Kherson Governorate

Kherson Governorate

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{{citations missing|date=May 2008}} {| class="infobox geography" |+ align="center"| '''Kherson Governorate

Херсонская губерния

Херсонська губернія'''
|- ! colspan="2" align="center"| [[Image:Kherson Governorate Map.jpg|250px|A historic map of the governorate by [[Yuly Shokalsky]].]] |---- | colspan="2" align="center"| A historic map by [[List of cartographers|cartographer]] [[Yuly Shokalsky]]. |---- ! [[Capital (political)|Capital city]] | [[Mykolaiv|Nikolayev]] (1802-1803)
[[Kherson]] (1803-1922) |---- ! [[Area]] | 70,600 km² (1920) |---- | '''[[Population]]''' (1914)
 - [[Population density|Density]] | 3,744,600
p/km² |---- | '''[[Uyezd]]s'''
| 5 (1809-1825)
6 (1825-1828)
7 (1828-1865)
6 (1897) |---- ! '''Major towns'''
| [[Kherson]], [[Mykolaiv|Nikolayev]], [[Odessa]] |---- | '''Nationalities''' (1914)
 - [[Ukrainians]]
 - [[Russians]]
 - [[Jew]]s
 - Other |
53%
22%
12%
13%
|---- ! Dates of existence | 1802 to 1922 |---- | colspan="2" align="center"| [[Image:Ukraine Cherson 2St.-Ekater.jpg|250px|Cathedral dedicated to [[St. Catherine|Saint Catherine]] ({{lang-ru|Свято-Екаерининский Собор}}) in [[Kherson]] the governorates capital at the time.]] |---- | colspan="2" align="center"| [[St. Catherine's Cathedral (Kherson)|St. Catherine's Cathedral]]
in
[[Kherson]] the governorates capital at the time. |} The '''Kherson Governorate''' ({{lang-ru|Херсонская губерния}}, [[Romanization of Russian|translit.]]: ''Khersonskaya guberniya''; {{lang-uk|Херсонська губернія}}, [[Romanization of Ukrainian|translit.]]: ''Khersons`ka huberniya'') or '''Government of Kherson''' was a [[guberniya]], or administrative territorial unit, in the ''Southern Ukrainian'' region, between the [[Dnieper River|Dnieper]] and [[Dniester River]]s, of the [[Russian Empire]]. It was one of three governorates created in 1802 when the [[Novorossiya]] guberniya was abolished. It was known as the '''Nikolayev Governorate''' until 1803, when [[Kherson]] replaced [[Mykolaiv|Nikolayev (''Mykolaiv'')]] as the governorate's capital. The economy of the governorate was mainly based on agriculture. During the grain harvest, thousands of agricultural laborers from the other Ukrainian governorates found work in the area. The industrial part of the economy, consisting primarily of flour milling, distilling, metalworking industry, iron mining, beet-sugar processing, and brick industry, was underdeveloped. ==Administrative divisions== [[Image:Kherson Governorate COA.png|left|135px|The coat of arms of the Kherson Governorate.]] The governorate bordered [[Bessarabia Governorate]] to the west, with [[Kiev Governorate|Kiev]] and [[Poltava Governorate]]s to the north, to the east could be found [[Yekaterinoslav Governorate]], and in the southward direction was located [[Taurida Governorate]]. From 1809, the governorate consisted of five [[uyezd]]s: Kherson, [[Oleksandriia|Aleksandriya (''Oleksandriia'')]], [[Ovidiopol]], [[Tiraspol]], and [[Kirovohrad|Yelisavetgrad (''Kirovohrad'')]]. The city of [[Odessa]] carried a special status. In 1825, The Odessa uyezd was added into the territorial division of the Kherson Governorate. A seventh uyezd — Bobrynets, existed from 1828 to 1865. The cities of [[Odessa]] and Nikolayev (in 1803–1861) and their surrounding vicinity were governed separately: Odessa by a gradonachalnik answerable directly to the [[tsar]] and (''from 1822'') the governor-general of Novorossiya and [[Bessarabia]], and Nikolayev by a military governor. In 1920, while being under [[Soviet]] rule, the governorates territory, {{convert|70600|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}}, was divided to form the newer Odessa Governorate. The