Kyrgyzstani som

Kyrgyzstani som

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Encyclopedia
The som is the currency
Currency
In economics, currency refers to a generally accepted medium of exchange. These are usually the coins and banknotes of a particular government, which comprise the physical aspects of a nation's money supply...

 of the Kyrgyz Republic in Central Asia
Central Asia
Central Asia is a core region of the Asian continent from the Caspian Sea in the west, China in the east, Afghanistan in the south, and Russia in the north...

. The ISO 4217
ISO 4217
ISO 4217 is a standard published by the International Standards Organization, which delineates currency designators, country codes , and references to minor units in three tables:* Table A.1 – Current currency & funds code list...

 currency code is KGS. The som is sub-divided into 100 tyiyn (Kyrgyz: тыйын). The som was introduced on May 10, 1993, replacing the Soviet ruble
Soviet ruble
The Soviet ruble or rouble was the currency of the Soviet Union. One ruble is divided into 100 kopeks, ....

 at a rate of 1 som = 200 rubles.

Etymology


In the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

, speakers of Kazakh
Kazakh language
Kazakh is a Turkic language which belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages, closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak....

, Kyrgyz
Kyrgyz language
Kyrgyz or Kirgiz, also Kirghiz, Kyrghiz, Qyrghiz is a Turkic language and, together with Russian, an official language of Kyrgyzstan...

 and Uzbek
Uzbek language
Uzbek is a Turkic language and the official language of Uzbekistan. It has about 25.5 million native speakers, and it is spoken by the Uzbeks in Uzbekistan and elsewhere in Central Asia...

 called the ruble
Soviet ruble
The Soviet ruble or rouble was the currency of the Soviet Union. One ruble is divided into 100 kopeks, ....

 the som, and this name appeared written on the back of banknotes, among the texts for the value of the bill in all 15 official languages of the Union. The word som (sometimes transliterated "sum" or "soum") means "pure" in Kazakh
Kazakh language
Kazakh is a Turkic language which belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages, closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak....

, Kyrgyz
Kyrgyz language
Kyrgyz or Kirgiz, also Kirghiz, Kyrghiz, Qyrghiz is a Turkic language and, together with Russian, an official language of Kyrgyzstan...

, Uyghur
Uyghur language
Uyghur , formerly known as Eastern Turk, is a Turkic language with 8 to 11 million speakers, spoken primarily by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China. Significant communities of Uyghur-speakers are located in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, and various other...

 and Uzbek
Uzbek language
Uzbek is a Turkic language and the official language of Uzbekistan. It has about 25.5 million native speakers, and it is spoken by the Uzbeks in Uzbekistan and elsewhere in Central Asia...

, as well as in many other Turkic languages. The word implies "pure gold
Gold
Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au and an atomic number of 79. Gold is a dense, soft, shiny, malleable and ductile metal. Pure gold has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive, which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. Chemically, gold is a...

".

Coins


Coins exist in denominations of 10 and 50 tiyin (also spelt tyiyn & tyin), which are made of brass plated steel, and 1, 3 and 5 som, made of nickel plated steel. Coins were first issued in January 2008, and they are minted by the Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan , officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental country in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Ranked as the ninth largest country in the world, it is also the world's largest landlocked country; its territory of is greater than Western Europe...

 mint in Ust-Kamenogorsk. There are several commemorative coins made of silver and gold, and a special collector's issue of brass 1 tiyin coin. Nickel plated steel 10 som coin was issued for circulation in 2009.

Banknotes


In 1993, the government issued 1, 10 and 50 tyiyn notes and the Kyrgyzstan Bank issued notes for 1, 5 and 20 som. In 1994, the Kyrgyz Bank
National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic
-External links:...

 issued a second series of notes in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 som. A third series followed from 1997 onwards in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 som.

