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Lóide Aéreo Nacional

Lóide Aéreo Nacional

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Lóide Aéreo Nacional S/A was a Brazilian
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

 airline founded in 1947. In 1962 it was incorporated by VASP
VASP
Viação Aérea São Paulo S/A, or VASP, was an airline with its head office in the VASP Building on the grounds of Congonhas-São Paulo Airport in São Paulo, Brazil...

.

History


On December 22, 1947, Ruy Vacani founded the airline TCA – Transportes Carga Aérea S.A. in Anápolis
Anápolis
Anápolis is the third largest city in the State of Goiás in Brazil. It lies in the center of a rich agricultural region and has become a leader in food processing and pharmaceutical plants.-Location and population:...

, State of Goiás
Goiás
Goiás is a state of Brazil, located in the central part of the country. The name Goiás comes from the name of an indigenous community...

, Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

, an airline specialized in transportation of cargo. Previously, in 1928, Vacani had also founded ETA - Empresa de Transporte Aéreo
ETA - Empresa de Transporte Aéreo
ETA – Empresa de Transporte Aéreo & Companhia Limitada was a Brazilian airline founded in 1928. It ceased operations in 1929.-History:Though founded in 1928, the history of the airline can be traced to one year earlier...

 an airline that lasted for only for one year, being sold to NYRBA do Brasil. Vacani had good political connections with the then president Getúlio Vargas
Getúlio Vargas
Getúlio Dornelles Vargas served as President of Brazil, first as dictator, from 1930 to 1945, and in a democratically elected term from 1951 until his suicide in 1954. Vargas led Brazil for 18 years, the most for any President, and second in Brazilian history to Emperor Pedro II...

, who apparently favored his business. Shareholders of the airline also included Roberto Taves, one of the founders of Aerovias Brasil
Aerovias Brasil
Empresa de Transportes Aéreos Aerovias Brasil S/A was a Brazilian airline founded in 1942. It was merged into Varig in 1961, when Varig bought the Consórcio Real-Aerovias-Nacional, of which Aerovias Brasil was one of the partners.-History:...

 and Colonel Marcílio Jacques Gibson who in 1976 founded TABA – Transportes Aéreos da Bacia Amazônica
TABA – Transportes Aéreos da Bacia Amazônica
TABA – Transportes Aéreos da Bacia Amazônica was a Brazilian airline founded in 1976. It ceased operations in 1999.-History:On November 11, 1975 the Brazilian Federal Government created the Brazilian Integrated System of Regional Air Transportation and divided the country in five different regions,...

.

On August 24, 1949 TCA had its name changed to Lóide Aéreo Nacional and started regular passenger flights using Curtiss C-46 Commando
C-46 Commando
The Curtiss-Wright C-46 Commando was a transport aircraft originally derived from a commercial high-altitude airliner design. It was instead used as a military transport during World War II by the United States Army Air Forces as well as the U.S. Navy/Marine Corps under the designation R5C...

 aircraft, flying from Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro , commonly referred to simply as Rio, is the capital city of the State of Rio de Janeiro, the second largest city of Brazil, and the third largest metropolitan area and agglomeration in South America, boasting approximately 6.3 million people within the city proper, making it the 6th...

 to São Luís or Fortaleza
Fortaleza
Fortaleza is the state capital of Ceará, located in Northeastern Brazil. With a population close to 2.5 million , Fortaleza is the 5th largest city in Brazil. It has an area of and one of the highest demographic densities in the country...

 with intermediate stops. Its operations later grew to include the whole Brazilian territory.

In 1951 Lóide Aéreo Nacional incorporated the airlines, Linhas Aéreas Paulistas – LAP
Linhas Aéreas Paulistas – LAP
Linhas Aéreas Paulistas – LAP was a Brazilian airline founded in 1943. In 1951 it was bought and merged into Lóide Aéreo Nacional.-History:Linhas Aéreas Paulistas – LAP S.A. was founded in 1943 but the first meeting of shareholders took place only on February 9, 1945...

 and TABA – Transportes Aéreos Bandeirantes
TABA – Transportes Aéreos Bandeirantes
TABA – Transportes Aéreos Bandeirantes was a Brazilian airline founded in 1945. In 1950 it was incorporated by Lóide Aéreo Nacional.-History:...

