Kurdistan Province (Iran)

Kurdistan Province (Iran)

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Kurdistan Province or Kordestan Province or Kurdestan Province ' onMouseout='HidePop("54921")' href="http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Kurdish_language">Kurdish
Kurdish language
Kurdish is a dialect continuum spoken by the Kurds in western Asia. It is part of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian group of Indo-European languages....

: پارێزگای کوردستان, Parêzgeha Kurdistanê ) is one of the 31 provinces
Provinces of Iran
Iran is subdivided into thirty one provinces , each governed from a local center, usually the largest local city, which is called the capital of that province...

 of Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

, not to be confused with the greater geographical area of Iranian Kurdistan
Iranian Kurdistan
Iranian Kurdistan is an unofficial name for the parts of Iran inhabited by Kurds and has borders with Iraq and Turkey. It includes Kurdistan Province, Kermanshah Province, Ilam Province and parts of West Azerbaijan province....

. The province of Kurdistan is 28,817 km² in area which encompasses just one-fourth of the Kurdish inhabited areas of Iran or Iranian Kurdistan
Iranian Kurdistan
Iranian Kurdistan is an unofficial name for the parts of Iran inhabited by Kurds and has borders with Iraq and Turkey. It includes Kurdistan Province, Kermanshah Province, Ilam Province and parts of West Azerbaijan province....

 http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2267/is_1_70/ai_102140955/pg_2. It is located in the west of Iran and bound by Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

 on the west, the province of west Azerbaijan to its north, Zanjan
Zanjan Province
Zanjan Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. Located in the North West of Iran, its capital is Zanjan city. Zanjan province with an area of 36,400 km² has a mostly rural, population of 964,601 . The province lies 330 km northwest of Tehran, connected to it via a freeway.Zanjan...

 to the northeast and Kermanshah
Kermanshah Province
Kermanshah Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. The province was known from 1969 to 1986 as Kermanshahan and from 1986 to 1995 as Bakhtaran.-Counties:...

 to the south. The capital of Kurdistan Province is the city of Sanandaj
Sanandaj
Sanandaj , also Romanized as Senneh and Sinneh) is a city in and the capital of Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 311,446, in 81,380 families....

 . Other counties with their major cities are Piranshahr
Piranshahr
Piranshahr is a city in and the capital of Piranshahr County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 57,692, in 12,184 families....

, Marivan
Marivan
Marivan also known as Qal‘eh-ye Marīvān - "Fort Marivan"; formerly, Dez Shahpur , also Romanized as Dezh Shāhpūr and Dezh Shapoor) is a city in and capital of Marivan County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 91,664, in 22,440 families...

, Baneh
Baneh
Baneh is a city in and capital of Baneh County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 69,635, in 15,857 families....

, Saqqez, Qorveh
Qorveh
Qorveh is a city in and capital of Qorveh County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 65,842, in 16,309 families.-Situation:...

, Bijar
Bijar
Bijar is a city is a city in and capital of Bijar County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 46,156, in 12,312 families...

, Kamyaran
Kamyaran
Kamyaran is a city in and capital of Kamyaran County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 46,760, in 11,186 families....

, Dehgolan
Dehgolan
Dehgolan is a city in and capital of Dehgolan County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 20,226, in 4,920 families....

, Diwandarreh
Diwandarreh
Divandarreh is a city in and capital of Divandarreh County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 22,842, in 5,305 families....

 and Sarvabad
Sarvabad
Sarvabad is a city in and capital of Sarvabad County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 3,707, in 955 families....

.

History


The mountainous lands of this area first encouraged Aryan
Aryan
Aryan is an English language loanword derived from Sanskrit ārya and denoting variously*In scholarly usage:**Indo-Iranian languages *in dated usage:**the Indo-European languages more generally and their speakers...

 tribes to settle in this region after their immigration to Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

. It was from here where the first plan to overthrow the Assyrians began, leading to their defeat in 612 BCE, and setting the stage for the commence of the Median
Medes
The MedesThe Medes...

 empire.
When the Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

ic Arabs attacked the Sassanid empire in 634 CE, many Kurds resisted their invasion, but were eventually brought under Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

 rule. In 835 CE, one of the Kurdish leaders revolted against Al-Mu'tasim
Al-Mu'tasim
Abu Ishaq 'Abbas al-Mu'tasim ibn Harun was an Abbasid caliph . He succeeded his half-brother al-Ma'mun...

, but was eventually suppressed. The Kurds revolted against the Arab Caliph
Caliph
The Caliph is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah. It is a transcribed version of the Arabic word   which means "successor" or "representative"...

s several times but were defeated.

