Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria

Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria

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The '''Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria''' was a [[crownland]] of the [[Habsburg Monarchy]], the [[Austrian Empire]], and [[Austria–Hungary]] from 1772 to 1918 (see [[Cisleithania]]). This historical region in eastern [[Central Europe]] is currently divided between [[Poland]] and [[Ukraine]]. The nucleus of historic [[Galicia (Eastern Europe)|Galicia]] currently consists of the [[Lviv Oblast|Lviv]], [[Ternopil Oblast|Ternopil]] and [[Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast|Ivano-Frankivsk]] regions of [[West Ukraine|western Ukraine]]. ==Name==;;, transliterated: ''Korolivstvo Halychyny i Lodomeriï z velykym knyazivstvom Krakivskym i knyazivstvamy Osventsyma i Zatoru'' ==History== {{Main|History of Galicia (Central Europe)}} In 1772, Galicia was the largest part of the area annexed by [[Austria]] in the [[First Partition of Poland]]. As such, the [[Austria]]n region of [[Poland]] and what was later to become [[Ukraine]] was known as the Kingdom of [[Galicia (Central Europe)|Galicia]] and [[Lodomeria]] to underline the [[Hungary|Hungarian]] claims to the country. However, after the [[Third Partition of Poland]], a large portion of ethnically Polish lands to the west ([[New Galicia (1795-1809)|New or West Galicia]]) was also added to the province, which changed the geographical reference of the term, Galicia. Lviv ([[Lemberg]]) served as capital of Austrian Galicia, which was dominated by the Polish aristocracy, despite the fact that the population of the eastern half of the province was mostly [[Ukrainians|Ukrainian]], or "[[Ruthenia]]n", as they were known at the time. In addition to the Polish aristocracy and gentry who inhabited almost all parts of Galicia, and the Ruthenians in the east, there existed a large Jewish population, also more heavily concentrated in the eastern parts of the province. During the first decades of Austrian rule, Galicia was firmly governed from [[Vienna]], and many significant reforms were carried out by a bureaucracy staffed largely by Germans and Germanized Czechs. The aristocracy (see [[Counts of Galicia|Counts of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria]]) was guaranteed its rights, but these rights were considerably circumscribed. The former serfs were no longer mere chattel, but became subjects of law and were granted certain personal freedoms, such as the right to marry without the lord's permission. Their labour obligations were defined and limited, and they could bypass the lords and appeal to the imperial courts for justice. The Eastern Rite "Uniate" Church, which primarily served the Ruthenians, was renamed the [[Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church|Greek Catholic Church]] to bring it onto a par with the Roman Catholic Church; it was given seminaries, and eventually, a Metropolitan. Although unpopular with the aristocracy, among the common folk, Polish and Ukrainian/Ruthenian alike, these reforms created a reservoir of good will toward the emperor which lasted almost to the end of Austrian rule. At the same time, however, Austria extracted from Galicia considerable wealth and conscripted large numbers of the peasant population into its armed services. [[File:Galicia physical1914.jpg|400px|right|thumb|Kingdom of Galicia 1846-1918]] ===From 1815 to 1860=== In 1815, as a result of decisions of the Congress of Vienna, the [[Lublin]] area and surrounding regions (most of the New or West Galicia) were ceded by Austria to the [[Congress Poland]] (Kingdom of Poland) which was ruled by the Tsar, and the [[Ternopil]] Region, including the historical region of Southern [[Podolia]], was returned to Austria from Russia which had held it since 1809. The large city of [[Kraków]] and surrounding territory, formerly also part of New or West Galicia, became the [[Free City of Kraków]]. The 1820s and 1830s were a period of absolutist rule from Vienna, the local Galician bureaucracy still being filled by Germans and Germanized Czechs, although some of their children were already becoming Polonized. After the failure of the November insurrection in Russian Poland in 1830-31, in which a few thousand Galician volunteers participated, many Polish refugees arrived in Galicia. The latter 1830s were rife with Polish conspiratorial organizations whose work culminated in the [[Kraków