Kowloon

Kowloon

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Kowloon (ˌkaʊˈluːn; traditional Chinese: ; Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese, or Modern Standard Chinese, also known as Mandarin or Putonghua, is the official language of the People's Republic of China and Republic of China , and is one of the four official languages of Singapore....

 Pinyin: jiǔlóng) is an urban area in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

 comprising the Kowloon Peninsula
Kowloon Peninsula
The Kowloon Peninsula is a peninsula that forms the southern part of the main landmass in the territory of Hong Kong. The Kowloon Peninsula and the area of New Kowloon are collectively known as Kowloon....

 and New Kowloon
New Kowloon
New Kowloon is an area in Kowloon, Hong Kong, bounded in the south by Boundary Street, and in the north by the ranges of the Lion Rock, Beacon Hill, Tate's Cairn and Kowloon Peak...

. It is bordered by the Lei Yue Mun
Lei Yue Mun
Lei Yue Mun is a short channel in Hong Kong, between Junk Bay and Victoria Harbour, separating Kowloon and Hong Kong Island. The channel is an important passage in the South China Sea. It is the east gate of Victoria Harbour.The lands around the channel are also called Lei Yue Mun...

 strait in the east, Mei Foo Sun Chuen
Mei Foo Sun Chuen
Mei Foo Sun Chuen or simply Mei Foo is a large private housing estate in Lai Chi Kok , Kowloon, Hong Kong. Mei Foo Sun Chuen was the first private housing estate in Hong Kong and at the time of completion, the 99 tower complex was considered the largest private housing development in the world,...

 and Stonecutter's Island
Stonecutters Island
Stonecutters Island or Ngong Shuen Chau is a former island in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong. Following land reclamation, it is now annexed to the Kowloon peninsula.-Fauna:...

 in the west, Tate's Cairn
Tate's Cairn
Tate's Cairn is one of many mountain peaks in Hong Kong. The peak is 583 metres in height. It is a member of the Kowloon Ridge and within Ma On Shan Country Park.The name is used by a tunnel that travels under the peak...

 and Lion Rock
Lion Rock
Lion Rock, or less formally Lion Rock Hill, is a famous hill in Hong Kong. It is located between Kowloon Tong in Kowloon and Tai Wai in the New Territories, and is 495 metres high...

 in the north, and Victoria Harbour
Victoria Harbour
Victoria Harbour is a natural landform harbour situated between Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula in Hong Kong. The harbour's deep, sheltered waters and strategic location on the South China Sea were instrumental in Hong Kong's establishment as a British colony and its subsequent...

 in the south. It had a population
Population
A population is all the organisms that both belong to the same group or species and live in the same geographical area. The area that is used to define a sexual population is such that inter-breeding is possible between any pair within the area and more probable than cross-breeding with individuals...

 of 2,019,533 and a population density of 43,033/km in 2006. Kowloon is located north of Hong Kong Island
Hong Kong Island
Hong Kong Island is an island in the southern part of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. It has a population of 1,289,500 and its population density is 16,390/km², as of 2008...

 and south of the mainland part of the New Territories
New Territories
New Territories is one of the three main regions of Hong Kong, alongside Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula. It makes up 86.2% of Hong Kong's territory. Historically, it is the region described in The Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory...

. The peninsula's area is approximately 47 km or 18.1 mi. Together with Hong Kong Island, it contains 48% of Hong Kong's total population.

The systematic transcription Kau Lung or Kau-lung was often used in derived place names before World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, for example Kau-lung Bay instead of Kowloon Bay
Kowloon Bay
Kowloon Bay is a bay located at the east of the Kowloon Peninsula and north of Hong Kong Island in Hong Kong. It is the eastern portion of Victoria Harbour, between Hung Hom and Lei Yue Mun...

