at the Shunpanrō hall on April 17, 1895, between the Empire of Japan and Qing Empire of China, ending the First Sino-Japanese War. The peace conference took place from March 20 to April 17, 1895...

.

Two years later, Russia coerced a lease of the Liaodong from China and gained railroad right-of-way to join the Liaodong Peninsula to the Chinese Eastern Railway
Chinese Eastern Railway
The Chinese Eastern Railway or was a railway in northeastern China . It connected Chita and the Russian Far East. English-speakers have sometimes referred to this line as the Manchurian Railway...

 with a line running from Port Arthur and nearby Dalny (Dalian
Dalian
Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It faces Shandong to the south, the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's...

) to the Chinese city of Harbin
Harbin
Harbin ; Manchu language: , Harbin; Russian: Харби́н Kharbin ), is the capital and largest city of Heilongjiang Province in Northeast China, lying on the southern bank of the Songhua River...

 (see Kwantung Leased Territory
Kwantung Leased Territory
The Kwantung Leased Territory was a territory in the southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula in Inner Manchuria that existed from 1898 to 1945. It was one of the numerous territorial concessions that the Empire of China was compelled to award to foreign countries at the end of the 19th century...

), and systematically began to fortify the town and harbor at Port Arthur. This railway from Port Arthur to Harbin became a southern branch of the Chinese Eastern Railway (not to be confused with the South Manchurian Railway, the name of a company that undertook its management during the later Japanese period after 1905). All this was an additional goad to an already seething Japan. It was a hard lesson in international geopolitics Japan would not soon forget.

Ten years later Port Arthur again played a central role in war in the Far East
Far East
The Far East is an English term mostly describing East Asia and Southeast Asia, with South Asia sometimes also included for economic and cultural reasons.The term came into use in European geopolitical discourse in the 19th century,...

. It is fair to say that at its heart, the Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
The Russo-Japanese War was "the first great war of the 20th century." It grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and Japanese Empire over Manchuria and Korea...

 (1904–1905) was an extended battle for the possession of Port Arthur and the railway to it, the Southern Manchurian Railway. After the Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
The Boxer Rebellion, also called the Boxer Uprising by some historians or the Righteous Harmony Society Movement in northern China, was a proto-nationalist movement by the "Righteous Harmony Society" , or "Righteous Fists of Harmony" or "Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists" , in China between...

 (1900–1901) had been extinguished by an international coalition of troops, Russia refused to withdraw its reinforcements from Manchuria
Manchuria
Manchuria is a historical name given to a large geographic region in northeast Asia. Depending on the definition of its extent, Manchuria usually falls entirely within the People's Republic of China, or is sometimes divided between China and Russia. The region is commonly referred to as Northeast...

 and instead began to fortify and garrison the entire route along the Southern Manchurian Railway. With this development, Japan proposed the two powers meet and discuss their respective roles in eastern Manchuria, as the area was considered a portion of their respective spheres of influence
Sphere of influence
In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence is a spatial region or conceptual division over which a state or organization has significant cultural, economic, military or political influence....

.

Talks were conducted between 1902 and 1904. While numerous proposals and agreement papers were generated between the two powers, Russia continued the de facto
De facto
De facto is a Latin expression that means "concerning fact." In law, it often means "in practice but not necessarily ordained by law" or "in practice or actuality, but not officially established." It is commonly used in contrast to de jure when referring to matters of law, governance, or...

 annexation of territory through fortification and garrison, if not de jure
De jure
De jure is an expression that means "concerning law", as contrasted with de facto, which means "concerning fact".De jure = 'Legally', De facto = 'In fact'....

 while employing stalling tactics in its negotiations. In the end, with over two years of intensive bilateral
Bilateralism
Bilateralism consists of the political, economic, or cultural relations between two sovereign states. For example, free trade agreements signed by two states are examples of bilateral treaties. It is in contrast to unilateralism or multilateralism, which refers to the conduct of diplomacy by a...

 negotiations having gotten nowhere in clarifying each country’s rights, prerogatives, and interests in inner Manchuria, Japan opted for war with Russia.

At the heart of conflict


The Battle of Port Arthur
Battle of Port Arthur
The Battle of Port Arthur was the starting battle of the Russo-Japanese War...

, the opening battle of the Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
The Russo-Japanese War was "the first great war of the 20th century." It grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and Japanese Empire over Manchuria and Korea...

, was fought in the heavily fortified harbor of the town of Port Arthur/Lüshun on February 9, 1904 when the Japanese attacked at night with torpedoes, followed by a brief daylight skirmish by major surface combatants. The port eventually fell January 2, 1905 after a long train of battles on land and sea during which the Japanese occupied the whole of the Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. It extends southwards for about 684 miles from continental Asia into the Pacific Ocean and is surrounded by the Sea of Japan to the south, and the Yellow Sea to the west, the Korea Strait connecting the first two bodies of water.Until the end of...