Uprising|unsuccessful Galician insurrection of 1846]], easily put down by the Austrians with the help of the Galician peasantry which remained loyal to the emperor. This insurrection only occurred in the western, Polish-populated, part of Galicia, and the conflict was between patriotic, noble, rebels, and unsympathetic Polish peasants. In 1846, as one of the results of this unsuccessful revolt, the former Polish capital city of [[Kraków]], which had been [[Free City of Kraków|a Free City]], and a republic, became a part of Galicia, administered from Lemberg. In the 1830s, in the eastern part of Galicia, the beginnings of a national awakening occurred among the Ruthenians. A circle of activists, primarily Greek Catholic seminarians, affected by the romantic movement in Europe and the example of fellow Slavs elsewhere, especially in eastern Ukraine under the Russians, began to turn their attention to the common folk and their language. In 1837, the so-called Ruthenian Triad led by [[Markiian Shashkevych]], published ''The Nymph of the Dniester'', a collection of folksongs and other materials in the common Ruthenian tongue. Alarmed by such democratism, the Austrian authorities and the Greek Catholic Metropolitan banned the book. In 1848, revolutions occurred in Vienna and other parts of the Austrian Empire. In Lemberg, a Polish National Council, and then later, a Ukrainian, or Ruthenian Supreme Council were formed. Even before Vienna had acted, the remnants of serfdom were abolished by the Governor, Franz Stadion, in an attempt to thwart the revolutionaries. Moreover, Polish demands for Galician automomy were countered by Ruthenian demands for national equality and for a partition of the province into an Eastern, Ruthenian part, and a Western, Polish part. Eventually, Lemberg was bombarded by imperial troops and the revolution put down completely. A decade of renewed absolutism followed, but to placate the Poles, Count [[Agenor Gołuchowski (father)|Agenor Goluchowski]], a conservative representative of the eastern Galician aristocracy, the so-called Podolians, was appointed Viceroy. He began to Polonize the local administration and managed to have Ruthenian ideas of partitioning the province shelved. He was unsuccessful, however, in forcing the Greek Catholic Church to shift to the use of the western or Gregorian calendar, or among Ruthenians generally, to replace the Cyrillic alphabet with the Latin alphabet. {{History of Ukraine}} [[File:Galician slaughter in 1846.PNG|thumb|250px|left|[[Galician slaughter]] (''Polish'' "Rzeź galicyjska") by [[Jan Lewicki]] (1795-1871)]] ===Constitutional experiments=== {{See also|Diet of Galicia}} In 1859, following Austrian military defeat in Italy, the Empire entered a period of constitutional experiments. In 1860, the [[Vienna]] Government, influenced by [[Agenor Gołuchowski (father)|Agenor Goluchowski]], issued its October Diploma, which envisioned a conservative federalization of the empire, but a negative reaction in the German-speaking lands led to changes in government and the issuing of the February Patent which watered down this de-centralization. Nevertheless, by 1861, Galicia was granted a Legislative Assembly or ''[[Galicia Diet]]''. Although at first pro-Habsburg Ukrainian and Polish peasant representation was considerable in this body (about half the assembly), and the pressing social and Ukrainian questions were discussed, administrative pressures limited the effectiveness of both peasant and Ukrainian representatives and the ''[[Diet of Galicia]]'' became dominated by the Polish aristocracy and gentry, who favoured further [[autonomous entity|autonomy]]. This same year, disturbances broke out in Russian Poland and to some extent spilled over into Galicia. The Sejm ceased to sit. By 1863, open revolt broke out in Russian Poland and from 1864 to 1865 the Austrian government declared a State of Siege in Galicia, temporarily suspending civil liberties. 