1993 series

First series
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Issue withdrawal
Obverse Reverse
1 tyiyn
90×70
red
May, 10 1993
2010
10 tyiyn
green
50 tyiyn
blue
1 som
140×70
red
1994
5 som
green
20 som
blue

1994 series

Second Series
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description issue withdrawal
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse
1 som
135х65
brown. yellow
Abdylas Maldybaev
Abdylas Maldybaev
Abdylas Maldybaev was a Kyrgyz composer, actor, and operatic tenor singer. Maldybaev was one of the composers of the state anthem of the Kirghiz SSR and is still renowned for his operatic composition. He helped popularize Kyrgyz music by skillfully using Western European techniques...

Komuz
Komuz
The komuz or qomuz , Azeri Gopuz, Turkish Kopuz, is an ancient fretless string instrument used in Central Asian music, related to certain other Turkic string instruments and the lute....

, kylkyak, Bishkek Philharmonic Orchestra
1994
2002
5 som
blue, yellow
Bubusara Beyshenalieva
Bubusara Beyshenalieva
Bubusara Beyshenalieva , known simply as Bubusara in her native Kyrgyzstan, was the first great Kyrgyz ballerina. She studied at the Vaganova Ballet Academy in Leningrad under the legendary Russian ballerina Agrippina Vaganova and made her debut at the famed Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow.In 1944, after...

Kyrgyz National Opera
10 som
green, yellow
Kasym Tynystanov
Kasym Tynystanov
Kasym Tynystanov was a prominent Kyrgyz scientist, politician and poet. He served as the first Minister of Education of the Kyrgyz Republic.-Early life:...

Mountain ranges of Kyrgyzstan and the Dzhety-Oguz tract
20 som
red, orange, brown
Togolok Moldo
Togolok Moldo
Togolok Moldo was a Kyrgyz poet, Manaschi and folk song writer. Born in Ak-Talaa district, Naryn province . Togolok Moldo by his audiences - "togolok" means round-faced, "moldo" means an educated person.He is buried near the village of about 3,000 persons named for him in Ak-Talaa district....

Manas Mausoleum
50 som
red-brown, lilac
Kurmanjan Datka
Kurmanjan Datka
Kurmanjan Datka , also known as "The Tsaritsa of Alai" or "The Queen of the South," was a stateswoman in Kyrgyzstan, known for her initial resistance to the annexation of that region by Russia.Kurmanjan was born into a nomadic family of the Mongush clan in the Alai Mountains...

Uzgen
Uzgen
Uzgen is a town in Osh Province, Kyrgyzstan. It is the capital of Uzgen District.-Geography:...

 architectural complex of the 11-12th centuries
100 som
gray, brown, olive
Toktogul Satylganov Toktogul Hydroelectric Power Station
Toktogul Reservoir
Toktogul Reservoir , located in the Jalal-Abad Province of Kyrgyzstan, is the largest of the reservoirs on the path of the Naryn River. The reservoir was named after Toktogul Satilganov....

Масштаб изображений — 1,0 пикселя на миллиметр

1997 series

Third series
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark printing issue withdrawal
1 som 120 × 60 mm Green-orange Abdylas Maldybaev
Abdylas Maldybaev
Abdylas Maldybaev was a Kyrgyz composer, actor, and operatic tenor singer. Maldybaev was one of the composers of the state anthem of the Kirghiz SSR and is still renowned for his operatic composition. He helped popularize Kyrgyz music by skillfully using Western European techniques...

Komuz
Komuz
The komuz or qomuz , Azeri Gopuz, Turkish Kopuz, is an ancient fretless string instrument used in Central Asian music, related to certain other Turkic string instruments and the lute....

, kylkyak, Bishkek Philharmonic Orchestra
As portrait 1999 February 7, 2000 2011
5 som 135 × 65 mm Dark blue Bubusara Beyshenalieva
Bubusara Beyshenalieva
Bubusara Beyshenalieva , known simply as Bubusara in her native Kyrgyzstan, was the first great Kyrgyz ballerina. She studied at the Vaganova Ballet Academy in Leningrad under the legendary Russian ballerina Agrippina Vaganova and made her debut at the famed Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow.In 1944, after...