, split the Russian Army, devastated the Russian Fleet, cut off the source of supplies on the railway from Harbin
Harbin
Harbin ; Manchu language: , Harbin; Russian: Харби́н Kharbin ), is the capital and largest city of Heilongjiang Province in Northeast China, lying on the southern bank of the Songhua River...

, culminating in the bloody battle known as the Siege of Port Arthur
Siege of Port Arthur
The Siege of Port Arthur , 1 August 1904 – 2 January 1905, the deep-water port and Russian naval base at the tip of the Liaotung Peninsula in Manchuria, was the longest and most violent land battle of the Russo-Japanese War....

 (June–January; some sources place the siege start in late July, a technical difference due to definitions). By the end of July, the Japanese army had pushed down the Liaodong peninsula and was at the outer defenses of Port Arthur.

The fact that Japanese forces had closed to within artillery range of the harbor in early August led directly to the naval Battle of the Yellow Sea
Battle of the Yellow Sea
The Battle of the Yellow Sea was a major naval engagement of the Russo-Japanese War, fought on 10 August 1904. In the Russian Navy, it was referred to as the Battle of 10 August. The battle foiled an attempt by the Russian fleet at Port Arthur to break out and form up with counterparts from...

 which solidified Japan's command of the sea, where her fleets continued to blockade the harbor. Virtually all the battles of the war until July 1904 were strategic battles for territorial gain or position leading to the investment
Investment (military)
Investment is the military tactic of surrounding an enemy fort with armed forces to prevent entry or escape.A circumvallation is a line of fortifications, built by the attackers around the besieged fortification facing towards the enemy fort...

 and siege
Siege
A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by attrition or assault. The term derives from sedere, Latin for "to sit". Generally speaking, siege warfare is a form of constant, low intensity conflict characterized by one party holding a strong, static...

 of the port city. The Russian town of Dalny (Dalien/Dalian
Dalian
Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It faces Shandong to the south, the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's...

) was undeveloped in this era prior to 1898 when the Russian Tsar Nicholas II of Russia
Nicholas II of Russia
Nicholas II was the last Emperor of Russia, Grand Prince of Finland, and titular King of Poland. His official short title was Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias and he is known as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer by the Russian Orthodox Church.Nicholas II ruled from 1894 until...

 founded the town of Dalny (sometimes Dalney). In 1902, the Russian Viceroy de-emphasized Dalny (building a palace and cultural edifices instead at Port Arthur), except as a commercial port while continuing the development of manufacturing.

After WWII


The Japanese-controlled Ryojun City had 40 districts. The Communist Lüshun City was established on November 25, 1945 to replace Ryojun. The city was a subdivision of a larger Lüda City and contained 40 villages in 3 districts: Dazhong (大众区), Wenhua (文化区), and Guangming (光明). In January 1946, Wenhua was merged into Dazhong, and the 40 villages were reduced to 23 communes (坊). In January 1948, the remaining two districts were merged into one: Shinei (市内区), with 12 communes.

On January 7, 1960, Lüshun City was renamed Lüshunkou District, still under Lüda. In 1985, 7 of its 9 townships were upgraded to towns.

Sub-divisions


A district at the county level (市辖区, pinyin: shìxiáqū, lit. a district of a city) is a sub-division of a municipality or a prefecture-level city. These have status equal to a county, and are hence called “county level”. Thus the Lüshunkou district contains 6 sub-districts and 7 towns (see Political divisions of China: Levels), and is itself under the prefecture level sub-provincial capitol city, Dalian.
Pinyin
Pinyin
Pinyin is the official system to transcribe Chinese characters into the Roman alphabet in China, Malaysia, Singapore and Taiwan. It is also often used to teach Mandarin Chinese and spell Chinese names in foreign publications and used as an input method to enter Chinese characters into...

 
Hanzi
Sub-districts
Desheng 得胜
Guangrong 光荣
Dengfeng 登峰
Shichang 市场
Longwangtang 龙王唐
Shuishiying
Shuishiying
Shuishiying were the camp sites or office buildings of the Naval forces during the later days of the Qing Dynasty in China.The most famous Shuishiying was in Lushunkou District, Dalian, Liaoning Province, China, where the cease fire treaty of the Battle of Lushun was signed between Anatoly...

 
水师营
Towns
Jiangxi 江西
Shuangdaowan 双岛湾
Sanjianbao 三涧堡
Changcheng 长城
Longtou 龙头
Beihai 北海
Tieshan 铁山


Jiangsi Sub-district contains the 20.38-km² provincial Lüshun Economic Development Zone
Special Economic Zone
A Special Economic Zone is a geographical region that has economic and other laws that are more free-market-oriented than a country's typical or national laws...

 established in 1992.