1865 brought a return to federal ideas along the lines suggested by [[Agenor Gołuchowski (father)|Agenor Goluchowski]] and negotiations on autonomy between the Polish aristocracy and Vienna began once again. Meanwhile, the [[Ruthenians]] felt more and more abandoned by Vienna and among the "Old Ruthenians" grouped around the Greek Catholic Cathedral of Saint George, there occurred a turn towards Russia. The more extreme supporters of this orientation came to be known as "[[Ukrainian Russophiles|Russophiles]]". At the same time, influenced by the Ukrainian language poetry of the eastern Ukrainian writer, [[Taras Shevchenko]], a Ukrainophile movement arose which published literature in the Ukrainian/Ruthenian vernacular and eventually established a network of reading halls. Supporters of this orientation came to be known as "Populists", and later, simply as "Ukrainians". Almost all [[Ruthenians]], however, still hoped for national equality and for an administrative division of Galicia along ethnic lines. ===Galician autonomy=== In 1866, following the [[Battle of Sadova]] and the Austrian defeat in the [[Austro-Prussian War]], the Austrian empire began to experience increased internal problems. In an effort to shore up support for the monarchy, Emperor [[Franz Joseph of Austria|Franz Joseph]] began negotiations for a compromise with the [[Magyars|Magyar]] nobility to ensure their support. Some members of the government, such as Austrian prime minister [[Richard von Belcredi|Count Belcredi]], advised the Emperor to make a more comprehensive constitutional deal with all of the nationalities that would have created a federal structure. Belcredi worried that an accommodation with the Magyar interests would alienate the other nationalities. However, Franz Joseph was unable to ignore the power of the Magyar nobility, and they would not accept anything less than dualism between themselves and the traditional Austrian élites. Finally, after the so-called [[Ausgleich]] of February 1867, the Austrian Empire was reformed into a dualist [[Austria-Hungary]]. Although the Polish and Czech plans for their parts of the monarchy to be included in the federal structure failed, a slow yet steady process of liberalisation of Austrian rule in Galicia started. Representatives of the Polish aristocracy and [[intelligentsia]] addressed the Emperor asking for greater autonomy for Galicia. Their demands were not accepted outright, but over the course of the next several years a number of significant concessions were made toward the establishment of Galician autonomy. [[File:Galicia 1897 1.jpg|thumb|350px|Galicia in 1897]] From 1873, Galicia was ''de facto'' an autonomous province of [[Austria-Hungary]] with [[Polish language|Polish]] and, to a much lesser degree, Ukrainian or [[Ruthenia]]n, as official languages. The [[Germanisation]] had been halted and the [[censorship]] lifted as well. Galicia was subject to the [[Austria]]n part of the Dual Monarchy, but the Galician [[Sejm]] and provincial administration had extensive privileges and prerogatives, especially in education, culture, and local affairs. These changes were supported by many Polish intellectuals. In 1869 a group of young conservative publicists in Kraków, including [[Józef Szujski]], [[Stanislaw Tarnowski (1837 to 1917)|Stanisław Tarnowski]], [[Stanislaw Kozmian|Stanisław Koźmian]] and [[Ludwik Wodzicki]], published a series of satirical pamphlets entitled ''Teka Stańczyka'' (''[[Stańczyk|Stańczyk's]] Portfolio''). Only five years after the tragic end of the [[January Uprising]], the pamphlets ridiculed the idea of armed [[List of Polish uprisings|national uprisings]] and suggested compromise with Poland's enemies, especially the [[Austrian Empire]], concentration on economic growth, and acceptance of the political concessions offered by Vienna. This political grouping came to be known as the Stanczyks or Kraków Conservatives. Together with the eastern Galician conservative Polish landowners and aristocracy called the "Podolians", they gained a political ascendency in Galicia which lasted to 1914. This shift in power from [[Vienna]] to the Polish landowning class was not welcomed by the Ruthenians, who became more sharply divided into [[Ukrainian Russophiles|Russophiles]], who looked to Russia for salvation, and [[Ukrainians]] who stressed their connections to the common people. Both [[Vienna]] and the Poles saw treason among the Russophiles and a series of political trials eventually discredited them. Meanwhile, by 1890, an agreement was worked out between the Poles and the "Populist" Ruthenians or [[Ukrainians]] which saw the partial Ukrainianization of the school system in eastern Galicia and other concessions to Ukrainian culture. Thereafter, the Ukrainian national movement spread rapidly among the Ruthenian peasantry and, despite repeated setbacks, by the early years of the twentieth century this movement had almost completely replaced other Ruthenian groups as the main rival for power with the Poles. Throughout this period, the Ukrainians never gave up the