The Kingdom of Seludong
), or Maynila
, which after colonization became Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...
, capital of the Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...
, was one of three major city-states that dominated the area around the upper portion of the Pasig River before the arrival of Spanish colonizers in the 16th century.
The early inhabitants of the present-day Manila engaged in trade relations with its Asian neighbors as well as with the Hindu empires of Java
Java is an island of Indonesia. With a population of 135 million , it is the world's most populous island, and one of the most densely populated regions in the world. It is home to 60% of Indonesia's population. The Indonesian capital city, Jakarta, is in west Java...
Sumatra is an island in western Indonesia, westernmost of the Sunda Islands. It is the largest island entirely in Indonesia , and the sixth largest island in the world at 473,481 km2 with a population of 50,365,538...
as confirmed by archaeological findings. The name of the settlement in Majapahit documents is recorded as Saludung
. Trade ties between China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...
became extensive by the 10th century, while contacts with Arabs reached its peak in the 12th century.
During the reign of Sultan Bolkiah (1485–1521) the Kingdom of Brunei decided to break the Tondo's monopoly in the China trade by attacking Tondo and establishing the city-state of Seludong
as a Bruneian satellite. This is narrated through Tausug and Malay
Malays are an ethnic group of Austronesian people predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula, including the southernmost parts of Thailand, the east coast of Sumatra, the coast of Borneo, and the smaller islands which lie between these locations...
royal histories, where the names Seludong
are used to denote Manila prior to colonization.
Because of the presence of plants called "nila
" (Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea
Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea is a shrub that is about tall. It is often found in mangrove forests or sandy beaches.-Description:...
), this new city was eventually named "May-nila," which transliterates as "There is nila (here)". Maynila is also sometimes called Maynilad
is popularly referred to as nilad
by people unfamiliar with the plant, a correction asserted by historians Ambeth Ocampo
Ambeth R. Ocampo is a multi-awarded Filipino historian, academic, journalist, and author best known for his writings about Philippines' national hero José Rizal and for "Looking Back", his bi-weekly editorial page column in the Philippine Daily Inquirer...
and Carmen Guerrero Nakpil
Carmen Guerrero Nakpil is a Filipino writer and historian.She came from a literary family, which includes her brother, the diplomat and novelist León María Guerrero III, uncles Fernando María Guerrero and Manuel Guerrero who were poets and essayists, and cousin Wilfrido María Guerrero, who was a...
. It has also been suggested that the name of the capital city of Manila came from the Arabic word "Fi Amanillah" translated, means "In God's safety."
In the mid-16th century, the areas of present-day Manila were sultanates and they were governed by Muslim rajahs. Sulaiman II (also known as Matandâ) and his nephew, Sulaiman III, ruled the Muslim communities south of the Pasig River
The Pasig River is a river in the Philippines that connects Laguna de Bay to Manila Bay. Stretching for , it is lined by Metro Manila on each side...
, including the Kingdom of Maynila, while Lakandula
Lakan Banaw Dula or Gat Banaw Dula , often referred to simply by his title Lakan Dula, and later baptised Lakan Carlos Dula, was the Lakan of the pre-colonial Philippine Kingdom of Tondo when the Spaniards first conquered the lands of the Pasig River delta in the 1570s...
ruled the Kingdom of Tondo north of the river. These settlements held ties with the sultanates of Brunei
Brunei , officially the State of Brunei Darussalam or the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace , is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo, in Southeast Asia...
, Sulu, and Ternate
Ternate is an island in the Maluku Islands of eastern Indonesia. It is located off the west coast of the larger island of Halmahera, the center of the powerful former Sultanate of Ternate....
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...
(not to be confused with Ternate
in present-day Cavite
Cavite is a province of the Philippines located on the southern shores of Manila Bay in the CALABARZON region in Luzon, just 30 kilometers south of Manila. Cavite is surrounded by Laguna to the east, Metro Manila to the northeast, and Batangas to the south...
- Kingdom of Namayan
The ancient Kingdom of Namayan, alternately referred to as the Kingdom of Sapa, Maysapan or Nasapan after its capital which goes by those names, was one of three major kingdoms that dominated the area around the upper portion of the Pasig River and the coast of Laguna Lake in the Philippines before...
- Kingdom of Tondo
- Confederation of Madya-as
The Confederation of Madya-as was a pre-Hispanic Philippine state within the Visayas island region. It was established in the 13th century by rebel datus , led by Datu Puti, who had fled from Rajah Makatunao of Borneo...
- Rajah Sulaiman II (Rajah Matandâ)
- Rajah Sulaiman III
- Battle of Bankusay Channel
- List of Sunni Muslim dynasties
- Nick Joaquin’s Almanac for Manileños
- The River Dwellers by Grace P. Odal