, and in 1961 NAB – Navegação Aérea Brasileira
NAB – Navegação Aérea Brasileira
NAB – Navegação Aérea Brasileira was a Brazilian airline founded in 1940. In 1961 it was sold to Lóide Aéreo Nacional.-History:NAB was founded on January 28, 1940. The three original associates Orsini de Araújo Coriolano, Paulo da Rocha Viana, and Euvaldo Lodi initially invested heavily in...

.

Between 1956 and 1958 Lóide Aéreo Nacional and Panair do Brasil
Panair do Brasil
Panair do Brasil is a defunct airline of Brazil. Between 1945 and 1965 it was considered to be the largest carrier not only in Brazil but in all of Latin America.-NYRBA do Brasil :...

 had an agreement to avoid harmful competition, in which the Brazilian territory was divided into areas of influence. It also included leasing of aircraft.

Business started to decline in 1960 and finally, in 1962 Lóide Aéreo Nacional was sold and merged into VASP
VASP
Viação Aérea São Paulo S/A, or VASP, was an airline with its head office in the VASP Building on the grounds of Congonhas-São Paulo Airport in São Paulo, Brazil...

.

Destinations


In January 1956 the network of Lóide Aéreo Nacional comprized 22 locations .

Fleet


Lóide Aéreo Nacional Fleet
Aircraft Total Years of operation Notes
Douglas DC-3/C-47
Douglas DC-3
The Douglas DC-3 is an American fixed-wing propeller-driven aircraft whose speed and range revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s. Its lasting impact on the airline industry and World War II makes it one of the most significant transport aircraft ever made...

3 1948–1951
Curtiss C-46 Commando
C-46 Commando
The Curtiss-Wright C-46 Commando was a transport aircraft originally derived from a commercial high-altitude airliner design. It was instead used as a military transport during World War II by the United States Army Air Forces as well as the U.S. Navy/Marine Corps under the designation R5C...

33 1949–1962
Douglas DC-4
Douglas DC-4
The Douglas DC-4 is a four-engined propeller-driven airliner developed by the Douglas Aircraft Company. It served during World War II, in the Berlin Airlift and into the 1960s in a military role...

10 1957–1962
Douglas DC-6A
Douglas DC-6
The Douglas DC-6 is a piston-powered airliner and transport aircraft built by the Douglas Aircraft Company from 1946 to 1958. Originally intended as a military transport near the end of World War II, it was reworked after the war to compete with the Lockheed Constellation in the long-range...

4 1961–1962


Accidents and incidents


Accidents involving fatalities
  • 12 July 1951: a Douglas DC-3/C-47
    Douglas DC-3
    The Douglas DC-3 is an American fixed-wing propeller-driven aircraft whose speed and range revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s. Its lasting impact on the airline industry and World War II makes it one of the most significant transport aircraft ever made...

     registration PP-LPG, still registered under Linhas Aéreas Paulistas – LAP
    Linhas Aéreas Paulistas – LAP
    Linhas Aéreas Paulistas – LAP was a Brazilian airline founded in 1943. In 1951 it was bought and merged into Lóide Aéreo Nacional.-History:Linhas Aéreas Paulistas – LAP S.A. was founded in 1943 but the first meeting of shareholders took place only on February 9, 1945...

    , flying from Maceió
    Zumbi dos Palmares International Airport
    Maceió-Zumbi dos Palmares International Airport , formerly called Campo dos Palmares Airport, is the airport serving Maceió, Brazil. Since December 16, 1999 the airport is named after Zumbi dos Palmares a leader and hero who fought for the freedom of slaves.It is operated by Infraero.-History:The...

     to Aracaju
    Santa Maria Airport (Sergipe)
    Santa Maria Airport is the airport serving Aracaju, Brazil.It is operated by Infraero.-History:Although it had been in operation since the beginning of the 1950s, the official inauguration of the airport took place on January 19, 1958....