traditional Ruthenian demands for national equality and for partition of the province into a western, Polish half, and an eastern, Ukrainian half. {{Polish statehood}} ===Industry=== Industry in Galicia is still ([[1880]]) at a low level. In 1857 Galicia had in all 102,189 industrialists, i. e., factory owners and their working crews; so only 2.2% of the population worked in industry. By 1870 the number had risen to 179,626, or 3.3% of the population. Factory-based industry has begun to grow in recent times. Today Galicia has several dozen major factory plants of various kinds, not counting distilleries and breweries, but there are still too few of them in relation to the production of raw materials. Galician factories cannot consume all the raw material the country produces or satisfy the needs of its craftsmen and inhabitants in general. So a significant portion of this material goes to foreign factories and returns to us as a foreign product, in which process the country obviously loses out, since it sells the raw produce cheaply and buys it back, processed, at a higher price. Among the more important branches of factory industry, the following are best represented in Galicia: distilling, brewing, sugar production, milling, production of matches and various products from mineral oil and wax. Insufficiently represented are: production of machinery and paper, tanning, and especially the manufacturing of cloth and fabrics, even though the Galician people has the most aptitude for the latter two branches, and the country supplies an abundance of material. Galician factories process either minerals and non-organic products of the earth, or forest products, or products of agriculture. ====The Great Economic Emigration==== Beginning in the 1880s, a mass [[emigration]] of the Galician peasantry occurred. The emigration started as a seasonal one to Germany (newly unified and economically dynamic) and then later became a Trans-Atlantic one with large-scale emigration to The [[United States]], [[Brazil]], and [[Canada]]. Caused by the backward economic condition of Galicia where rural poverty was widespread (see "Economy" below), the emigration began in the western, Polish populated part of Galicia and quickly shifted east to the Ukrainian inhabited parts. Poles, Ukrainians, Jews, and Germans all participated in this mass movement of countryfolk and villagers. Poles migrated principally to New England and the midwestern states of the United States, but also to Brazil and elsewhere; Ukrainians migrated to Brazil, Canada, and the United States, with a very intense emigration from Southern [[Podolia]] to Western [[Canada]]; and Jews emigrated both directly to the New World and also indirectly via other parts of [[Austria-Hungary]]. A total of several hundred thousand people were involved in this Great Economic Emigration which grew steadily more intense until the outbreak of the [[First World War]] in 1914. The war put a temporary halt to the emigration which never again reached the same proportions. The Great Economic Emigration, especially the emigration to Brazil, the "Brazilian Fever" as it was called at the time, was described in contemporary literary works by the Polish poetess, [[Maria Konopnicka]], the Ukrainian writer, [[Ivan Franko]], and many others. ===First World War and Polish-Ukrainian conflict=== During the [[World War I|First World War]] Galicia saw heavy fighting between the forces of Russia and the [[Central Powers]]. The Russian forces overran most of the region in 1914 after defeating the Austro-Hungarian army in a chaotic frontier [[Eastern Front (WWI)|battle]] in the opening months of the war. They were in turn pushed out in the spring and summer of 1915 by a combined German and Austro-Hungarian offensive. In 1918, Western Galicia became a part of the restored [[Second Polish Republic|Republic of Poland]], which absorbed the [[Lemko Republic|Lemko-Rusyn Republic]]. The local Ukrainian population briefly declared the independence of Eastern Galicia as the "[[West Ukrainian People's Republic]]". During the [[Polish-Soviet War]] the Soviets tried to establish the [[puppet-state]] of the [[Galician SSR]] in East Galicia, the government of which after couple of months was liquidated. Eventually, the whole of the province was recaptured by Poles. [[Poland]]'s annexation of Eastern Galicia, never accepted as legitimate by some Ukrainians, was internationally recognized in 1923. The Ukrainians of the former eastern Galicia and the neighbouring