During the next few hundred years, Kurdistan became the arena of conflict between various invaders, including the Mongols and Timurid
Timurid Dynasty
The Timurids , self-designated Gurkānī , were a Persianate, Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turko-Mongol descent whose empire included the whole of Iran, modern Afghanistan, and modern Uzbekistan, as well as large parts of contemporary Pakistan, North India, Mesopotamia, Anatolia and the...

s. Its steady decline began in the 16th century, when sea traffic replaced the famous Silk Road
Silk Road
The Silk Road or Silk Route refers to a historical network of interlinking trade routes across the Afro-Eurasian landmass that connected East, South, and Western Asia with the Mediterranean and European world, as well as parts of North and East Africa...

.

Upon the order of Sultan Muhammad Khodabandeh
Öljaitü
Öljeitü, Oljeitu, Olcayto or Uljeitu, Öljaitu, Ölziit , born Muhammad Khodabandeh , was the eighth Ilkhanid dynasty ruler in Iran from 1304 to 1316...

 (Öljaitü), a small town by the name of Soltanabad Chamchal was constructed in Bisutun
Bisutun
Bisutun was the ruler of the Ziyarids . He was the eldest son of Vushmgir.During his father's lifetime, Bisutun was the governor of Tabaristan. Upon Vushmgir's death in 967 during a hunting expedition, he went to Gurgan to assume power...

 region to function as the official and political center of Kurdistan in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

. It remained the capital for nearly one-and-a-half centuries, until, in 1372 CE, the government moved to Hassanabad fort, 6 km south of Sanandaj
Sanandaj
Sanandaj , also Romanized as Senneh and Sinneh) is a city in and the capital of Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 311,446, in 81,380 families....

 (Sinne). Around 14th century, people from Ardalan
Ardalan
Ardalan or was the name of a vassaldom in north-western Persia during Qajar period.Ardalan vassaldom was established in an area encompassing present day Iranian province of Kurdistan from medieval period up to mid 19th century. Ardalan is also the name of the ruling family of that vassaldom...

 tribe established themselves in Sinne (Sanandaj) as the rulers of this region.

According to Sharafnama written by Sharaf-al-Din Bitlisi, the earliest known leader of the tribe, Bawa Ardalan, was a descendant of "Ahmad b. Marwan", who ruled in Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey...

. He settled down among the Gorans in Kurdistan and toward the end of the Mongol period took over the "Şare Zor" (Sharazur) region, where he established himself as an absolute ruler. He is considered to be the founder of the Ardalan principality. The territories of Zardiawa (Karadagh), Khanaqin
Khanaqin
Khanaqin is a city in Iraq. It is located at 34.3°N, 45.4°E in the Diyala Governorate, near the Iranian border on a tributary of the Diyala River...

, Kirkuk
Kirkuk
Kirkuk is a city in Iraq and the capital of Kirkuk Governorate.It is located in the Iraqi governorate of Kirkuk, north of the capital, Baghdad...

, and Kifri, which were already the homelands of the Goran-Kurds, all belonged to this principality. The capital city of the principality was first in Sharazour, but was moved to Sinne later on. During the reign of Shah Ismail I, the founder of Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
The Safavid dynasty was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran. They ruled one of the greatest Persian empires since the Muslim conquest of Persia and established the Twelver school of Shi'a Islam as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning...

, Sunni Kurds (among them the Ardalans) were supported by Ottoman
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 against the Shi'ite government of the Safavids. When Soleiman Khan Ardalan
Ardalan
Ardalan or was the name of a vassaldom in north-western Persia during Qajar period.Ardalan vassaldom was established in an area encompassing present day Iranian province of Kurdistan from medieval period up to mid 19th century. Ardalan is also the name of the ruling family of that vassaldom...

 came to power in 1630 CE, the throne was transferred to Sanandaj (Sinne), and, from then on, the rulers contributed to the flourishing and development of the area.

The Ardalan
Ardalan
Ardalan or was the name of a vassaldom in north-western Persia during Qajar period.Ardalan vassaldom was established in an area encompassing present day Iranian province of Kurdistan from medieval period up to mid 19th century. Ardalan is also the name of the ruling family of that vassaldom...

 Dynasty continued to rule the region until the Qajar monarch Nasser-al-Din Shah (1848-1896) ended their rule in 1867 CE.

Geography


Kurdistan Province is a mountainous region that can be topographically divided into a western and an eastern section at Sanandaj. As a result of its elevation and mountains, Kurdistan province has many rivers, lakes, glaciers and caves, which render it rather picturesque. Consequently, Kurdistan has always attracted a large number of tourists and fans of mountaineering, ski and water-sports.

