Kurmanji

Kurmanji

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Kurmanji or Northern Kurdish (sometimes misspelled as Kirmanji, Kurmangi or Kermanji) is the most commonly spoken dialect of the Kurdish language
Kurdish language
Kurdish is a dialect continuum spoken by the Kurds in western Asia. It is part of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian group of Indo-European languages....

.

Scripts and books


The Kurmanji language, which uses the Latin script, is the most common dialect of Kurdish language and spoken by 80 % of all Kurds.

Kurmanji is the ceremonial language of national Kurdish religion “Yezidism”. The sacred book Mishefa Reş (“Black Book”) and all the prayers are written and said in Kurmanji.

Speakers



Most important native communities in Kurdistan
  • Kurmanji is the only Kurdish dialect that is spoken in all four areas which are vastly populated by Kurds.
  • The vast majority of Kurds in Eastern and Southeastern Turkey speak Kurmanji.
  • It’s also the mother tongue of the all Kurds in Kurdistan of Syria.
  • Iran and Iraq also have a significant amount of Kurmanji speakers:
  • Kurmanji in Southern Kurdistan (Northern Iraq)is spoken in the cities of Mosul, Duhok, Zakho, Akre, Amedia, Sheikhan, Shangal, Zummar.
  • In Iraq, Kurmanji is mistakenly called by some as Bahdini, simply because Kurmanji speaking Kurds live in Bahdinan region, which consists of the above mentioned cities and towns.
  • In Iran, Kurmanji is spoken in the northern parts of the country, in the cities of Urmia, Maku, Khoy, Salmas as well as exile by Kurds in Khorasan province of Iran.
  • In Iran, it is sometimes called "Shikaki", due to major Kurmanji tribe Shikak which is the tribe of legendary Kurdish leader Ismail Aghaye Shikak, also known as legendary Simko among the Kurds.


Also
  • Kurmanji was also the official language of the autonomous Red Kurdistan (Russian Красный Курдистан) that established in Lachin, Kalbajar and Qubadli and surrounding cities in Azerbaijan, and existed between 1923 to 1929.
  • Kurmanji is also spoken by the entire Kurdish population that was exiled from the historical Kurdish homeland. Some two millions Kurds living in Khorasan Province of Iran in the cities like Quchan
    Quchan
    Quchan is a city in and capital of Quchan County, in Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. It is located due south of the border city of Ashgabat. At the 2006 census, its population was 96,953, in 25,066 families.-Population:...

    , Shirvan
    Shirvan
    Shirvan , also spelled as Shirwan, Shervan, Sherwan and Šervān, is a historical region in the eastern Caucasus, known by this name in both Islamic and modern times...

    , Esfarayen
    Esfarayen
    Esfarayen is a city in and the capital of Esfarayen County, North Khorasan Province in Iran. At the 2006 census its population was 51,321, in 13,376 families.Esfarayen is one of the focal points for residence of Aryan tribes after entering into Iran....

    , Bozhnurd (Bojnurd), Dargaz
    Dargaz
    Dargaz is a city in and the capital of Dargaz County, in Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 34,305, in 9,196 families....

    , Chenaran
    Chenaran
    Chenaran is a city in and the capital of Chenaran County, in Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 41,735, in 10,179 families....

    , Faruj
    Faruj
    Faruj is a city in and the capital of Faruj County, in North Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 10,039, in 2,639 families....

    , Bajgiran
    Bajgiran
    Bajgiran is a city in and capital of Bajgiran District, in Quchan County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 753, in 217 families....

    , Ashkhane and Kalat speak Kurmanji.
  • Kurdish exile community in Ankara, Konya, Kirsehir, Aksaray, Eskisehir and some other cities of Middle Anatolia of Turkey also speak Kurmanji.
  • Entire Kurdish population in Former Soviet countries such as Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Russia and Ukraine, as well as the all Kurds in Lebanon are the speakers of Kurmanji language.
  • Kurmanji is also spoken by 200,000 Kurdophones settled around Kabul, in Afghanistan and some in Pakistan.

Etymology


The main theory about the etymology of Kurmanji is that the term Kurmanji, according to Prince Jaladet Bedirkhan, the great Kurdish intellectual who prepared the Latin Kurdish alphabet, comes from Kurd+man+cî which means, those Kurds who remained in their places (not moved like others). In earlier publications of this century, the term Kurmanji was sometimes spelled with a "d" like "Kurdmanji" but the standard spelling of the term is Kurmanji in English and Kurmancî in Kurdish.

One other theory is that the term Kurmanji is believed by some scholars to mean Median
Medes
The MedesThe Medes...

 Kurd
Kurdish people
The Kurdish people, or Kurds , are an Iranian people native to the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a region known as Kurdistan, which includes adjacent parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey...

. Some scholars say the older form of this word is Khormenj (also possibly Hormenj, which means “place of Khormens” or “land of Khormens” in Kurdish). Kurds historically lived in the area Greek sources defined as Armenia; thus Greek Armen could be a rendering of local Khormen. Note that modern Armenians
Armenians
Armenian people or Armenians are a nation and ethnic group native to the Armenian Highland.The largest concentration is in Armenia having a nearly-homogeneous population with 97.9% or 3,145,354 being ethnic Armenian....

' name for themselves has historically been Haiq.

See also

  • Kurmancî
    Kurmanci (magazine)
    Kurmancî is a linguistic magazine published twice a year since 1987 to spread the results of the Kurdish Institute's linguistic seminars on problems of terminology and standardisation of the Kurdish language. All issues of this periodical are available on the publisher’s Web site, as is the...

    , a Kurdish linguistic magazine
  • Northern Kurmanji
  • Central Kurdish
  • Southern Kurdish
    Southern Kurdish
    Southern Kurdish , also called Kermānšāhi, belongs to the Northwestern Iranian languages and is predominantly spoken in western Iran and eastern Iraq. In Iran, it is spoken in the provinces of Kermanshah and Ilam. In Iraq it is spoken in the region of Khanaqin , all the way to Mandali, Pehle...

  • Pehlewani
  • Kurdish language
    Kurdish language
    Kurdish is a dialect continuum spoken by the Kurds in western Asia. It is part of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian group of Indo-European languages....

  • Kurukshetra
    Kurukshetra
    Kurukshetra is a land of historical and religious importance. Historically the land belonged to Punjab now a district in Haryana state of India. It is a holy place and is also known as Dharmakshetra . According to the Puranas, Kurukshetra is named after King Kuru, the ancestor of Kauravas and...

  • Mair Rajputs
    Mair Rajputs
    The Mair are a Sunar caste found in northern India, which identify themselves as Mair Rajputs.Though they are the traditional goldsmiths of North India, now many are also landowners, involved in cultivation, as well as selling grocery. But their main occupation remains the manufacture and selling...


External links