Kiev Governorate

Kiev Governorate

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{{Distinguish|Kiev Governorate General}} '''Kiev Governorate''' ({{lang-ru|Ки́евская губе́рния}}; [[Reforms of Russian orthography|pre-reform Russian]]: {{lang|ru|Кіевская губернія}}; {{lang-uk|Київська губернія}}), or '''Government of Kiev''', was an administrative division (a ''[[guberniya]]'') of the [[Russian Empire]]. The governorate was established in 1708 along with seven other governorates and was transformed into a [[namestnichestvo|viceroyalty]] in 1781. After the partition of Poland (the [[Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth]]) the governorate was re-established in 1796 completely in [[Right-bank Ukraine]], on the right bank of the [[Dnieper]], and remained in the Empire until [[October Revolution|its collapse in 1917]]. After the establishment of the [[Soviet Union]], the Kiev Guberniya was dissolved and its territory split into several [[okrug]]s (districts) in the course of the [[Soviet administrative reform of 1923–1929|Soviet-wide administrative reform]]. After 1932, the area around [[Kiev]] was administratively organized as [[Kiev Oblast]] of [[Ukrainian SSR]]. The borders of the Governorate underwent significant changes, in particular in 1796. [[Kiev]] was the [[administrative centre]] of the Governorate. ==Foundation and early reforms== {{See also|History of the administrative division of Russia in 1708–1744}} {{split section|Kiev Governorate (original)|date=February 2011}} [[File:History of Russia, 1682-1762.jpg|thumb|275px|Governorate subdivision of [[Russian Empire]] in 1682-1762]] The Governorate was established on {{OldStyleDateNY|December 29|December 18}}, 1708 together with seven other governorates, by [[Tsar]] [[Peter the Great]]'s [[ukase|edict]]. As the administrative unit, the governorate was preceded by the Regimental division of the [[Cossack Hetmanate]]. Remarkable is the fact that both divisions existed through most of the 18th century during which the Regimental division as administrative was phased away and later existed solely for military purposes. At the time of its foundation the governorate covered {{convert|231000|km2|sqmi|sp=us}} of territory of parts of modern [[Ukraine]] and southwestern [[Russia]]. As with the rest of the governorates, the description of Kiev Governorate's borders was not given. Instead, the territory was defined as a set of cities and the lands adjacent to those cities. The original territory was roughly based on the ''Siever land'' surrounded by [[Smolensk Governorate|Smolensk]], [[Moscow Governorate|Moscow]], and [[Azov Governorate]]s. Among the thirty-five cities assigned to it were [[Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi|Pereslavl]], [[Chernihiv|Chernigov]], [[Nizhyn|Nezhin]], [[Belgorod]], [[Okhtyrka|Akhtyrka]], [[Sumy]], [[Sevsk|Sevesk]], [[Kursk]], [[Mtsensk]], [[Putyvl|Putivl]], [[Bryansk]], [[Oryol]], and others. {| class="wikitable" |+ Cities of Kiev Governorate at the establishment ! # !! City !! # !! City !! # !! City |- |1. |[[Kiev]] |14. |[[Sumy]] |27. |[[Sevsk|Sevesk]] |- |2. |[[Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi|Pereslavl]] |15. |[[Krasnopillia|Krasnopolye]] |28. |[[Kursk]] |- |3. |[[Chernihiv|Chernigov]] |16. |[[Mezhyrechi|Mezhirichi]] |29. |[[Mtsensk]] |- |4. |[[Nizhyn|Nezhin]] |17. |[[Zolochiv, Kharkiv Oblast|Zolochev]] |30. |[[Putyvl|Putivl]] |- |5. |[[Novobogoroditskoy]] |18. |[[Velyka Burimka|Buromlya]] |31. |[[Karachev]] |- |6. |[[Sergiyevskoy]] |19. |[[Rublevka]] |32. |[[Kromy]] |- |7. |[[Kamennoy Zaton]] |20. |[[Gorodnoye]] |33. |[[Rylsk]] |- |8. |[[Belgorod]] |21. |[[Sudzha]] |34. |[[Bryansk]] |- |9. |[[Okhtyrka|Akhtyrka]] |22. |[[Lebedyn|Lebedyan]] |35. |[[Oryol|Orel]] |- |10. |[[Bohodukhiv|Bogodukhov]] |23. |[[Miropol]] |36. |[[Novosil]] |- |11. |[[Murakhva]] |24. |''selo'' of [[Vena]] |- |12. |[[Sennoye]] |25. |[[Bilopollia|Belopolye]] |- |13. |[[Bolkhov]] |26. |[[Olshanka]] |} Additionally, seventeen cities (according to the source; only sixteen were actually listed) of [[Azov Governorate]] were