Kharkiv Oblast

Kharkiv Oblast

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'''Kharkiv Oblast''' ({{lang-uk|Харківська область}}, [[Romanization of Ukrainian|translit.]] ''Kharkivs’ka oblast’''; also referred to as '''[[Kharkiv Oblast#Nomenclature|Kharkivshchyna]]''' – ''{{lang-uk|Харківщина}}'') is an [[administrative divisions of Ukraine|oblast]] (province) in eastern [[Ukraine]]. The oblast borders [[Russia]] to the north, [[Luhansk Oblast]] to the east, [[Donetsk Oblast]] to the south-east, [[Dnipropetrovsk Oblast]] to the south-west, [[Poltava Oblast]] to the west and [[Sumy Oblast]] to the north-west. The area of the oblast is 31,400 km², corresponding to 5.2% of the total territory of Ukraine. The oblast is the third most populous region of Ukraine, with a population of 2,857,751 ({{As of|2004|lc=on}}), more than half (1.5 million) of whom live in the city of [[Kharkiv]], the oblast's [[Capital (political)|administrative center]]. While the Russian language is primarily spoken in the cities of Kharkiv oblast, elsewhere in the oblast most inhabitants speak [[Ukrainian language|Ukrainian]]. ==History== The territory of the Kharkiv oblast has been permanently inhabited since at least the late [[Paleolithic]] period (10,000–12,000 years ago) but archaeological evidence indicates a human ([[Neanderthal]]) presence as early as the Mousterian period some 80,000 years ago. The territory was relatively sparsely inhabited until the 1630s, when large numbers of [[Ukrainians]] began to settle there before and during the [[Khmelnytsky Uprising]]. Most of the settlers were migrants from the [[Dnieper]] region, many of whom were fleeing fighting between [[Cossacks]], [[Poles]] and [[Tatars]]. They called the newly settled region the ''[[Sloboda Ukraine]]'' or ''Slobozhanshchina'', as the area is still sometimes called, and ruled it from the newly established fortress-city of [[Kharkiv]] (founded 1656). In 1654, the region was incorporated into [[Muscovy]] (and subsequently the [[Russian Empire]]) under the terms of the [[Treaty of Pereyaslav]]. Over the next 340 years, the area became heavily Russified. Kharkiv itself became one of the cultural and administrative centres of the Russian Empire in the mid-18th century, and served as the capital of the [[Ukrainian SSR]] from 1919 until 1934, when the [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] authorities moved the capital back to [[Kiev]]. The modern Kharkiv oblast is a relatively recent creation, having been established on 27 February 1932. During the [[Holodomor]] the population of the Kharkiv Oblast together with Kiev Oblast suffered the most. The region saw major fighting during [[World War II]] in several [[Battle of Kharkov (disambiguation)|Battles of Kharkov]] between 1941 and 1943. ==Points of interest== The following sites were nominated for the [[Seven Wonders of Ukraine]]. * [[Derzhprom]] Building * [[Pokrov monastery (Kharkiv)]] * [[Skovoroda museum]] ==Demographics== Its population (as of 2001) is 2,895,800 million (1328900 males (45,9 %), 1566900 females (54,1%)). As of the 2001 census, the ethnic groups within the Kharkiv Oblast are: * [[Ukrainians]] – 70.7%, * [[Russians]] – 25.6%, * [[Belorussians]] – 0.5% * [[Jews]] – 0.4%, * [[Armenians]] – 0.4%, * [[Azeris]] – 0.2%, * [[Georgians]] – 0.15%, * [[Tatars]] – 0.14%, * others – 2.1%,; the groups by native language: *[[Ukrainian language|Ukrainian]] 53.8%, *[[Russian language|Russian]] 44.3%, *other languages 1.9%. ==Economy== The Kharkiv oblast has a primarily industrially based