. Other spellings include Kauloong, Kawloong

History



The name Kowloon stems from the nine dragons, a term which refers to eight mountains and a Chinese emperor: Kowloon Peak
Kowloon Peak
Kowloon Peak or Fei Ngor Shan or Fei Ngo Shan is a tall mountain in the northeast corner of New Kowloon, Hong Kong, situated in Ma On Shan Country Park. It is crossed by both the Wilson Trail and the MacLehose Trail. On the lower slopes is Gilwell Campsite, belonging to The Scout...

, Tung Shan
Tung Shan (mountain)
Tung Shan is a mountain between Tate's Cairn and Kowloon Peak in Kowloon, Hong Kong. Its summit is 544 m high. It is not to be confused with the similarly named Tai Tung Shan on Lantau Island.-See also:*List of mountains, peaks and hills in Hong Kong...

, Tate's Cairn
Tate's Cairn
Tate's Cairn is one of many mountain peaks in Hong Kong. The peak is 583 metres in height. It is a member of the Kowloon Ridge and within Ma On Shan Country Park.The name is used by a tunnel that travels under the peak...

, Temple Hill, Unicorn Ridge, Lion Rock
Lion Rock
Lion Rock, or less formally Lion Rock Hill, is a famous hill in Hong Kong. It is located between Kowloon Tong in Kowloon and Tai Wai in the New Territories, and is 495 metres high...

, Beacon Hill
Beacon Hill, Hong Kong
Beacon Hill is a hill in the Kowloon Tong area of Hong Kong's Kowloon peninsula. It is the 65th highest hill of Hong Kong. It is 457 m tall.Beacon Hill is located within the Lion Rock Country Park.-Name:...

, Crow's Nest
Crow's Nest (Hong Kong)
Crow's Nest is a hill north of So Uk in Cheung Sha Wan of New Kowloon in Hong Kong. With height of 194 metres, it is located south of Eagle's Nest. Lung Cheung Road and Tai Po Road are at found at the south slope. On the east side of the hill, there are three private housing estates, Dynasty...

 and Emperor Bing (Song Dynasty)
Emperor Bing of Song
Emperor Bing of Song was the last emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty of China. He was also known as Lord Perpetual-Nation ....

.

The part of Kowloon south of Boundary Street
Boundary Street
[[Image:Boundary st hongkong.JPG|thumb|right|250px|Boundary Street near [[Kowloon Tong]]Boundary Street is a three-lane one-way street in [[Kowloon]], [[Hong Kong]]...

, together with Stonecutters Island
Stonecutters Island
Stonecutters Island or Ngong Shuen Chau is a former island in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong. Following land reclamation, it is now annexed to the Kowloon peninsula.-Fauna:...

, was ceded by Qing China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 under the Convention of Peking
Convention of Peking
The Convention of Peking or the First Convention of Peking is the name used for three different unequal treaties, which were concluded between Qing China and the United Kingdom, France, and Russia.-Background:...

 of 1860. For many years the area remained largely undeveloped, used by the British mainly for tiger
Tiger
The tiger is the largest cat species, reaching a total body length of up to and weighing up to . Their most recognizable feature is a pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with lighter underparts...

-hunting expeditions.

The part of Kowloon north of Boundary Street (New Kowloon
New Kowloon
New Kowloon is an area in Kowloon, Hong Kong, bounded in the south by Boundary Street, and in the north by the ranges of the Lion Rock, Beacon Hill, Tate's Cairn and Kowloon Peak...

) was leased by the British as part of the New Territories
New Territories
New Territories is one of the three main regions of Hong Kong, alongside Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula. It makes up 86.2% of Hong Kong's territory. Historically, it is the region described in The Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory...

in 1898 for 99 years. Within New Kowloon is Kowloon City, which refers to an area where the Kowloon Walled City
Kowloon Walled City
Kowloon Walled City was a densely populated, largely ungoverned settlement in Kowloon, Hong Kong. Originally a Chinese military fort, the Walled City became an enclave after the New Territories were leased to Britain in 1898....

 used to be located. The Kowloon Walled City itself was demolished in 1993. The same area was called 官富場 (Pinyin: Guanfuchang) during the Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
The Song Dynasty was a ruling dynasty in China between 960 and 1279; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money, and the first Chinese government to establish a...