province of Volhynia, made up about 12% of the [[Second Polish Republic]] population, and were its largest minority. As Polish government policies were unfriendly towards minorities, tensions between the Polish government and the Ukrainian population grew, eventually giving the rise to the militant underground [[Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists]]. ===Major cities and towns=== Administrative division The Kingdom was split into numerous counties (powiat) which in 1914 were about 75. Besides Lwów being the capital of the Kingdom, Kraków was considered as the unofficial capital of the western part of Galicia and the second most important city in the region. {{col-begin}} {{col-break}} * [[Belz]] (Polish: ''Bełz'', Yiddish: ''Beltz'') * [[Berezhany]] (Polish: ''Brzeżany'') * [[Biecz]] (German: ''Beitsch'', {{lang-uk|Беч, ''Bech''}}) * [[Bochnia]] (German: ''Salzberg'') * [[Boryslav]] (Polish: ''Borysław'') * [[Brody]] (Yiddish: ''Brod'') * [[Busk, Ukraine|Busk]] * [[Buchach]] (Polish: ''Buczacz'') * [[Chortkiv]] (Polish: ''Czortkow'') * [[Chrzanów]] * [[Dukla]] (Ukrainian: Дукля, ''Duklia'') * [[Drohobych]] (Polish: ''Drohobycz'') * [[Gorlice]] (Ukarainian: Горлиці, ''Horlytsi'', German: ''Gorlitz'') * [[Halych]] (Polish: ''Halicz'', German: ''Halitsch'', Yiddish: ''Galits'') * [[Husiatyn]] * [[Jarosław]] (German: ''Jaroslau'', Ukrainian: Ярослав, ''Yaroslav'') * [[Jasło]] (German: ''Jassel'') * [[Kalush, Ukraine|Kalush]] (Polish: ''Kałusz'') * [[Kolomyia]] (German: ''Kolomea'', Polish: ''Kołomyja'', Romanian: ''Colomeea'', Yiddish: ''Kolomay'') * [[Kozova]] (Polish: ''Kozowa'') * [[Kraków]] (German: ''Krakau'', Yiddish: ''Kruke'') * [[Krosno]] (German: ''Krossen'', Ukrainian: Коросно, ''Korosno'') * [[Lesko]] (Ukrainian: Лісько, ''Lisko'', Yiddish: ''Linsk'') * [[Leżajsk]] (German: ''Lyschansk'', Yiddish: ''Lizhensk'') * [[Limanowa]] (German: ''Ilmenau'') * [[Lviv]] (German: ''Lemberg'', Polish: ''Lwów'', Yiddish: ''Lemberik'') * [[Łańcut]] (German: ''Landshut'') * [[Machliniec]] * [[Myślenice]] (German: ''Mischlenitz'') {{col-break}} * [[Nadvirna]] (Polish: ''Nadwórna'') * [[Nowy Sącz]] (German: ''Neu Sandez'', Yiddish: ''Zanz'') * [[Oświęcim]] (German: ''Auschwitz'', Yiddish: ''Oshpetsin'') * [[Peremyshliany]] (Polish: ''Przemyślany'') * [[Przemyśl]] ({{lang-uk|Перемишль, ''Peremyshl''}}, German: ''Prömsel'') * [[Pidhaytsi]] ({{lang-pl|Podhajce}}) * [[Rava-Ruska]] (Polish: Rawa Ruska, Yiddish: ''Rave'') * [[Rohatyn]] * [[Rymanów]] (German: ''Reimannshau'') * [[Rzeszów]] (Yiddish: ''Rejsza'', Ukrainian: ''Riashiv'', German: ''Reichshof'') * [[Sambir]] (Polish: ''Sambor'') * [[Sanok]] (Ukrainian: Сянік, ''Sianik'', German: Saanig, Yiddish: ''Sonik'', Hungarian: ''Sánók'') * [[Ivano-Frankivsk|Stanyslaviv]] (Polish: ''Stanisławów'', German: ''Stanislau'', Yiddish: ''Stanislev'', now: ''Ivano-Frankivsk'') * [[Terebovlia]] (Polish: ''Trembowla'') * [[Ternopil']] ({{lang-pl|Tarnopol}}) * [[Tarnów]] (Ukrainian: Тарнів, ''Tarniv'', German: ''Tarnau'') * [[Tomaszów Lubelski]] ({{lang-uk|Tomashiv Liublinskyi}}) * [[Truskavets]] (Polish: ''Truskawiec'') * [[Wieliczka]] (German: ''Groß Salze'') * [[Zalishchyky]] (Polish: ''Zaleszczyki'') * [[Zator]] (German: ''Neuenstadt an der Schaue'') * [[Zolochiv]] (Polish: ''Złoczów'', Yiddish: ''Zlotshev'') * [[Zhovkva]] (Polish: ''Żółkiew'') * [[Żywiec]] (Ukrainian: Живець, ''Zhyvets'', German: ''Saybusch'') {{col-end}} [[File:Galicia administrative1914.jpg|400px|right|thumb|Kingdom of Galicia, administrative, 1914]] ===Other administrative entities=== [[West Galicia]] Part of the Kingdom from 1795 to 1809, until 1803 a separate administrative unit {| | valign="top" | *[[Biała Podlaska]] *[[Chełm]] *[[Józefów, Biłgoraj County|Józefów]] *[[Kielce]] *[[Końskie]] *[[Kraków]] | valign="top" | *[[Lublin]] *[[Łuków]] at [[Radzyń Podlaski]] *[[Mińsk Mazowiecki|Mińsk]] at [[Wiązowna]] *[[Radom]] *[[Sandomierz]], from 1798 at [[Opatów]] *[[Siedlce]] |} Territory of Bukovina Part of the Kingdom from 1775 to 1849 (Duchy of Bukovina) [[Free City of Kraków]] [[Condominium (international law)|Condominium]] with Prussia and Russia from 1815 to 1846, part of the Kingdom since 1846 ==Government== [[File:Government House in Lviv.jpg‎|thumb|275px|The [[Government House, Lviv|Vice-regency Office]] in Lemberg (since 1880).]] [[File:Sejm Galicyjski.jpg|thumb|Galician Sejm (parliament) in Lwów (Lemberg)]] After the partition of Poland the region was government by an appointed governor, later a vice-regent. During the war