The Zarrineh River, 302 km long, is one of the longest rivers of this province. Its banks offer great opportunities for recreation and the river's plentiful water renders itself ideal for water sports. This river runs northwards and ultimately pours into Lake Urmia
Lake Urmia
Lake Urmia , ancient name: Lake Matiene) is a salt lake in northwestern Iran, near Iran's border with Turkey. The lake is between the Iranian provinces of East Azerbaijan and West Azerbaijan, west of the southern portion of the similarly shaped Caspian Sea...

. The Sirvan River is another prominent river in this province. It runs over a long distance, eventually to join the Tigris
Tigris
The Tigris River is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates. The river flows south from the mountains of southeastern Turkey through Iraq.-Geography:...

 in Iraq. The banks of this river are remarkably attractive. The Simineh River is also an important river in this province. A large number of marine species and birds live on the banks of the province's numerous rivers which they seem to find ideal habitats.

Lake Zarivar
Lake Zarivar
Lake Zarivar , also known as Zeribar or Zrewar ,, is a lake in western Iran.-Etymology:The name is composed of zrê and the suffix -bar .-Situation:...

 is the most beautiful water-way of the province, which lies at the feet to high mountains, providing a delightfully picturesque sight. Its water is sparklingly fresh. The lake has a maximum depth of 50 m and an average depth of 3 m. It is surrounded by thick forests. The whole collection of the lake, the mountains and forests generates a fascinating panorama. This lake, which has a length of 5 km and a maximum which width of 1.7 km, lies to the west of Marivan. Lake Vahdat's dam, to the north of Sanandaj (Sinne), provides excellent opportunities for fishing and water-sports.

Kurdistan benefits from many resourceful mineral water springs. The most outstanding of these are: Govaz to the northwest of Kamyaran, Abetalkh close to Bijar and Baba Gorgor to the north of Qorveh.

Cave Kereftoo, close to Divandarreh, is a unique natural and at the same time archeological site. Inside the cave there are a number of ancient buildings known as the Temple of Heraclius, because the name of this Greek god is carved on the ceiling of one of the halls. Cave Shoovi, 267 m long, is another prominent cave, which lies near the city of Baneh.

Mount Charkhaln 3,330 m high, mount Chehelcheshmeh, 3,173 m, Mount Hossein Bak, 3,091 m, and Mount Masjede Mirza, 3,059 m, are the other large mountains of Kurdistan.

Kurdistan has vast forests and refuges, where many animals and birds live, safely from the harms of the human beings: the leopard, ram, wild goat, hyena, jackal, wolf, fox, sable, weasel and such birds as the partridge, wild duck, stork, parrot and eagle.

Climate


Kurdistan is one of the most mountainous(hilly) regions in Iran and has a generally mild and quite pleasant climate throughout the spring and summer. Winters are long and can be very cold with heavy snowfalls.

People and culture


The population of the province in 1996 was 1,346,383 of which 52.42% were urban dwellers and 47.58% rural dwellers. The sex ratio of the province is 104. The Kurdish people
Kurdish people
The Kurdish people, or Kurds , are an Iranian people native to the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a region known as Kurdistan, which includes adjacent parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey...

 are the majority population in this province, and they speak Sorani
Soranî
Soranî is the name of a Kurdish language that is spoken in Iran and Iraq. Soranî is one of the main Kurdish languages, which are a branch of the Iranian languages.- Name :...

-Kurdish
Kurdish language
Kurdish is a dialect continuum spoken by the Kurds in western Asia. It is part of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian group of Indo-European languages....

 which is a northwestern Iranian language. The region's historical name is Ardalan
Ardalan
Ardalan or was the name of a vassaldom in north-western Persia during Qajar period.Ardalan vassaldom was established in an area encompassing present day Iranian province of Kurdistan from medieval period up to mid 19th century. Ardalan is also the name of the ruling family of that vassaldom...

.

The Kurdish language is categorized under the Indo-European
Indo-European languages
The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects, including most major current languages of Europe, the Iranian plateau, and South Asia and also historically predominant in Anatolia...

 group of languages, with a distinctive grammatical form. This language has various branches in Iran, such as the Sorani
Soranî
Soranî is the name of a Kurdish language that is spoken in Iran and Iraq. Soranî is one of the main Kurdish languages, which are a branch of the Iranian languages.- Name :...

, Hewrami, Feyli
Feyli
Feyli can refer to:*Feyli , a group of Lor tribes located mainly in Lorestan*Feyli , a dialect of Southern Kurdish...

