Kersal

Kersal

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Kersal is an inner city
Inner city
The inner city is the central area of a major city or metropolis. In the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Ireland, the term is often applied to the lower-income residential districts in the city centre and nearby areas...

 area of Salford, in Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 2.6 million. It encompasses one of the largest metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom and comprises ten metropolitan boroughs: Bolton, Bury, Oldham, Rochdale, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford, Wigan, and the...

, England. The centre of Kersal is 2.5 miles (4 km) northwest of Manchester city centre
Manchester City Centre
Manchester city centre is the central business district of Manchester, England. It lies within the Manchester Inner Ring Road, next to the River Irwell...

, and 2.2 miles (3.5 km) north-northwest of Salford's conventional centre at Greengate.

Historically
Historic counties of England
The historic counties of England are subdivisions of England established for administration by the Normans and in most cases based on earlier Anglo-Saxon kingdoms and shires...

 a part of Lancashire
Lancashire
Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England. It takes its name from the city of Lancaster, and is sometimes known as the County of Lancaster. Although Lancaster is still considered to be the county town, Lancashire County Council is based in Preston...

, Kersal houses the second oldest building in Salford, Kersal Cell, which was built in 1563. Kersal is home to Kersal Dale Country Park which has been designated as a Local Nature Reserve
Local Nature Reserve
Local nature reserve or LNR is a designation for nature reserves in the United Kingdom. The designation has its origin in the recommendations of the Wild Life Conservation Special Committee which established the framework for nature conservation in the United Kingdom and suggested a national suite...

 (LNR
LNR
LNR may refer to:* Aeronca L-3, a World War II aircraft also known by the designation LNR* Ligue nationale de rugby, the organization that operates the two professional rugby union leagues in France* Liquid natural rubber, another name for latex...

) and Kersal Moor
Kersal Moor
Kersal Moor is a recreation area in Kersal, within the City of Salford, in Greater Manchester, England, consisting of eight hectares of moorland, bounded by Moor Lane, Heathlands Road, St...

 which is designated as a Site of Biological Importance
Site of Biological Importance
A Site of Biological Importance is one of the non-statutory designations used locally by the Greater Manchester, Cheshire and Staffordshire County Councils in England to protect locally valued sites of biological diversity which are described generally as Local Wildlife Sites by the UK Government...

 (SBI
SBI
The initialism SBI could mean:*Sound Business, Inc. a non-profit organization. College and Career Preparation for A. Philip Randolph Campus High School* SBI Group, a financial services company of Japan...

) and a local nature reserve.

History


Kersal is an area with a long history during which it has been variously known as Kereshale, Kershal, Kereshole, Carshall and Kersall. In 1142 Kereshale was given to the Priory
Priory
A priory is a house of men or women under religious vows that is headed by a prior or prioress. Priories may be houses of mendicant friars or religious sisters , or monasteries of monks or nuns .The Benedictines and their offshoots , the Premonstratensians, and the...

 of Lenton, an order of Cluniac
Cluniac Reforms
The Cluniac Reforms were a series of changes within medieval monasticism of West focused on restoring the traditional monastic life, encouraging art, and caring for the poor. The movement is named for the Abbey of Cluny in Burgundy, where it started within the Benedictine order. The reforms were...

 monks, who established an early cell there named St Leonard
Leonard of Noblac
Leonard of Noblac or of Limoges or de Noblet , is a Frankish saint closely associated with the town and abbey of Saint-Léonard-de-Noblat, in Haute-Vienne, in the Limousin of France.-Traditional biography:According to the romance that...

's. On the Dissolution of the Monasteries
Dissolution of the Monasteries
The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the set of administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded monasteries, priories, convents and friaries in England, Wales and Ireland; appropriated their...

 in 1540 Henry VIII
Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was Lord, and later King, of Ireland, as well as continuing the nominal claim by the English monarchs to the Kingdom of France...

 sold the priory and its lands to one Baldwin Willoughby. It was sold eight years later to Ralph Kenyon, who was acting on behalf of himself, James Chetham of Crumpsall
Crumpsall
Crumpsall is a suburban area and electoral ward of the city of Manchester, in Greater Manchester, England. It is about north of Manchester city centre...

 and Richard Siddall of Withington
Withington
Withington is a suburban area of the City of Manchester, in Greater Manchester, England. It lies south of Manchester city centre, about south of Fallowfield, north-east of Didsbury, and east of Chorlton-cum-Hardy, near the centre-to-south edges of the Greater Manchester Urban Area; in the...

. The Kenyon third was sold about the year 1660 to the Byroms of Manchester
Manchester
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. According to the Office for National Statistics, the 2010 mid-year population estimate for Manchester was 498,800. Manchester lies within one of the UK's largest metropolitan areas, the metropolitan county of Greater...