time the office of vice-regent was supplemented by a military-governor. In 1861 there was established the first regional assembly which initially due to lack of adequate administrative building was located in the building of the [[Shkabarek theater]] until 1890. ===Vice-Regents=== ''List of vice-regents since 1900'' {{see also|List of Galician rulers}} * Count Leon Piliński (March 31, 1898 – June 1903) * Count Andrzej Potocki (June 8, 1903 – April 12, 1908) * Count [[Michał Bobrzyński]] (April 28, 1908 – May 14, 1913) * Witold Korytowski (May 14, 1913 – August 20, 1915) * ''Russian occupation'' (September 1914–1915) * Hermann von Colard (August 1915 – April 8, 1916) * Baron Erich von Diller (April 1916 – March 1917), exiled due to Russian occupation * ''Russian occupation'' (1916 – July 26, 1917) * Count [[Karl Georg Huyn]] (1917 – November 1, 1918), in fact subordinate to the [[Regency Council]] and its General Commissar Prince [[Witold Czartoryski]] instead of the Austrian Crown. ===Political parties and public organizations=== Political * Chief Ruthenian Council (May 2, 1848–1851), headed by Hryhoriy Yakhymovych and later by Mykhailo Kuzemsky. It consisted of 30 members. * Ruthenian Council (Lviv) (1870-1814) * Ruthenian Congress (May 23, 1848) was an oppositional political formation to the Chief Ruthenian Council to which belong such personalities as [[Ivan Vahylevych]], Julian Lawriwskyj, [[Leon Sapieha]], and others. * Ukrainian National Democratic Party (1899–1919) was created in place of the People's Council (1885–1899), eventually becoming part of the [[Ukrainian National Democratic Alliance]] (UNDO) * [[Ukrainian Radical Party]] (1890–1939) * Christian-Social Party (1896–1930), until 1911 was called as Catholic-Ruthenian People's Union, in 1930 it split when some members joined UNDO, while others created Ukrainian Catholic People's Party. * [[Ukrainian Social Democratic Party (1899)|Ukrainian Social Democratic Party]] (1899–1939), was created by some members of the Ukrainian Radical Party and in 1924 partially merged with [[Communist Party of Western Ukraine]] (1919–1938) * Ukrainian General Council (1914–1916), initially as the Chief Ukrainian Council, was a national political bloc of most of the Ukrainian parties. It laid foundation for creating the Ukrainian state in the [[West Ukraine]]. Public * Ukrainian Forum (Besida) (until 1928 Ruthenian Forum) (1861–1939), a forum-type association created by Julian Lawriwskyj based on the Lviv [[intellegentsia]] circle, "Young Rus". The organization established its own Ukrainian-based professional theater (1864–1924). * [[Prosvita]] (1868–present) * [[Shevchenko Scientific Society]] (1873–present) * Ruthenian Triad (1833–1843), literary organization discontinued after the death of [[Markiyan Shashkevych]] * Academic Society (Hromada) (1882–1921), until 1896 as Brotherhood * Academical Circle (1874–1877) * [[Sokół]] and Sokil sport organization created in light of the European [[Sokol]] movement * Sich and [[Plast]] * Luh, a firemen society * [[Riflemen's Association]] ==Demographics== In 1773, Galicia had about 2.6 million inhabitants in 280 cities and markets and approx. 5,500 villages. There were nearly 19,000 noble families with 95,000 members (about 3% of the population). The "non-free" accounted for 1.86 million, more than 70% of the population. A small number were full farmers, but by far the overwhelming number (84%) had only smallholdings or no possessions. No country of the Austrian monarchy had such a varied ethnic mix as Galicia: [[Poles]], [[Ruthenians]], [[Germans]], [[Armenia]]ns, [[Jews]], [[Hungarians]], [[Roma (Romani subgroup)|Roma peoples]], [[Lipovans|Lipowaner]], etc. The Poles were mainly in the west, with the Ruthenians predominant in the eastern region ("Ruthenia"). The Jews of Galicia had immigrated in the Middle Ages from Germany and mostly spoke [[Yiddish]] as their first language. German-speaking people were more commonly referred to by the region of Germany where they originated (e.g. [[Saxony|Saxons]] or [[Swabia]]ns). With inhabitants who had a clear difference in language such as with the Saxons or the Roma identification was less problematic, but widespread multilingualness blurred the borders again. It is however possible to make a clear distinction in religious denominations: the majority of the Poles were [[Roman Catholic Church|Latin Catholics]], while the Ruthenians were mostly [[Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church|Greek Catholics]]. The Jews, who represented the third largest religious group, were mostly of the [[Orthodox Judaism|Orthodox]] variety. The average life expectancy was 27 years for men and 28.5 years for women, as compared to 33 and 37 in [[Bohemia]], 39 and 41 in [[France]] and 40 and 42 in [[England]]. Also the quality of life was much lower.