Today’s Lüshunkou


Although the district's southern half along Lushun South Road
Lushun South Road
Lushun South Road is one of the three highways connecting the Nsval Port in Lushun, Dalian City, Liaoning Province, China, with downtoan Dalian. It is the last part of China National Highway 202, which runs from Hegang to Lushun via Jiamusi, Tonghua and Dandong, and is about 32 kilometers long...

, downtown Lüshun and the Naval Port zone continue to be off-limits to foreigners, Lüshunkou District is thoroughly modernized. World Peace Park opened on the western coast of Lüshun, on the Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea , also known as Bohai Gulf, Bohai, or Bo Hai, is the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea on the coast of Northeastern and North China. It is approximately 78,000 km2 Bohai Sea , also known as Bohai Gulf, Bohai, or Bo Hai, is the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea on the coast of...

, and is a new sightseeing spot. North of the Park were established the Lüshun Development Zone, and Lüshun New Port (on Yangtou Bay) where the railroad ferry across the Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
The Yellow Sea is the name given to the northern part of the East China Sea, which is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. It is located between mainland China and the Korean Peninsula. Its name comes from the sand particles from Gobi Desert sand storms that turn the surface of the water golden...

 to Yantai
Yantai
Yantai is a prefecture-level city in northeastern Shandong province, People's Republic of China. Located on the southern coast of the Bohai Sea and the eastern coast of the Laizhou Bay, Yantai borders the cities of Qingdao and Weihai to the southwest and east respectively.The largest fishing...

 is being planned.

The universities in downtown Dalian are being relocated to Lüshunkou. Dalian Jiaotong University
Dalian Jiaotong University
Dalian Jiaotong University is a university in Dalian, Liaoning, China under the provincial government. It has its larger campus near downtown Dalian and smaller campus in the High-Tech zone in Lüshun. Until 2004, it was known as Dalian Railway Institute ....

 (formerly Dalian Railroad University) moved its Software School to the area near the new port, and Dalian University of Foreign Languages
Dalian University of Foreign Languages
Dalian University of Foreign Languages is a provincial university in Dalian, Liaoning, China.It is now one of the top 8 foreign languages universities in China, and the only fully developed foreign languages institute in Northeast China. DLUFL now provides various bachelor degree and master degree...

 and Dalian Medical University
Dalian Medical University
Dalian Medical University is a university in Dalian, Liaoning, China under the provincial government. It was founded in 1947 in the southern part of Dalian city, China by Mao Ze Dong.....

 relocated their main campuses to the eastern slope of Baiying Mountain, on Lushun South Road. Dalian Fisheries University
Dalian Fisheries University
Dalian Fisheries University is a university located in Dalian, China. Founded in 1952, it is the sole university featuring fisheries science courses in northern China. Over 7,000 students are enrolled there. The institution changed its name to become "Dalian Ocean University" in 2010.-External...

 is in the process of moving its English and Japanese language schools to Daheishi, on Lüshun North Road. From late 2006, Sinorail
China Railways
China Railways is the national railway operator of the People's Republic of China, under the Chinese Ministry of Railways.China Railways operates rail commuter and freight transport via several smaller companies....

 has operated Bohai Train Ferry
Bohai Train Ferry
Bohai Train Ferry is a train ferry connecting Dalian, Liaoning, China, and Yantai, Shandong, over the Bohai Sea, which is the northern part of the Yellow Sea...

 between Lushun, Dalian, and Yantai
Yantai
Yantai is a prefecture-level city in northeastern Shandong province, People's Republic of China. Located on the southern coast of the Bohai Sea and the eastern coast of the Laizhou Bay, Yantai borders the cities of Qingdao and Weihai to the southwest and east respectively.The largest fishing...

, Shangdong.

Old and new names of main facilities


The historic and modern names, translated into English, of landmark facilities in Lüshun are as follows:



























Under Russian RuleUnder Japanese RuleUnder Chinese Rule
The Old Town:  
UnknownLüshun City HallCommercial Bldg. on right of New Mart Supermarket
UnknownPublic Welfare OfficeNaval Hotel
--Lüshun Branch, Korean BankLüshun Branch, Commercial Bank of China
--Lüshun No. 1 Primary SchoolA Naval Facility (on left of Zhangjian Rd. South 3rd Alley)
Red Cross HospitalLüshun Hospital & Medical SchoolA Naval Facility (Lüshunkou Hospital on north side)
--Kwantung
Kwantung Leased Territory
The Kwantung Leased Territory was a territory in the southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula in Inner Manchuria that existed from 1898 to 1945. It was one of the numerous territorial concessions that the Empire of China was compelled to award to foreign countries at the end of the 19th century...