    , after aborting a landing in adverse conditions in Aracaju, overflew the runway and initiated a turn in low altitude to the right. The aircraft crashed during this turn. All 33 passengers and crew died.
  • 29 July 1951: a Curtiss C-46A-10-CU Commando registration CB-39, flying from Cochabamba
    Jorge Wilstermann International Airport
    Jorge Wilstermann International Airport, known in Spanish as Aeropuerto Internacional Jorge Wilstermann is an airport serving Cochabamba, a city in the Cochabamba department of Bolivia...

     to Rio de Janeiro
    Rio de Janeiro
    Rio de Janeiro , commonly referred to simply as Rio, is the capital city of the State of Rio de Janeiro, the second largest city of Brazil, and the third largest metropolitan area and agglomeration in South America, boasting approximately 6.3 million people within the city proper, making it the 6th...

    , probably operating a delivery ferry-flight still bearing the Bolivian registration number, crashed upon take-off. All 7 occupants died.
  • 24 May 1952: a Curtiss C-46D-15-CU Commando registration PP-LDE, during take-off from Manaus-Ponta Pelada
    Ponta Pelada Airport
    Ponta Pelada Airport was until 1976 the main airport of Manaus, Brazil. Between 1970 and 1976 public facilities were shared with the military facilities of Manaus Air Force Base. In 1976, with the opening of Eduardo Gomes International Airport, all public operations were transferred to the new...

     stalled when trying to return to the airport following an engine failure. It crashed into the Rio Negro. The 6 occupants died.
  • 1 February 1958: a Douglas DC-4
    Douglas DC-4
    The Douglas DC-4 is a four-engined propeller-driven airliner developed by the Douglas Aircraft Company. It served during World War II, in the Berlin Airlift and into the 1960s in a military role...

     registration PP-LEM, during a night take-off from Rio de Janeiro-Santos Dumont had a failure on engine no. 4. Take-off was aborted and 100m before the end of the runway, a tire from the landing gear burst, causing the aircraft to run off the side of the runway and burst into flames. Of the 72 passengers and crew aboard, 5 died.
  • 11 August 1958: a Douglas DC-4
    Douglas DC-4
    The Douglas DC-4 is a four-engined propeller-driven airliner developed by the Douglas Aircraft Company. It served during World War II, in the Berlin Airlift and into the 1960s in a military role...

     registration PP-LEQ, crashed of unknown causes over Carapí Island, Pará
    Pará
    Pará is a state in the north of Brazil. It borders the Brazilian states of Amapá, Maranhão, Tocantins, Mato Grosso, Amazonas and Roraima. To the northwest it also borders Guyana and Suriname, and to the northeast it borders the Atlantic Ocean. The capital is Belém.Pará is the most populous state...

     while on a night time visual approach to Belém-Val de Cães
    Val de Cães International Airport
    Belém-Val de Cães/Júlio Cezar Ribeiro International Airport is the main airport serving Belém, Brazil. Val de Cães, the name of the neighborhood where the airport is located, is the most common spelling although Val de Cans is also considered correct...

    . Of the 11 passengers and crew aboard, 1 passenger survived.
  • 5 September 1958: a Curtiss C-46D-15-CU Commando registration PP-LDX crashed during approach to Campina Grande Airport
    Campina Grande Airport
    Presidente João Suassuna-Campina Grande Airport is the airport serving Campina Grande, Brazil. It is named after João Urbano Pessoa de Vasconcelos Suaçuna , Governor of the State of Paraíba .It is operated by Infraero.-History:Even though the airport was only inaugurated in 1963, since the 1940s...

    . Two crew members and eleven passengers died.

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