economy, including [[engineering]], [[metallurgy]], [[manufacturing]], production of chemicals and [[food processing]]. It also has an important [[agriculture|agricultural]] sector with 19,000 square kilometres of arable land (comprising 5.9% of the total arable lands of Ukraine). Also in Kharkiv is the Airplane plant for space controlling systems. It is a major center for all branches of engineering, from large-scale manufacture to microelectronics. Also situated in Kharkiv Oblast is a gas field, which is one of the biggest in Ukraine. ==Subdivisions== [[File:Kharkiv oblast detail map.png|thumb|right|175px|Detailed map of Kharkiv Oblast.]] The Kharkiv Oblast is administratively subdivided into 27 [[raions]] ([[district]]s), as well as 7 cities ([[municipality|municipalities]]) which are directly subordinate to the oblast government: [[Chuhuiv]], [[Izium]], [[Kupiansk]], [[Liubotyn]], [[Lozova]], [[Pervomaiskyi]], and the administrative center of the oblast, [[Kharkiv]]. {| border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=2 style="text-align:left; border:1px solid #ddd; font-size:90%; " summary="Raions of the Kharkiv Oblast and their capital cities" |+ style="background:#ddd; vertical-align:bottom; text-align:left; font-size:111%; font-weight:bold; padding:.5em 0;" | Raions of the Kharkiv Oblast |- style="vertical-align:top;" ! || style="text-align:left; font-weight:normal;" | In English ! style="text-align:left; font-weight:normal;" | In Ukrainian ! style="text-align:left; font-weight:normal;" | Administrative Center |- style="vertical-align:top;" |- style="vertical-align:top; background:#f0f0f0; " | || [[Balakliyskyi Raion]] | Балаклійський район
''Balakliys'kyi raion'' | [[Balakliia]]
''([[City]])'' |- style="vertical-align:top;" | || [[Barvinkivskyi Raion]] | Барвінківський район
''Barvinkivs'kyi raion'' | [[Barvinkove]]
''([[City]])'' |- style="vertical-align:top; background:#f0f0f0; " | || [[Blyzniukivskyi Raion]] | Близнюківський район
''Blyzniukivs'kyi raion'' | [[Blyzniuky]]
''([[Urban-type settlement]])'' |- style="vertical-align:top;" | || [[Bohodukhivskyi Raion]] | Богодухівський район
''Bohodukhivs'kyi raion'' | [[Bohodukhiv]]
''([[City]])'' |- style="vertical-align:top; background:#f0f0f0; " | || [[Borivskyi Raion]] | Борівський район
''Borivs'kyi raion'' | [[Borova (Kharkiv Oblast)|Borova]]
''([[Urban-type settlement]])'' |- style="vertical-align:top;" | || [[Chuhuivskyi Raion]] | Чугуївський район
''Chuhuivs'kyi raion'' | [[Chuhuiv]]
''([[City]])'' |- style="vertical-align:top; background:#f0f0f0;" | || [[Derhachivskyi Raion]] | Дергачівський район
''Derhachivs'kyi raion'' | [[Derhachi]]
''([[City]])'' |- style="vertical-align:top;" | || [[Dvorichanskyi Raion]] | Дворічанський район
''Dvorichans'kyi raion'' | [[Dvorichna]]
''([[Urban-type settlement]])'' |- style="vertical-align:top; background:#f0f0f0;" | || [[Iziumskyi Raion]] | Ізюмський район
''Iziums'kyi raion'' | [[Izyum]]
''([[City]])'' |- style="vertical-align:top;" | || [[Kehychivskyi Raion]] | Кегичівський район
''Kehychivs'kyi raion'' | [[Kehychivka]]
''([[Urban-type settlement]])'' |- style="vertical-align:top; background:#f0f0f0;" | || [[Kharkivskyi Raion, Kharkiv Oblast|Kharkivskyi Raion]] | Харківський район
''Kharkivs'kyi raion'' | [[Kharkiv]]
''([[City]])'' |- style="vertical-align:top;" | || [[Kolomatskyi Raion]] | Коломацький район
''Kolomats'kyi raion'' | [[Kolomak]]
''([[Urban-type settlement]])'' |- style="vertical-align:top; background:#f0f0f0;" | || [[Krasnohradskyi Raion]] | Красноградський район
