Kurd-Dagh

Kurd-Dagh

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Kurd-Dagh or Kurd Mountain (Kurdish
Kurdish language
Kurdish is a dialect continuum spoken by the Kurds in western Asia. It is part of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian group of Indo-European languages....

: Çiyayê Kurmênc; Jabal al-Akrād; Turkish
Turkish language
Turkish is a language spoken as a native language by over 83 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Its speakers are located predominantly in Turkey and Northern Cyprus with smaller groups in Iraq, Greece, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo,...

: Kurt Dağı), also called Aleppo Mountain ( Jabal Ḥalab), is a highland region in northwestern Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

 and southeastern Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

. It is located in the Aleppo Governorate
Aleppo Governorate
Aleppo Governorate is one of the fourteen governorates of Syria. It is the most populous governorate in Syria with a population of more than 4,744,000 , almost 23% of the total population of Syria. The governorate is the fifth in area with an area of 18,482 km², about 10% of the total area of...

 of Syria and Kilis Province
Kilis Province
Kilis Province is a province in south-central Turkey. It used to be the southern part of the province of Gaziantep and was formed in 1994. The town of Kilis is home to around 67% of the inhabitants of the province, the other towns and villages are very small.-History:There is evidence of human...

 of Turkey.

Location and description


Mount Kurd is part of the Limestone Massif
Limestone Massif
The Limestone Massif or Belus Massif is a name applied to the highlands on the weastern part of the Aleppo plateau in northwestern Syria. The Massif is famed for having the Dead Cities of Syria....

 of northwestern Syria. The mountain is a southern continuation into the Aleppo plateau
Aleppo plateau
Aleppo plateau is a low, gently undulating plateau of northern Syria. It lies at the northern end of the junction between the Arabian Plate and the African Plate at the Dead Sea Rift. The plateau lies mostly in the Aleppo Governorate and Idlib Governorate...

 of the highlands on the western part of the Aintab plateau
Aintab plateau
Aintab plateau or Gaziantep plateau is a low, gently undulating plateau that forms the westernmost part of the Southeastern Anatolia Region in Turkey. It forms the northwestern end of the Arabian Plate where it meets the Anatolian Plate at the East Anatolian Fault. The plateau lies in the Turkish...

. The valley of River Afrin surrounds Mount Kurd from east and south and separates it from the plain of Aʻzāz
A'zaz
Azaz is a small town in Syria, roughly 20 miles north-northwest of Aleppo . It is most notable for being the site of the Battle of Azaz between the Crusader States and the Seljuk Turks on June 11, 1125.-History:...

 and Mount Simeon to the east, and from Mount Harim to the south. The valley of River Aswad separates Mount Kurd from Mount Amanus to the west.

In Syria, it is among the three "ethnic mountains" of western Syria, along with al-Ansariyah mountains
Al-Ansariyah mountains
An-Nusayriyah Mountains also known as al-Alawiyeen Mountains , both names refer to the Alawi sect which has traditionally lived there, and the Syrian official name, Coastal Mountain Range ; are a mountain range in northwestern Syria running north-south, parallel to the coastal plain...

 ("Mountain of the Alawite
Alawite
The Alawis, also known as Alawites, Nusayris and Ansaris are a prominent mystical and syncretic religious group centred in Syria who are a branch of Shia Islam.-Etymology:...

s") and Jabal al-Duruz ("Mountain of the Druze
Druze
The Druze are an esoteric, monotheistic religious community, found primarily in Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan, which emerged during the 11th century from Ismailism. The Druze have an eclectic set of beliefs that incorporate several elements from Abrahamic religions, Gnosticism, Neoplatonism...

").

The main town is Afrin
Afrin, Syria
Afrin is both a district and city of the Aleppo Governorate, Syria. The district includes the city of 80,000 inhabitants and 366 surrounding villages and farms. The region of Afrin with its 490,000 inhabitants is next to Kurd-Dagh . The district has a surface of 2.033 km square and e.g...

 (Efrîn in Kurdish), in Syria. The area is known for its olive
Olive
The olive , Olea europaea), is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin as well as northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea.Its fruit, also called the olive, is of major agricultural importance in the...

 growing and charcoal
Charcoal
Charcoal is the dark grey residue consisting of carbon, and any remaining ash, obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. Charcoal is usually produced by slow pyrolysis, the heating of wood or other substances in the absence of oxygen...

 production. The majority of the Kurd-Dagh population are Hanafi
Hanafi
The Hanafi school is one of the four Madhhab in jurisprudence within Sunni Islam. The Hanafi madhhab is named after the Persian scholar Abu Hanifa an-Nu‘man ibn Thābit , a Tabi‘i whose legal views were preserved primarily by his two most important disciples, Abu Yusuf and Muhammad al-Shaybani...

-Muslims, while most Syrian Kurds are Shafiite-Muslims.

Sherefname(1543 - 1599) asserts that the authority of Kurdish bey
Bey
Bey is a title for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. Accoding to some sources, the word "Bey" is of Turkish language In historical accounts, many Turkish, other Turkic and Persian leaders are titled Bey, Beg, Bek, Bay, Baig or Beigh. They are all the same word...

s of the region was extended to localities in Antakya
Antakya
Antakya is the seat of the Hatay Province in southern Turkey, near the border with Syria. The mayor is Lütfü Savaş.Known as Antioch in ancient times, the city has historical significance for Christianity, as it was the place where the followers of Jesus Christ were called Christians for the first...

. In areas in the plains such as Islahiye, Kırıkhan, Reyhanlı
Reyhanli
Reyhanlı is a town and district of Hatay Province, on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey, near the country's border with Syria.- History :Formerly known as "İrtah" and "Reyhaniye", Reyhanli has been settled by Turks since the 16th century and in particular with Turkish "muhair" from the Caucasus...

, and Kilis
Kilis
Kilis is a city in south-central Turkey on the border with Syria and capital of Kilis Province.- History and Population :Kilis was part of the vilayet of Aleppo of the Ottoman Empire until the First World War when it was given to Turkey and had a mixed population of Circassians, Turkomans and Arabs...

, there are vestiges of Kurdish concentration in Kurd-Dagh. While other regions populated by Kurds in Syria faced an influx of Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

 immigrants and the campaign of Arabization
Arabization
Arabization or Arabisation describes a growing cultural influence on a non-Arab area that gradually changes into one that speaks Arabic and/or incorporates Arab culture...

 beginning in 1960s, Kurd-Dagh was spared from Arabization, mainly due to Syria's different policy based upon good relations with pro-Damascus
Damascus
Damascus , commonly known in Syria as Al Sham , and as the City of Jasmine , is the capital and the second largest city of Syria after Aleppo, both are part of the country's 14 governorates. In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major...

 landowners.

The Turkish part was renamed officially as Kurt Dağı ("Wolf Mountain"), with a pun
Pun
The pun, also called paronomasia, is a form of word play which suggests two or more meanings, by exploiting multiple meanings of words, or of similar-sounding words, for an intended humorous or rhetorical effect. These ambiguities can arise from the intentional use and abuse of homophonic,...

 on the Turkish words Kürt (Kurd) and kurt (wolf).
In the Syrian part during the 1980s the Kurdish names of most of this region's villages were changed to Arabic as part of the process of Arabization.

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