Kyrgyz National Opera 1997 December 17, 1997
10 som Dark green Kasym Tynystanov
Kasym Tynystanov
Kasym Tynystanov was a prominent Kyrgyz scientist, politician and poet. He served as the first Minister of Education of the Kyrgyz Republic.-Early life:...

Mountain ranges of Kyrgyzstan and the Dzhety-Oguz tract
20 som Ochre-red Togolok Moldo
Togolok Moldo
Togolok Moldo was a Kyrgyz poet, Manaschi and folk song writer. Born in Ak-Talaa district, Naryn province . Togolok Moldo by his audiences - "togolok" means round-faced, "moldo" means an educated person.He is buried near the village of about 3,000 persons named for him in Ak-Talaa district....

Manas Mausoleum As portrait, and value 2002 August 15, 2002
50 som 145 × 70 mm Red-violet Kurmanjan Datka
Kurmanjan Datka
Kurmanjan Datka , also known as "The Tsaritsa of Alai" or "The Queen of the South," was a stateswoman in Kyrgyzstan, known for her initial resistance to the annexation of that region by Russia.Kurmanjan was born into a nomadic family of the Mongush clan in the Alai Mountains...

Uzgen
Uzgen
Uzgen is a town in Osh Province, Kyrgyzstan. It is the capital of Uzgen District.-Geography:...

 architectural complex of the 11-12th centuries
100 som 150 × 72 mm Green-violet Toktogul Satylganov Khan Tengri
Khan Tengri
Khan Tengri is a mountain of the Tian Shan mountain range. It is located on the China—Kyrgyzstan—Kazakhstan border, east of lake Issyk Kul. Its geologic elevation is , but its glacial cap rises to...

200 som 155 × 74 mm Yellow Alykul Osmonov
Alykul Osmonov
Alykul Osmonov was a Kyrgyz poet. Osmonov was born in Kaptal-Aryk in Panfilov District, Kyrgyzstan, about 75km east of Bishkek. He was orphaned at a young age and was brought up in state care. His first book of poetry, Poems at Dawn, was published in 1935...

Lake Issyk Kul
Issyk Kul
Issyk Kul is an endorheic lake in the northern Tian Shan mountains in eastern Kyrgyzstan. It is the tenth largest lake in the world by volume and the second largest saline lake after the Caspian Sea. Although it is surrounded by snow-capped peaks, it never freezes; hence its name, which means "hot...

2000
2004
August 28, 2000
August 2, 2004
500 som 160 × 76 mm Violet Sayakbay Karalaev
Sayakbay Karalaev
Sayakbay Karalaev was a renowned manaschi - a reciter of the epic Kyrgyz poem Manas...

Sayakbay Karalaev and images from the Manas (epic) 2000
2005
August 28, 2000
November 1, 2005
1000 som 165 × 78 mm Grey-green Jusup Balasagyn
Yusuf Has Hajib
Yusuf Balasaghuni or Yusuf Khas Hajib Balasaghuni was an 11th century Uyghur scribe from the city of Balasaghun, the capital of the Karakhanid Empire. He wrote the Kutadgu Bilig and most of what is known about him comes from his own writings in this work.Balasagun was located near present-day...

Takhti Sulaiman
Sulayman Mountain
The Sulayman Mountain is the only World Heritage Site in the country of Kyrgyzstan. It is located in the city of Osh and was once a major place of Muslim and pre-Muslim pilgrimage...

, Mount Sulaiman
Sulayman Mountain
The Sulayman Mountain is the only World Heritage Site in the country of Kyrgyzstan. It is located in the city of Osh and was once a major place of Muslim and pre-Muslim pilgrimage...