, Kalhuri and Kurmanji
Kurmanji
Kurmanji or Northern Kurdish is the most commonly spoken dialect of the Kurdish language.- Scripts and books :...

. Majority of the people in Kurdistan province speak variants of Sorani
Soranî
Soranî is the name of a Kurdish language that is spoken in Iran and Iraq. Soranî is one of the main Kurdish languages, which are a branch of the Iranian languages.- Name :...

 Kurdish, sometimes called as "Ardalani" dialect. Hewrami Kurdish is also spoken around Marivan
Marivan
Marivan also known as Qal‘eh-ye Marīvān - "Fort Marivan"; formerly, Dez Shahpur , also Romanized as Dezh Shāhpūr and Dezh Shapoor) is a city in and capital of Marivan County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 91,664, in 22,440 families...

, in a region called "Hewramanî Text"(The Flat Hawraman). In eastern parts of the province including Bijar
Bijar
Bijar is a city is a city in and capital of Bijar County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 46,156, in 12,312 families...

 and Qorveh
Qorveh
Qorveh is a city in and capital of Qorveh County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 65,842, in 16,309 families.-Situation:...

, the majority are Shiite Kurds. There also exists an Azeri
Azerbaijani people
The Azerbaijanis are a Turkic-speaking people living mainly in northwestern Iran and the Republic of Azerbaijan, as well as in the neighbourhood states, Georgia, Russia and formerly Armenia. Commonly referred to as Azeris or Azerbaijani Turks , they also live in a wider area from the Caucasus to...

 minority in the villages around Qorveh.

Cities and towns

Kurdistan Province counties
  • Sanandaj
    Sanandaj
    Sanandaj , also Romanized as Senneh and Sinneh) is a city in and the capital of Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 311,446, in 81,380 families....

  • Saqez
  • Marivan
    Marivan
    Marivan also known as Qal‘eh-ye Marīvān - "Fort Marivan"; formerly, Dez Shahpur , also Romanized as Dezh Shāhpūr and Dezh Shapoor) is a city in and capital of Marivan County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 91,664, in 22,440 families...

  • Kamyaran
    Kamyaran
    Kamyaran is a city in and capital of Kamyaran County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 46,760, in 11,186 families....

  • Baneh
    Baneh
    Baneh is a city in and capital of Baneh County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 69,635, in 15,857 families....

  • Diwandarreh
    Diwandarreh
    Divandarreh is a city in and capital of Divandarreh County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 22,842, in 5,305 families....

  • Qorveh
    Qorveh
    Qorveh is a city in and capital of Qorveh County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 65,842, in 16,309 families.-Situation:...

  • Bijar
    Bijar
    Bijar is a city is a city in and capital of Bijar County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 46,156, in 12,312 families...

  • Sarvabad
    Sarvabad
    Sarvabad is a city in and capital of Sarvabad County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 3,707, in 955 families....


Economy


The major activities of the inhabitants are agriculture and modern livestock farming. Wheat, barley, grains and fruits are the major agricultural products. The chemical, metal, textile, leather and food industries are the main industrial activities in this province.

Colleges and universities


Attractions


Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization lists 211 sites of historical and cultural significance in Kordestan province. Some, such as Hajar Khatoon Mosque
Hajar Khatoon Mosque
Hajar Khatoon Mosque is architecturally a unique and ancient Muslim mosque in the city of Sanandaj in the Iranian Kurdistan....

in Sanandaj
Sanandaj
Sanandaj , also Romanized as Senneh and Sinneh) is a city in and the capital of Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 311,446, in 81,380 families....

 or Ghal'eh Kohneh in Bijar
Bijar
Bijar is a city is a city in and capital of Bijar County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 46,156, in 12,312 families...

 date back to the Sassanid era. For more info, see the provincial Cultural Heritage Organization website linked at the bottom of this page.

See also


  • Hajar Khatoon Mosque
    Hajar Khatoon Mosque
    Hajar Khatoon Mosque is architecturally a unique and ancient Muslim mosque in the city of Sanandaj in the Iranian Kurdistan....

  • Iranian Kurdistan
    Iranian Kurdistan
    Iranian Kurdistan is an unofficial name for the parts of Iran inhabited by Kurds and has borders with Iraq and Turkey. It includes Kurdistan Province, Kermanshah Province, Ilam Province and parts of West Azerbaijan province....

  • Ethnic minorities in Iran
    Ethnic minorities in Iran
    This article focuses on ethnic minorities in Iran and their related political issues.-Overview:Iran is an ethnically diverse country, and interethnic relations are generally amicable. Persians form the majority of the population...


External links