is a town
and a municipality
Finland , officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden in the west, Norway in the north and Russia in the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.Around 5.4 million people reside...
and is part of the Kainuu
Kainuu is a region of Finland. It borders the regions of Northern Ostrobothnia, North Karelia and Northern Savonia. In the east it also borders Russia. Kainuu is known in the ancient Norse sagas as Kvenland....
Finland consists of 19 regions called in Finnish and in Swedish. The regions are governed by regional councils, which serve as forums of cooperation for the municipalities of a region. The main tasks of the regions are regional planning and development of enterprise and education. In addition,...
. The municipality has a population of and covers an area of km2 of which km2 is water. The population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...
is PD/km2. It has a borderline of 120 kilometres (74.6 mi) with Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...
The municipality is unilingually Finnish
Finnish is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland Primarily for use by restaurant menus and by ethnic Finns outside Finland. It is one of the two official languages of Finland and an official minority language in Sweden. In Sweden, both standard Finnish and Meänkieli, a...
In the beginning of 17th century people of Kuhmo were part of parishes of Kajaani and Oulujärvi. Kuhmo became a municipality in 1865 and was known by the name Kuhmoniemi
until 1937 when the name was shortened to Kuhmo. Kuhmo gained city rights in 1986.
During 19th century tar
Tar is modified pitch produced primarily from the wood and roots of pine by destructive distillation under pyrolysis. Production and trade in tar was a major contributor in the economies of Northern Europe and Colonial America. Its main use was in preserving wooden vessels against rot. The largest...
burning and burn-beating were economically essential to Kuhmo. In the year 1900 tar production in Kuhmo was highest in Finland, at 1.6 million litres.
The Winter War
The Winter War was a military conflict between the Soviet Union and Finland. It began with a Soviet offensive on 30 November 1939 – three months after the start of World War II and the Soviet invasion of Poland – and ended on 13 March 1940 with the Moscow Peace Treaty...
is an important event in the history of Kuhmo. During the war Kuhmo was bombarded 48 times and ground battles took place as near as ten kilometers from the center of the town. After the war Kuhmo kept its eastern borderline unchanged in accordance with the Moscow Peace Treaty
The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on 12 March 1940, and the ratifications were exchanged on 21 March. It marked the end of the 105-day Winter War. The treaty ceded parts of Finland to the Soviet Union. However, it preserved Finland's independence, ending the Soviet...
, thus having an unchanged borderline for 400 years straight since the Treaty of Tyavzino
The Treaty of Teusina, Tyavzin or Tyavzino , also known as the Eternal Peace with Sweden in Russia, was concluded by Russian diplomats under boyar Afanasiy Pushkin and ambassadors of the Swedish king at the village of Tyavzino in Ingria on May 18, 1595 to end the Russo-Swedish War between the...
Kuhmo is well known for its Kuhmo Chamber Music Festival which is held annually. The festival was founded in 1970 by cellist Seppo Kimanen and a small group of friends. A book on this subject was published in 2006.
- Kuhmo Arts Centre
- Kalevala Village
- Juminkeko – The Information Center for the Kalevala and Karelian Culture. http://www.juminkeko.fi/en/
Twin towns — Sister cities
Kuhmo is twinned
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...
with: Kostamus, Russia Oroszlány
Oroszlány is a city in Hungary, Komárom-Esztergom county, Central Transdanubia region, located on the North-West flanks of the Vértes Mountains. It has a population of 20.487...
, Hungary Robertsfors
Robertsfors is a locality and the seat of Robertsfors Municipality in Västerbotten County, Sweden with 2,010 inhabitants in 2005.Robertsfors is named after the Scotsman Robert Finlay, who, together with John Jennings, founded an ironworks there in 1751....
, Sweden Šaľa
- Geography :* Sala Municipality, Sweden - a municipality in Sweden* Sala, Sweden - a city in Sweden, seat of Sala Municipality* Sala municipality, Latvia - a municipality in Latvia* Sala, Latvia - a village in Latvia, an administrative centre of Sala municipality...
The Districts and Villages of the Town of Kuhmo