''Krasnohrads'kyi raion'' | [[Krasnohrad]]
''([[City]])'' |- style="vertical-align:top;" | || [[Krasnokutskyi Raion]] | Краснокутський район
''Krasnokuts'kyi raion'' | [[Krasnokutsk]]
''([[Urban-type settlement]])'' |- style="vertical-align:top; background:#f0f0f0;" | || [[Kupyanskyi Raion]] | Куп'янський район
''Kupyans'kyi raion'' | [[Kupiansk]]
''([[City]])'' |- style="vertical-align:top;" | || [[Lozivskyi Raion]] | Лозівський район
''Lozivs'kyi raion'' | [[Lozova]]
''([[City]])'' |- style="vertical-align:top; background:#f0f0f0;" | || [[Novovodolazkyi Raion]] | Нововодолазький район
''Novovodolaz'kyi raion'' | [[Nova Vodolaha]]
''([[Urban-type settlement]])'' |- style="vertical-align:top;" | || [[Pechenizkyi Raion]] | Печенізький район
''Pecheniz'kyi raion'' | [[Pechenihy]]
''([[Urban-type settlement]])'' |- style="vertical-align:top; background:#f0f0f0;" | || [[Pervomaiskyi Raion]] | Первомайський район
''Pervomais'kyi raion'' | [[Pervomaiskyi]]
''([[City]])'' |- style="vertical-align:top;" | || [[Sakhnovshchynskyi Raion]] | Сахновщинський район
''Sakhnovshchyns'kyi raion'' | [[Sakhnovshchyna]]
''([[Urban-type settlement]])'' |- style="vertical-align:top; background:#f0f0f0;" | || [[Shevchenkivskyi Raion, Kharkiv Oblast|Shevchenkivskyi Raion]] | Шевченківський район
''Shevchenkivs'kyi raion'' | [[Shevchenkove]]
''([[Urban-type settlement]])'' |- style="vertical-align:top;" | || [[Valkivskyi Raion]] | Валківський район
''Valkivs'kyi raion'' | [[Valky]]
''([[City]])'' |- style="vertical-align:top; background:#f0f0f0;" | || [[Velykoburlutskyi Raion]] | Великобурлуцький район
''Velykoburluts'kyi raion'' | [[Velykyi Burluk]]
''([[Urban-type settlement]])'' |- style="vertical-align:top;" | || [[Vovchanskyi Raion]] | Вовчанський район
''Vovchans'kyi raion'' | [[Vovchansk]]
''([[City]])'' |- style="vertical-align:top; background:#f0f0f0;" | || [[Zachepylivskyi Raion]] | Зачепилівський район
''Zachepylivs'kyi raion'' | [[Zachepylivka]]
''([[Urban-type settlement]])'' |- style="vertical-align:top;" | || [[Zmiivskyi Raion]] | Зміївський район
''Zmiyivs'kyi raion'' | [[Zmiiv]]
''([[City]])'' |- style="vertical-align:top; background:#f0f0f0;" | || [[Zolochivskyi Raion]] | Золочівський район
''Zolochivs'kyi raion'' | [[Zolochiv, Kharkiv Oblast, Ukraine|Zolochiv]]
''([[Urban-type settlement]])'' |} ==Nomenclature== Most of Ukraine's oblasts are named after their [[Capital (political)|capital]] cities, officially referred to as "oblast centers" ({{lang-uk|обласний центр}}, [[Romanization of Ukrainian|translit.]] ''oblasnyi tsentr''). The name of each oblast is a [[relative clause|relative]] [[adjective]], formed by adding a feminine [[suffix]] to the name of respective center city: ''Kharkiv'' is the center of the ''Kharkivs’ka oblast’'' (Kharkiv Oblast). Most oblasts are also sometimes referred to in a feminine noun form, following the convention of traditional regional place names, ending with the suffix "-shchyna", as is the case with the Kharkiv Oblast, ''Kharkivshchyna''. {{See also |Romanization of Ukrainian}} ==External links== * [http://www.ukrainebiz.com/Articles/KharkivFacts.htm Kharkiv Oblast Facts & Figures] * [http://kts.8m.com/statisti.htm Kharkiv Oblast statistics] * [http://uamaps.com/ukraine-map/kharkovskaya/ Maps of Kharkiv oblast Cities, Towns and Villages] * [http://www.gorod.kharkov.ua/secart3123.html About Kharkiv Oblast] * [http://www.catalogue.biz.ua/eng/guides/guide_index/1/21/ Post codes directory of Kharkiv Oblast] {{Kharkiv Oblast}} {{Administrative divisions of Ukraine}} {{coord missing|Ukraine}}