, whose line terminated on the death of Miss Eleanora Atherton in 1870. All the land eventually descended to, or was bought by, the Clowes family (the Lords of the Manor
Manorialism
Manorialism, an essential element of feudal society, was the organizing principle of rural economy that originated in the villa system of the Late Roman Empire, was widely practiced in medieval western and parts of central Europe, and was slowly replaced by the advent of a money-based market...

 of Broughton
Broughton, Greater Manchester
Broughton is an inner city area of Salford, in Greater Manchester, England. It lies on the east bank of the River Irwell and A56 road, in the northeastern part of the City of Salford, north-northwest of Manchester city centre and south of Prestwich. Broughton consists of Broughton Park, Higher...

) who began to sell off the land for development in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The most famous resident of Kersal Cell was John Byrom
John Byrom
John Byrom or John Byrom of Kersal or John Byrom of Manchester FRS was an English poet and inventor of a revolutionary system of shorthand. He is also remembered as the writer of the lyrics of Anglican hymn Christians Awake, salute the happy morn.- Early life :John Byrom was descended from an old...

 (1692–1763). It is said that he wrote the hymn Christians Awake there, but it is more likely that it was written at his home in the Old Shambles
Shambles Square, Manchester
Shambles Square is a square in Manchester, England, created in 1999 to house the rebuilt Old Wellington Inn and Sinclair's Oyster Bar next to The Mitre Hotel.- Etymology :...

 in Manchester above what is now the Wellington Inn.

In the 17th century the Kersal Moor
Kersal Moor
Kersal Moor is a recreation area in Kersal, within the City of Salford, in Greater Manchester, England, consisting of eight hectares of moorland, bounded by Moor Lane, Heathlands Road, St...

 races were the great event of the year. They usually took place around Whit Week when large numbers of people turned the area into a giant fair
Fair
A fair or fayre is a gathering of people to display or trade produce or other goods, to parade or display animals and often to enjoy associated carnival or funfair entertainment. It is normally of the essence of a fair that it is temporary; some last only an afternoon while others may ten weeks. ...

ground for several days. The moor was also used for nude male races, allowing females to study the form before choosing their mates. Indeed in the 18th century, Roger Aytoun, known as "Spanking Roger" who was later a hero of the Siege of Gibraltar
Siege of Gibraltar
The Siege of Gibraltar can refer to several historical events:* Siege of Gibraltar – first siege of Gibraltar, by Juan Alfonso de Guzman el Bueno in the Reconquista...

, acquired Hough Hall in Moston
Moston, Greater Manchester
Moston is a district of Manchester, in North West England, approximately 3 miles north east of the city centre. Historically a part of Lancashire, Moston is a predominantly residential area, with a population of about 12,500 and covering approximately .-History:The name Moston may derive...

, through marriage after such a race. Kersal Moor was also host to one of the great political events of the 19th century, when it was the meeting place for the largest of the Chartist
Chartism
Chartism was a movement for political and social reform in the United Kingdom during the mid-19th century, between 1838 and 1859. It takes its name from the People's Charter of 1838. Chartism was possibly the first mass working class labour movement in the world...

 Assemblies attended by at least 30,000 people in September, 1838 and again in May, 1839. It was also the site of one of the first golf courses to be built outside Scotland
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

. Kersal Links opened in 1818, and was the oldest golf course
Golf course
A golf course comprises a series of holes, each consisting of a teeing ground, fairway, rough and other hazards, and a green with a flagstick and cup, all designed for the game of golf. A standard round of golf consists of playing 18 holes, thus most golf courses have this number of holes...

 between the Thames
River Thames
The River Thames flows through southern England. It is the longest river entirely in England and the second longest in the United Kingdom. While it is best known because its lower reaches flow through central London, the river flows alongside several other towns and cities, including Oxford,...

 and the Tweed
River Tweed
The River Tweed, or Tweed Water, is long and flows primarily through the Borders region of Great Britain. It rises on Tweedsmuir at Tweed's Well near where the Clyde, draining northwest, and the Annan draining south also rise. "Annan, Tweed and Clyde rise oot the ae hillside" as the Border saying...

 until it closed in 1960. The Kersal Moor races began prior to 1680 and continued, with various interruptions, until 1847 when the course was switched to the other side of the River Irwell
River Irwell
The River Irwell is a long river which flows through the Irwell Valley in the counties of Lancashire and Greater Manchester in North West England. The river's source is at Irwell Springs on Deerplay Moor, approximately north of Bacup, in the parish of Cliviger, Lancashire...

, to Castle Irwell
Manchester Racecourse
Manchester Racecourse was a former racecourse in the City of Salford, Greater Manchester, England. Manchester Racecourse moved several times but remained within Salford in the 19th and 20th centuries...

, where it remained until 1963. In 1961 the Members' Stand at the Castle Irwell Racecourse was opened and contained the world's first executive boxes. The architect
Architect
An architect is a person trained in the planning, design and oversight of the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to offer or render services in connection with the design and construction of a building, or group of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the...

 for the racecourse, Ernest Atherden, showed this to the directors of Manchester United
Manchester United F.C.
Manchester United Football Club is an English professional football club, based in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, that plays in the Premier League. Founded as Newton Heath LYR Football Club in 1878, the club changed its name to Manchester United in 1902 and moved to Old Trafford in 1910.The 1958...

 who opened their first executive box in 1965 and hence began the modern corporatisation of sport.

