The Kibbutz Movement
is the largest settlement movement
Settlement movement is a term used in Israel to describe national umbrella organisations for kibbutzim, moshavim, moshavim shitufiim, and communal settlements...
A kibbutz is a collective community in Israel that was traditionally based on agriculture. Today, farming has been partly supplanted by other economic branches, including industrial plants and high-tech enterprises. Kibbutzim began as utopian communities, a combination of socialism and Zionism...
im in Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...
. It was formed in 1999 by a partial merger of the United Kibbutz Movement and Kibbutz Artzi.
United Kibbutz Movement
The United Kibbutz Movement
, also known by its Hebrew acronym Hatkam
, was founded in 1981 and was largely aligned with the Israeli Labour Party and its predecessors. It had been formed by a merger itself, when HaKibbutz HaMeuhad
and Ihud HaKvutzot VeHaKibbutzim
had been formed in 1927 by the union of several kibbutz bodies and was associated with the Poale Zion
Poale Zion was a Movement of Marxist Zionist Jewish workers circles founded in various cities of the Russian Empire about the turn of the century after the Bund rejected Zionism in 1901.-Formation and early years:Poale Zion parties and organisations were started across the Jewish diaspora in the...
and later Ahdut HaAvoda
Ahdut HaAvoda was the name used by a sequence of political parties that existed firstly during Mandate Palestine and later in Israel. Its original version, led by David Ben-Gurion, is one of the main ancestors of the modern-day Israeli Labor Party....
Ihud HaKvutzot VeHaKibbutzim
Ihud HaKvutzot VeHaKibbutzim
had been formed in 1951 by the union of Hever HaKvutzot
and Ihud HaKibbutzim . (Kvutzot were an early form of kibbutzim). The movement included kibbutzim which had left HaKibbutz HaMeuhad
for ideological reasons and was aligned with the Labour Party and its predecessors. (Mapai
Mapai was a left-wing political party in Israel, and was the dominant force in Israeli politics until its merger into the Israeli Labor Party in 1968...
was a Kibbutz movement associated with Hashomer Hatzair
Hashomer Hatzair is a Socialist–Zionist youth movement founded in 1913 in Galicia, Austria-Hungary, and was also the name of the group's political party in the Yishuv in the pre-1948 British Mandate of Palestine...
, a socialist
Socialism is an economic system characterized by social ownership of the means of production and cooperative management of the economy; or a political philosophy advocating such a system. "Social ownership" may refer to any one of, or a combination of, the following: cooperative enterprises,...
Zionism is a Jewish political movement that, in its broadest sense, has supported the self-determination of the Jewish people in a sovereign Jewish national homeland. Since the establishment of the State of Israel, the Zionist movement continues primarily to advocate on behalf of the Jewish state...
youth movement. It was founded on 1 April 1927, and had 85 kibbutzim and 28,000 members in 1998.