.

Statutorily, "Kowloon" is used to refer to the area south of Boundary Street and the Stonecutters Island
Stonecutters Island
Stonecutters Island or Ngong Shuen Chau is a former island in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong. Following land reclamation, it is now annexed to the Kowloon peninsula.-Fauna:...

. "New Kowloon" has also remained part of the New Territories
New Territories
New Territories is one of the three main regions of Hong Kong, alongside Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula. It makes up 86.2% of Hong Kong's territory. Historically, it is the region described in The Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory...

.

In modern day culture, however, New Kowloon is often not regarded as part of the New Territories
New Territories
New Territories is one of the three main regions of Hong Kong, alongside Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula. It makes up 86.2% of Hong Kong's territory. Historically, it is the region described in The Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory...

, but as an integral part of the Kowloon urban area on both sides of Boundary Street. For tax
Tax
To tax is to impose a financial charge or other levy upon a taxpayer by a state or the functional equivalent of a state such that failure to pay is punishable by law. Taxes are also imposed by many subnational entities...

 purposes, New Kowloon is not considered part of Kowloon and is part of the New Territories, as is reflected in the statutes. Properties in New Kowloon are subject to payment of land leases, as in the New Territories.

Large-scale development of Kowloon began in the early 20th century, with the construction of the Kowloon-Canton Railway
Kowloon-Canton Railway Corporation
The Kowloon–Canton Railway Corporation was established in 1982 under the Kowloon–Canton Railway Corporation Ordinance for the purposes of operating the Kowloon–Canton Railway , and to construct and operate other new railways...

 and the Kowloon Wharf, but due to Kowloon's close proximity to Kai Tak Airport
Kai Tak Airport
Kai Tak Airport was the international airport of Hong Kong from 1925 until 1998. It was officially known as the Hong Kong International Airport from 1954 to 6 July 1998, when it was closed and replaced by the new Hong Kong International Airport at Chek Lap Kok, 30 km to the west...

, building construction was limited by flight paths. As a result, compared to Hong Kong Island, Kowloon has a much lower skyline. After World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, Kowloon became extremely congested when slum
Slum
A slum, as defined by United Nations agency UN-HABITAT, is a run-down area of a city characterized by substandard housing and squalor and lacking in tenure security. According to the United Nations, the percentage of urban dwellers living in slums decreased from 47 percent to 37 percent in the...

s for refugee
Refugee
A refugee is a person who outside her country of origin or habitual residence because she has suffered persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or because she is a member of a persecuted 'social group'. Such a person may be referred to as an 'asylum seeker' until...

s from the newly established People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

 gave way to public housing estate
Public housing in Hong Kong
Public housing in Hong Kong is a set of mass housing programmes through which the Government of Hong Kong provides affordable housing for lower-income residents. It is a major component of housing in Hong Kong, with nearly half of the population now residing in some form of public housing...

s, mixed with private residential, commercial and industrial areas.

West Kowloon
West Kowloon
West Kowloon is a part of Kowloon, Hong Kong situated within the Yau Tsim Mong District. It is bounded by Canton Road to the east, Victoria Harbour to the west and the south, and Jordan Road to the north. Further to the north, the area extends to Tai Kok Tsui to the west of the West Kowloon...

 was once home to a dockyard for the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
The Royal Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Founded in the 16th century, it is the oldest service branch and is known as the Senior Service...

. The area has been reclaimed
Land reclamation in Hong Kong
Land is in short supply in Hong Kong, and land reclamation has been conducted there since the mid-19th century.-Projects:One of the earliest and famous project was the Praya Reclamation Scheme, which added 50 to of land in 1890 during the second phase of construction...

 and is now the site of several developments.