assigned to Kiev due to their greater geographical proximity to Kiev than to [[Azov]]. Among such cities were [[Kharkiv|Kharkov]] and [[Stary Oskol|Staroy Oskol]]. Also to Kiev was assigned [[Trubchevsk]] and two other cities from [[Smolensk Governorate]] while some cities of Kiev were assigned to Azov and [[Smolensk Governorate|Smolensk]], respectively. Initially divided into uyezds and razriads, the guberniya abolished the obsolete administrative system of the rapidly growing empire. During the [[administrative divisions of Russia in 1710-1713|administrative reform of 1710]], all governorates where subdivided into administrative-fiscal lots (''doli''), and Kiev Governorate consisted of five lots. The lots were administer by landrats, from the German land-councilor. [[Administrative divisions of Russia in 1719-1725|A new reform edict]] was issued on May 29, 1719. Lots were abolished and the governorate was subdivided into four [[province]]s centered on [[Belgorod]], [[Kiev]], [[Oryol]], and [[Sevsk]], and named accordingly. By 1719, the Governorate comprised forty-one cities. The provinces, in their turn, were divided into districts. Despite the reform, the subdivision of the Governorate into regiments was still used in parallel with the provinces. In the course of the [[administrative divisions of Russia in 1727-1728|1727 administrative reform]], Belgorod, Oryol and Sevsk Provinces were split off into [[Belgorod Governorate]], with only Kiev Province left in the Kiev Governorate. The guberniya at this time was divided into uyezds that replaced districts. ==Viceroyalty== {{split section|Kiev Viceroyalty|date=February 2011}} In the process of the [[Catherine II of Russia|Catherine's]] reform initiated by her November 7, 1775 edict, the new administrative unit [[namestnichestvo]] ([[viceroyalty]]) was introduced. On September 16, 1781, an edict was issued to transform the Governorate into a Viceroyalty (''Kievskoye namestnichestvo''), with the effective date of January 9, 1782. The Viceroyalty was subdivided into the following ''[[uyezd]]s'': [[Kiev]], [[Horodysche|Gorodishche]], [[Holtva (Poltava Oblast)|Goltva]], [[Khorol]], [[Kozelets]], [[Lubny]], [[Myrhorod|Mirgorod]], [[Oster|Ostyor]], [[Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi|Pereyaslavl]], [[Pyriatyn|Piryatin]], and [[Zolotonosha]] while some sources state that the towns of Khorol and Gorodishche were included without their districts. In 1789, Gorodishche was transferred to the [[Yekaterinoslav Governorate]]. In 1791, the Kiev Viceroyalty was subdivided into ten okrugs and in early 1790s additional districts ''([[uyezd]]s)'' of [[Bohuslav|Boguslav]], [[Hadiach|Gadyach]], [[Kaniv|Kanev]], [[Zinkiv|Zenkov]], [[Korsun-Shevchenkivskyi|Korsun]], and [[Lokhvytsia|Lokhvitsa]] were added. On June 4, 1782, the [[Coat of Arms of Kiev]] was officially approved, which ''de facto'' became a Coat of Arms of the Viceroyalty. According to the description, [[Michael (archangel)|Archangel Michael]] is dressed in silver holding up an aglow sword, depicted on an [[azure]] shield. ==Eighteenth to early-twentieth century== [[File:Gubernia de Kiev - Imperio ruso.png|thumb|300px|Kiev Governorate just before the revolution]] Kiev Governorate was re-established by [[Paul I of Russia|Emperor Paul I]]'s edict of November 30, 1796. Three [[Left-bank Ukraine]] viceroyalties were merged into one [[Little Russia Governorate]] centered on [[Chernihiv|Chernigov]], while the Kiev Governorate was now comprised on [[Right-bank Ukraine]]. With Kiev still a capital, the governorate included the right-bank parts of the former Kiev Viceroyalty merged with territories of the former [[Kiev Voivodeship|Kiev]] and [[Bracław Voivodeship|Bracław]] [[Voivodeship]]s which were gained by the [[Russian Empire]] from [[Partitions of Poland|the partitions]] of the [[Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth]] (the lands of the [[Polish Crown]] province). The edict took effect on August 29, 1797, bringing the total number of uyezds to twelve. On January 22, 1832, the Kiev Governorate, along with the [[Volhynia Governorate|Volhynia]] and the [[Podolia Governorate]]s formed the [[Kiev Governorate General]], also known as the ''Southwestern Krai''. At the time, [[Vasily Levashov]] was appointed the Military Governor of Kiev as well as the General Governor of Podolia and Volhynia. In 1845, the population of the Governorate was 1,704,661. At the turn of the 20th century, the governorate included twelve [[uyezd]]s named to their centers: [[Berdychiv|Berdichev]], [[Cherkasy|Cherkassy]], [[Chyhyryn|Chigirin]], [[Kaniv|Kanev]], [[Kiev]], [[Lypovets|Lipovets]], [[Radomyshl]], [[Skvyra|Skvira]], [[Tarashcha]], [[Uman]], [[Vasylkiv|Vasilkov]] and [[Zvenyhorodka|Zvenigorodka]]. By the [[Russian Census (1897)|1897 Russian Census]], there were 3,559,229 people in the ''guberniya'' making it the most populous one in the whole Russian Empire. Most of population was rural. There were 459,253 people living in cities, including about 248,000 in [[Kiev]]. According to the [[mother tongue]], the census classified the respondents as follows: 2,819,145 [[Little Russians]] (the Russian government term for [[Ukrainians]]) representing 79.2% of the population, 430,489 [[Jews]] representing 12.1% of the population, 209,427 [[Great Russians]] (the Russian government's term for Russians) representing 5.9% of the population, and 68,791 [[Poles]] representing 1.9% of the population. By faith, 2,983,736 census respondents were [[Orthodox Christians]], 433,728 were [[Jews]] and 106,733 were of the [[Roman Catholic Church]]. Kiev Governorate remained a constituent unit of the larger Governorate General with Kiev being the capital of both well into the 20th century. In 1915, the General Governorate was disbanded while the ''guberniya'' continued to exist. ===Principal cities=== Russian Census of 1897 * '''[[Kiev]]''' - 247,723 (Ukrainian - 6 578, Jewish - 2 921, Russian - 343) * '''[[Berdichev]]''' - 53,351 (Jewish - 41 125, Russian - 4 612, Ukrainian - 4 395) * [[Uman]] - 31,016 (Jewish - 17 709, Ukrainian - 9 509, Russian - 2 704) * [[Cherkasy]] - 29,600 (Ukrainian - 12 900, Jewish - 10 916, Russian - 4 911) * [[Skvira]] - 17,958 (Jewish - 8 905, Ukrainian - 7 681, Russian - 956) * [[Zvenigorodka]] - 16,923 (Ukrainian - 8 337, Jewish - 6 368, Russian - 1 513) * [[Vasylkiv|Vasilkov]] - 13,132 (Ukrainian - 7 108, Jewish - 5 140, Russian - 820) * [[Tarascha]] - 11,259 (Ukrainian - 5 601, Jewish - 4 906, Russian - 575) * [[Radomysl]] - 10,906 (Jewish - 7 468, Ukrainian - 2 463, Russian - 778) Smaller cities * [[Chigirin]] - 9,872 (Ukrainian - 6 578, Jewish - 2 921, Russian - 343) * [[Kanev]] - 8,855 (Ukrainian - 5 770, Jewish - 2 710, Russian - 303) * [[Lipovets]] - 8,658 (Jewish - 4 117, Ukrainian - 3 948, Russian - 397) ===After 1917=== In the [[Ukraine after Russian Revolution|times after the Russian revolution in 1917-1921]], the lands of Kiev Governorate switched hands many time. After the last Imperial governor, [[Alexey Ignatyev]] till March 6, 1917, the local leaders were appointed by competing authorities. At times, the Governorate [[Starosta]] (appointed by the [[Central Rada]]) and the Governorate [[Commissar]] (sometimes underground) both claimed the Governorate, while some of the short-lived ruling regimes of the territory did not establish any particular administrative subdivision. As chaos gave way to stability in the early 1920s, the [[Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic|Soviet Ukrainian]] authority re-established the Governorate whose leading post was titled the Chairman of the Governorate's Revolutionary Committee ''([[revkom]])'' or of the Executive Committee ''([[ispolkom]])''. In the course of the [[Soviet administrative reform of 1923–1929]] the Kiev Guberniya was transformed into six [[okrug]]s in 1923, and, since 1932, [[Kiev Oblast]] at the territory. ==Footnotes and references== {{Commons category|Kiev Governorate}} {{Reflist}} {{coord missing|Russia}} {{Western Krai Governorates of the Russian Empire 1795-1912}} {{Governorates of Ukraine 1917-1921}} {{Ukrainian historical regions}} {{Subdivisions of the Russian Empire}}