 High Court
Old Kwantung
Kwantung Leased Territory
The Kwantung Leased Territory was a territory in the southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula in Inner Manchuria that existed from 1898 to 1945. It was one of the numerous territorial concessions that the Empire of China was compelled to award to foreign countries at the end of the 19th century...

 High Court (inside Hospital premises)
Lüshun Jail (Gray Walled Bldgs.)Lüshun Jail (Extended with Red Walled Bldgs.)Russo-Japanese Jail (Anti-Imperialist Propaganda Facility)
--Lüshun Danish Lutheran ChurchLüshunkou Christian Church
--Hyochu (Showing Loyalty) TowerWhite Jade Tower
--Asahi (Morning Sun) PlazaFriendship Park
The New Town:  
UnknownJapan Bridge (over the Long He)Liberation Bridge
Russian Marines Hqs.Lüshun Institute of TechnologyNavy Hospital No. 406
UnknownLüshun High SchoolA Naval Facility (Lüshun command)
A German Merchant’s StoreLüshun (No. 1) Middle SchoolA Naval facility (No. 58 Slalin Rd.)
Meeting Place of Sniper Unit’s Non-commissioned OfficersLüshun No. 2 Primary SchoolDalian City No. 56 Middle School
Ji Fengtai’s ShopThe Lüshun Yamato Hotel
Yamato Hotel
The Yamato Hotels were a chain of hotels in Manchuria owned and operated by South Manchuria Railway during the 1910s to 1940s. Some of these hotels still exist in Northeast China, used as art nouveau hotels under different names...

Shop & Hostel
UnknownLüshun No. 2 Middle SchoolNot Used
Photoshop/Town Hall/RestaurantLüshun Girls’ High SchoolNavy Related Families’ Living Quarters
UnknownKodama GroundGround for Navy
UnknownKorakuen ParkLüshun Museum Park



Source: "Lüshun under Russian Rule" (in Japanese; Lüshun Library, 1936), as quoted in "Lüshun under Russian Rule" (Abridged)" in "Journal Commemorating the 95th Anniversary of Lüshun Institute of Technology" (in Japanese; Tokyo, 2006).

See also

  • Rail transport in the People's Republic of China
    Rail transport in the People's Republic of China
    Rail transport is the most commonly used mode of long-distance transportation in the People's Republic of China. Almost all rail operations are handled by the Ministry of Railways, which is part of the State Council of the People's Republic of China...

  • South Manchurian Railway
  • Manchurian Railway
  • Manchuria
    Manchuria
    Manchuria is a historical name given to a large geographic region in northeast Asia. Depending on the definition of its extent, Manchuria usually falls entirely within the People's Republic of China, or is sometimes divided between China and Russia. The region is commonly referred to as Northeast...

  • Kwantung Leased Territory
    Kwantung Leased Territory
    The Kwantung Leased Territory was a territory in the southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula in Inner Manchuria that existed from 1898 to 1945. It was one of the numerous territorial concessions that the Empire of China was compelled to award to foreign countries at the end of the 19th century...

  • Twenty-One Demands
    Twenty-One Demands
    The ' were a set of demands made by the Empire of Japan under Prime Minister Ōkuma Shigenobu sent to the nominal government of the Republic of China on January 18, 1915, resulting in two treaties with Japan on May 25, 1915.- Background :...

  • Shuishiying
    Shuishiying
    Shuishiying were the camp sites or office buildings of the Naval forces during the later days of the Qing Dynasty in China.The most famous Shuishiying was in Lushunkou District, Dalian, Liaoning Province, China, where the cease fire treaty of the Battle of Lushun was signed between Anatoly...

  • Bohai Train Ferry
    Bohai Train Ferry
    Bohai Train Ferry is a train ferry connecting Dalian, Liaoning, China, and Yantai, Shandong, over the Bohai Sea, which is the northern part of the Yellow Sea...


Sources


  • F.R. Sedwick, (R.F.A.), The Russo-Japanese War, 1909, The Macmillan Company, N.Y.
  • Colliers (Ed.), The Russo-Japanese War, 1904, P.F. Collier & Son, New York
  • Dennis and Peggy Warner, The Tide At Sunrise, 1974, Charterhouse, New York
  • William Henry Chamberlain, Japan Over Asia, 1937, Little, Brown, and Company, Boston
  • Tom McKnight,PhD, et al.; Geographica (ATLAS), Barnes and Noble Books AND Random House, New York, 1999–2004, 3rd revision, ISBN 0-7607-5974-X


External links