Administration


Kowloon comprises the following districts
Districts of Hong Kong
The Districts of Hong Kong are the 18 political areas by which Hong Kong is geographically divided. Each district has a district council, which was formerly known as a district board. The districts were established in the early 1980s, when Hong Kong was under British rule...

:
  • Kowloon City
    Kowloon City District
    Kowloon City District is one of the 18 districts of Hong Kong. It is located in Kowloon. It had a population of 381,352 in 2001. The district has the third most educated residents while its residents enjoy the highest income in Kowloon....

  • Kwun Tong
    Kwun Tong District
    Kwun Tong is one of the 18 districts of Hong Kong. It is located in Kowloon. It had a population of 562,427 in 2001. The district has the third highest population while the income is below average....

  • Sham Shui Po
    Sham Shui Po District
    Sham Shui Po District is one of 18 districts of Hong Kong. It covers the Shek Kip Mei, Sham Shui Po, Cheung Sha Wan, Lai Chi Kok and Yau Yat Chuen areas of New Kowloon, and Stonecutter's Island of Kowloon...

  • Wong Tai Sin
    Wong Tai Sin District
    Wong Tai Sin District is one of the 18 districts of Hong Kong, and is the only landlocked district of the city. It is located in Kowloon and has a population of 444,630...

  • Yau Tsim Mong
    Yau Tsim Mong District
    Yau Tsim Mong District is one of 18 districts of Hong Kong, located on western Kowloon peninsula. It is the core urban area of Kowloon. The district has the third highest population density of all districts...


Politics


Kowloon covers two geographical constituencies for the Legislative Council of Hong Kong
Legislative Council of Hong Kong
The Legislative Council is the unicameral legislature of Hong Kong.-History:The Legislative Council of Hong Kong was set up in 1843 as a colonial legislature under British rule...

:
  • Kowloon East includes Wong Tai Sin
    Wong Tai Sin District
    Wong Tai Sin District is one of the 18 districts of Hong Kong, and is the only landlocked district of the city. It is located in Kowloon and has a population of 444,630...

     and Kwun Tong
    Kwun Tong District
    Kwun Tong is one of the 18 districts of Hong Kong. It is located in Kowloon. It had a population of 562,427 in 2001. The district has the third highest population while the income is below average....

    .
  • Kowloon West includes Yau Tsim Mong
    Yau Tsim Mong District
    Yau Tsim Mong District is one of 18 districts of Hong Kong, located on western Kowloon peninsula. It is the core urban area of Kowloon. The district has the third highest population density of all districts...

    , Sham Shui Po
    Sham Shui Po District
    Sham Shui Po District is one of 18 districts of Hong Kong. It covers the Shek Kip Mei, Sham Shui Po, Cheung Sha Wan, Lai Chi Kok and Yau Yat Chuen areas of New Kowloon, and Stonecutter's Island of Kowloon...

     and Kowloon City
    Kowloon City District
    Kowloon City District is one of the 18 districts of Hong Kong. It is located in Kowloon. It had a population of 381,352 in 2001. The district has the third most educated residents while its residents enjoy the highest income in Kowloon....

    .

City landscape





See also


  • Argyle Street
    Argyle Street, Hong Kong
    Argyle Street is a four-lane dual-way thoroughfare in Hong Kong, connecting Mong Kok, Ma Tau Wai and Kowloon City. It runs on an east-west alignment starting at its intersection with Cherry Street, Ferry Street and Tong Mi Road in the west, and ending near the former Kai Tak Airport in the east.The...

  • List of mountains, peaks and hills in Hong Kong
  • Nathan Road
  • West Kowloon Cultural District
    West Kowloon Cultural District
    The West Kowloon Cultural District is a proposed and developing project to boost cultural and entertainment establishments at Hong Kong, SAR...


External links