{{Citation needed|date=September 2010}} The yearly consumption of meat did not exceed 10 kilograms per capita, as compared to 24 kg in Hungary and 33 in Germany. This was mostly due to much lower average income. In 1888 Galicia had 78,550 km² of area and was populated by ca. 6.4 million people, including 4.8 million peasants (75% of the whole population). The population density was 81 people per square kilometre and was higher than in France (71 inhabitants/km²) or Germany. {| class="wikitable" |- ! Religions, Census of December 1910 ! ! |- | Roman Catholic || 3,731,569 || 46.5% |- | Greek Catholic || 3,379,613 || 42.1% |- | Jewish || 871,895 || 10.9% |- | Protestant || 37,144 || 0.5% |- | Other || 5,454 || 0.0% |- | Total || 8,025,675 || |} ==Economy== Galicia was economically the least developed part of Austria and received considerable transfer payments from the Vienna government. Its level of development was comparable to or higher than that of Russia and the Balkans, but well behind Western Europe. The first detailed description of the economic situation of the region was prepared by Stanislaw Szczepanowski (1846–1900), a Polish lawyer, economist and chemist who in 1873 published the first version of his report titled ''Nędza galicyjska w cyfrach'' (''The Galician Poverty in Numbers''). Based on his own experience as a worker in the [[India Office]], as well as his work on development of the oil industry in the region of [[Borysław, Łódź Voivodeship|Borysław]] and the official census data published by the [[Austria-Hungary|Austro-Hungarian]] government, he described Galicia as one of the poorest regions in Europe. Statistics indicate the Galicia and Lodomeria was poorer than areas west of it. The average income per capita did not exceed 53 [[Austro-Hungarian gulden|Rhine guilder]]s (RG), as compared to 91 RG in the [[Congress Poland|Kingdom of Poland]], 100 in Hungary and more than 450 RG in England at that time. Also the taxes were relatively high and equalled to 9 Rhine guilders a year (ca. 17% of yearly income), as compared to 5% in Prussia and 10% in England. Also the percentage of people with higher income was much lower than in other parts of the Monarchy and Europe: the luxury tax, paid by people whose yearly income exceeded 600 RG, was paid by 8 people in every 1,000 inhabitants, as compared to 28 in Bohemia and 99 in [[Lower Austria]]. Despite high taxation, the national debt of the Galician government exceeded 300 million RG at all times, that is approximately 60 RG per capita. All in all, the region was used by the Austro-Hungarian government mostly as a reservoir of cheap workforce and recruits for the army,{{Citation needed|date=August 2007}} as well as a buffer zone against Russia. It was not until early in the 20th century that heavy industry started to be developed, which would be comparable to much of Russia and the Balkans. Even then it was mostly connected to war production. The biggest state investments in the region were the railways and the fortresses in [[Przemyśl, Poland|Przemyśl]], Kraków and other cities. Industrial development was mostly connected to the private oil industry started by [[Ignacy Lukasiewicz|Ignacy Łukasiewicz]] and to the [[Wieliczka]] salt mines, operational since at least the [[Middle Ages]]. ==Culture== *Newspapers: Gazette de Leopol (1776), Slovo (closed in 1876 due to [[Ems Ukaz]]e) *Weekly: Zoria Halytska (first issue on May 15, 1848) ==Flag of Galicia and Lodomeria== Until 1849 Galicia and Lodomeria constituted a single province with [[Bukovina]] and used the blue-red flag (consisting of two horizontal stripes: the upper one was blue, the lower one was red). In 1849 when Bukovina was given an independent status from that of Galicia-Lodomeria, it kept the blue-red flag, while Galicia was given a new flag consisting of three horizontal stripes: blue, red and yellow. This flag had remained in use until 1890, when Galicia-Lodomeria received a new flag consisting of two horizontal stripes: red and white. This flag remained in use until the dissolution of the Kingdom of Galicia-Lodomeria in 1918 and is displayed in Ströhl's ''Oesterreichisch-ungarische Wappenrolle'' (1898). References *[[Jan Miller]]: ''Chorągwie i flagi polskie'', Instytut Wydawniczy "Nasza Księgarnia", Warsaw 1962, *[[Hugo Ströhl]]: ''Oesterreichisch-ungarische Wappenrolle'', Vienna 1898 ==Military== {{main|Austro-Hungarian Army}} [[File:Cross-Pattee-Heraldry.svg|border|link=|100px|right]] The Kingdom was divided into three major military districts centered in Kraków, Lwow, and Przemyśl. Local military used a specialized language for communication known as [[Army Slav]]. One of the major army units was the [[First Army (Austria-Hungary)|1st Army]] consisting of 1st (Kraków), 5th (Pressburg), and 10th (Przemyśl) Corps. Selected units (1914) Eight out of 11 Lancer regiments were located in Galicia (see [[Uhlan]]) [[File:Ulanen 13.jpg|right|thumb|The 13th Galicia Lancer Regiment at [[Battle of Custoza (1866)]]]] * 1st Galicia Lancer Regiment of Ritter von Brudermann (85% Poles) (Regimental language Polish) * 2nd Galicia Lancer Regiment of Fürst zu Schwarzenberg (84% Poles) (Regimental language Polish) * 3rd Galicia Lancer Regiment of Archduke Carl (69% Poles, 26% Ukrainians) (Regimental language Polish) * 4th Galicia Lancer Regiment "Kaiser" (65% Ukrainians, 29% Poles) (Regimental language Polish and Ukrainian) * 6th Galicia Lancer Regiment of Kaiser Joseph II (52% Poles, 40% Ukrainians) (Regimental language Polish and Ukrainian) * 7th Galicia Lancer Regiment of Archduke Franz Fedinand (72% Ukrainians, 22% Poles) (Regimental language Ukrainian) * 8th Galicia Lancer Regiment of Count Auersperg (80% Poles) (Regimental language Polish) * 13th Galicia Lancer Regiment of [[Eduard von Böhm-Ermolli]] (55% Ukrainians, 42% Poles) (Regimental language Polish and Ukrainian) * 1st Army Lancer Regiment (65% Ukrainians, 30% Poles) * 3rd Army Lancer Regiment (69% Poles, 26% Ukrainians) * 4th Army Lancer Regiment (85% Poles) One [[Dragoon]] regiment * 9th Galicia-Bukowina Dragoon Regiment of Archduke Albrecht (50% Romanians, 29% Ukrainians) (Regimental language Romanian and Ukrainian) [[File:Shako of Polish National Guard in Lviv in 1848.PNG|166px|thumb|right|[[Shako]] of Polish National Guard in Lviv in 1848]] [[File:Krakau Rudolf Kas.jpg|thumb|right|Rudolf Barracks in Kraków]] 10 Infantry regiments * 16th Army Infantry Regiment "Krakau" (82% Poles) * 17th Army Infantry Regiment "Rseszow" (97% Poles) * 18th Army Infantry Regiment "Przemyśl" (47% Ukrainians, 43% Poles) * 19th Army Infantry Regiment "Lemberg" (59% Ukrainians, 31% Poles) * 20th Army Infantry Regiment "Stanislau" (72% Ukrainians) * 32nd Army Infantry Regiment (91% Poles), [[Tarnów]] * 33rd Army Infantry Regiment (73% Ukrainians), [[Stryi]] * 34th Army Infantry Regiment (75% Poles), [[Jarosław]] * 35th Army Infantry Regiment (68% Ukrainians, 25% Poles), [[Zolochiv]] * 36th Army Infantry Regiment (70% Ukrainians, 21% Poles), [[Kolomea]] Two Artillery divisions * 43rd Filed Artillery Division (55% Ukrainians, 25% Poles), [[Lemberg]] * 45th Filed Artillery Division (60% Ukrainians, 25% Poles), [[Przemyśl]] Five Feldjäger battalions (Military Police) * 4th Galicia Feldjäger Battalion (77% Poles), [[Braunau am Inn]] (Rzeszow district) * 12th Bohemia Feldjäger Battalion (67% Czech, 32% German), [[Cavalese]] (Kraków district) * 14th Feldjäger Battalion (47% Ukrainians, 43% Poles), [[Mezzolombardo]] (Przemyśl district) * 18th Feldjäger Battalion (59% Ukrainians, 31% Poles), [[Trient]] (Lviv district) * 30th Galicia-Bukowina Feldjäger Battalion (70% Ukrainians), [[Steyr]] (Stanislav district) Others * 10th Engineer Battalion (50% Poles, 30% Ukrainians) (Przemyśl) * 1st Sapper Battalion (50% Poles, 23% Germans, 23% Czechs) (Krakau) * 10th Sapper Battalion (50% Poles, 30% Ukrainians) (Przemyśl) * 11th Sapper Battalion (48% Ukrainians, 32% Poles) (Lemberg) * [[Polish Legions in World War I|Polish Legions]] * [[Ukrainian Sich Riflemen|Ukrainian Legions]], later as part of the battle group of [[Archduke Wilhelm of Austria|Archduke Wilhelm]] * 1st Ukrainian Cossack Rifle Division (1918) ==See also== *[[Bukovina]] *[[Halych-Volhynia|Kingdom of Halych-Volhynia]] *[[Galician Soviet Socialist Republic]] *[[Lesser Poland]] *[[Galician slaughter]] *[[List of towns of the former Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria]] ==External links== * [http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/ua-gal.html Flag of Galicia] {{Galicia and Lodomeria timeline}} {{Provinces of the Austrian Empire}} {{coord missing|Poland}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Galicia And Lodomeria, Kingdom of}}