2000 August 28, 2000

2009 series


In 2009 the Kyrgyzstan bank issued a 5000 som, with a new edition for 20, 50 and 100 som denominations. The denominations of 200, 500 and 1000 som were issued in December 2010.
Fourt series
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark printing issue
20 som 120 × 50mm Red Togolok Moldo
Togolok Moldo
Togolok Moldo was a Kyrgyz poet, Manaschi and folk song writer. Born in Ak-Talaa district, Naryn province . Togolok Moldo by his audiences - "togolok" means round-faced, "moldo" means an educated person.He is buried near the village of about 3,000 persons named for him in Ak-Talaa district....

Tash Rabat
Tash Rabat
Tash Rabat is a well-preserved 15th century stone caravanserai in At Bashy district, Naryn Province, Kyrgyzstan. Some argue that it was originally a Nestorian or Buddhist monastery going back to the tenth century. It is located somewhat east of the main north-south highway.To the south is Lake...

Togolok Moldo July 1, 2009
50 som 126 × 61 Orange Kurmanjan Datka
Kurmanjan Datka
Kurmanjan Datka , also known as "The Tsaritsa of Alai" or "The Queen of the South," was a stateswoman in Kyrgyzstan, known for her initial resistance to the annexation of that region by Russia.Kurmanjan was born into a nomadic family of the Mongush clan in the Alai Mountains...

Minaret
Minaret
A minaret مناره , sometimes مئذنه) is a distinctive architectural feature of Islamic mosques, generally a tall spire with an onion-shaped or conical crown, usually either free standing or taller than any associated support structure. The basic form of a minaret includes a base, shaft, and gallery....

 and mausoleum
Mausoleum
A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or persons. A monument without the interment is a cenotaph. A mausoleum may be considered a type of tomb or the tomb may be considered to be within the...

Alai Tsaritsa July 1, 2009
100 som 132 × 63 Blue Toktogul Satylganov Toktogul Hydroelectric Power Station
Toktogul Reservoir
Toktogul Reservoir , located in the Jalal-Abad Province of Kyrgyzstan, is the largest of the reservoirs on the path of the Naryn River. The reservoir was named after Toktogul Satilganov....

Toktogul Satylganov July 1, 2009
200 som 138 × 66 mm Yellow Alykul Osmonov
Alykul Osmonov
Alykul Osmonov was a Kyrgyz poet. Osmonov was born in Kaptal-Aryk in Panfilov District, Kyrgyzstan, about 75km east of Bishkek. He was orphaned at a young age and was brought up in state care. His first book of poetry, Poems at Dawn, was published in 1935...

Lake Issyk-Kul Alykul Osmonov December 1, 2010 2010
500 som 144 × 69 mm Violet Sayakbay Karalaev
Sayakbay Karalaev
Sayakbay Karalaev was a renowned manaschi - a reciter of the epic Kyrgyz poem Manas...

Manas Mausoleum Sayakbai Karalaev December 1, 2010 2010
1000 som 150 × 71 mm Grey-green Jusup Balasagyn
Yusuf Has Hajib
Yusuf Balasaghuni or Yusuf Khas Hajib Balasaghuni was an 11th century Uyghur scribe from the city of Balasaghun, the capital of the Karakhanid Empire. He wrote the Kutadgu Bilig and most of what is known about him comes from his own writings in this work.Balasagun was located near present-day...

Takhti Sulaiman
Sulayman Mountain
The Sulayman Mountain is the only World Heritage Site in the country of Kyrgyzstan. It is located in the city of Osh and was once a major place of Muslim and pre-Muslim pilgrimage...

, Mount Sulaiman
Sulayman Mountain
The Sulayman Mountain is the only World Heritage Site in the country of Kyrgyzstan. It is located in the city of Osh and was once a major place of Muslim and pre-Muslim pilgrimage...

Jusup Balasagyn December 1, 2010 2010
5000 som 168 × 80 mm (Not Exact) Green Suimenkul Chokmorov Ala-Too Square
Ala-Too Square
Ala-Too Square is the central square in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. The square was built in 1984 to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the Kyrgyz SSR, at which time a massive statue of Lenin was placed in the square's center...

Suimenkul Chokmorov March 2, 2009



External links