Kherson Governorate was renamed ''Nikolayev Governorate'' in 1921, and in 1922 - merged with the Odessa Governorate. In 1925, the Odessa Governorate was abolished, and its territory was divided into six [[okrug]]s: Kherson, [[Kryvyi Rih|Krivoy Rog (''Kryvyi Rih'')]], Nikolayev (''Mykolaiv''), Odessa, Pervomayske (''Pershotravneve''), and Zinoviivske. In 1932, much of this territory was incorporated into the new [[Odessa Oblast]], now an administrative division of the modern [[Ukraine|Ukrainian]] nation, which was divided to form the [[Mykolaiv Oblast]]. ==Principal cities== Russian Census of 1897 * [[Odessa]] - 403 815 (Russian - 198 233, Jewish - 124 511, Ukrainian - 37 925) * [[Nikolayev (Ukraine)|Nikolayev]] - 92 012 (Russian - 61 023, Jewish - 17 949, Ukrainian - 7 780) * [[Kirovohrad|Yelizavetgrad]] - 61 488 (Jewish - 23 256, Russian - 21 301, Ukrainian - 14 523) * [[Kherson]] - 59 076 (Russian - 27 902, Jewish - 17 162, Ukrainian - 11 591) * [[Tiraspol]] - 31 616 (Russian - 14 013, Jewish - 8 568, Ukrainian - 3 708) * [[Ananyev]] - 16 684 (Ukrainian - 7 205, Romanian - 4 174, Jewish - 3 514) * [[Voznesensk]] - 15 748 (Jewish - 5 879, Ukrainian - 5 644, Russian - 2 583) * [[Bobrinets]] - 14 281 (Ukrainian - 9 529, Jewish - 3 464, Russian - 837) * [[Oleksandriia|Aleksandriya]] - 14 007 (Ukrainian - 7 658, Jewish - 3 687, Russian - 2 364) * [[Berislav]] - 12 149 (Ukrainian - 8 852, Jewish - 2 639, Russian - 524) * [[Dubossary]] - 12 089 (Jewish - 5 326, Romanian - 3 383, Ukrainian - 2 841) * [[Novogeorgiyevsk]] - 11 594 (Russian - 6 631, Ukrainian - 3 372, Jewish - 1 424) * [[Ochakov]] - 10 786 (Ukrainian - 5 204, Russian - 3 508, Jewish - 1 430) * [[Novomirgorod]] - 9 364 (Russian - 7 025, Jewish - 1 617, Ukrainian - 572) * [[Grigoripol]] - 7 605 (Romanian - 3 740, Russian - 1 832, Jewish - 832) * [[Olviopol]] - 6 884 (Ukrainian - 5 022, Jewish - 1 480, Russian - 271) * [[Ovidiopol]] - 5 187 (Ukrainian - 2 785, Russian - 1 997, Jewish - 387) * [[Mayaki]] - 4 575 (Russian - 2 865, Ukrainian - 944, Jewish - 644) ==Demographics== Until 1858, a third of the population (''military settlers, admiralty settlements, foreign colonists, etc.'') was subject to martial law. The gubernia had a population of about 245,000 in 1812; 893,000 in 1851; 1,330,000 in 1863; 2,027,000 in 1885; 2,733,600 in [[Russian Empire Census|1897]]; and 3,744,600 in 1914. In the 1850s it consisted of [[Ukrainians]] (''68–75 %''), [[Romanians]] (''8–11 %''), [[Russians]] (''3–7 %''), [[Jew]]s (''6 %''), [[Germans]] (''4 %''), [[Bulgarians]] (''2 %''), [[Serbs]], [[Greeks]], and [[Romani people|Gypsies]]. In 1914, Ukrainians composed only 53 % of the population, while Russians made up 22 % and Jews - 12 %. Urban dwellers made up 10–20 % of the population until the 1850s, from where the total number of urban dwellers increased, to about 30 % in 1897. Migration within the Russian Empire mainly accounted for the area's population growth, which is noted by 46 % of the population being born outside of the governorate in 1897. ''See also: [[Jewish agricultural colonies in the Russian Empire]]''. ==External links== * [http://www.cultinfo.ru/fulltext/1/001/007/110/110085.htm Kherson Guberniya] - Article in [[Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary]] {{ru icon}} * [http://patent.net.ua/symbol/regions/ks/ua.html Kherson Guberniya] - Historical coat of arms {{uk icon}}/{{en icon}} * [http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.com/display.asp?AddButton=pages\K\H\Khersongubernia.htm Kherson gubernia] - Article in the [http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.com/ Encyclopedia of Ukraine] {{coord missing|Russia}} {{Ukrainian historical regions}} {{Subdivisions of the Russian Empire}}