Kersal remained a rural area until about 1840 when the Clowes family, who owned most of the land in the area, began to sell it off for development, and merchants and manufacturers began to build their mansions in the green fields of Higher Broughton
Broughton, Greater Manchester
Broughton is an inner city area of Salford, in Greater Manchester, England. It lies on the east bank of the River Irwell and A56 road, in the northeastern part of the City of Salford, north-northwest of Manchester city centre and south of Prestwich. Broughton consists of Broughton Park, Higher...

 and Kersal. In keeping with their own ideas of social engineering they imposed strict covenants on how the land was used, reserving the higher ground for more well-to-do residents and the lower ground for workers' cottages. The number of public house
Public house
A public house, informally known as a pub, is a drinking establishment fundamental to the culture of Britain, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand. There are approximately 53,500 public houses in the United Kingdom. This number has been declining every year, so that nearly half of the smaller...

s was severely restricted and then, only beer houses that didn't sell spirits were allowed. Singleton Road and Moor Lane were the only roads connecting Bury Old Road and Bolton Road and there was a toll bar on the corner of Bury Old Road. When Bury New Road was built in 1831 a gate or bar was erected and travellers had to pay a toll to the turnpike trust
Turnpike trust
Turnpike trusts in the United Kingdom were bodies set up by individual Acts of Parliament, with powers to collect road tolls for maintaining the principal highways in Britain from the 17th but especially during the 18th and 19th centuries...

 to pass through. A toll house
Toll house
A tollhouse or toll house is a building with accommodation for a toll collector, beside a tollgate on a toll road or canal. Many tollhouses were built by turnpike trusts in England, Wales and Scotland during the 18th and early 19th centuries...

 was erected on Bury New Road with a bay window projecting out so that the toll collector had a clear view of the road. By 1848 the local authority had taken over the road, the tolls were abolished and the toll collector's house became a newsagent
Newsagent
A newsagent's shop , newsagency or newsstand is a business that sells newspapers, magazines, cigarettes, snacks and often items of local interest. In Britain and Australia, these businesses are termed newsagents...

's. This was the only shop in an area where the landowner's restrictive covenants prevented commercial development. The exterior of the house remains largely unchanged to this day, although it was renovated in 2007 with a two-storey extension being added to the rear. The Toll House is now a Grade II listed building.

In the 1930s a large council estate was built to the east of Littleton Road. Twelve high-rise tower blocks, known as Kersal flats, were constructed for Salford Council in the 1960s. Eight of these were demolished in 1990. The other blocks were sold to private developers to renovate for private sale. The Housing Act 1980
Housing Act 1980
The Housing Act 1980 was an Act of Parliament passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom that gave five million council house tenants in England and Wales the Right to Buy their house from their local authority. The Act came into force on the 3 October 1980 and is seen as a defining policy of...

 gave tenants the right to buy
Right to buy scheme
The Right to buy scheme is a policy in the United Kingdom which gives tenants of council housing the right to buy the home they are living in. Currently, there is also a right to acquire for the tenants of housing associations...

. Since then much of the council estate has been sold to sitting tenants
Leasehold estate
A leasehold estate is an ownership of a temporary right to land or property in which a lessee or a tenant holds rights of real property by some form of title from a lessor or landlord....

 and by 2001 almost 47% of homes in the Kersal Ward were in owner-occupation.

Governance


Kersal was originally a hamlet
Hamlet
The Tragical History of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, or more simply Hamlet, is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1599 and 1601...

 in the township
Township (England)
In England, a township is a local division or district of a large parish containing a village or small town usually having its own church...

 of Broughton
Broughton, Greater Manchester
Broughton is an inner city area of Salford, in Greater Manchester, England. It lies on the east bank of the River Irwell and A56 road, in the northeastern part of the City of Salford, north-northwest of Manchester city centre and south of Prestwich. Broughton consists of Broughton Park, Higher...

. In 1853 the township amalgamated with Salford
County Borough of Salford
Salford was, from 1844 to 1974, a local government district in the northwest of England, coterminate with Salford. It was granted city status in 1926.-Free Borough and Police Commissioners:...

 despite opposition from some of its more wealthy residents, who didn't wish to "assimilate the cotton of Manchester or the filth of Salford". Kersal is now a ward of the city of Salford. In 2007 there were three Labour councillors, Anne-Marie Humphreys, Peter Connors and George Wilson.

Geography


Kersal is bounded on the north by Singleton Brook, which defines the border with Prestwich
Prestwich
Prestwich is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Bury, in Greater Manchester, England. It lies close to the River Irwell, north of Manchester city centre, north of Salford and south of Bury....

, on the south and west by the River Irwell
River Irwell
The River Irwell is a long river which flows through the Irwell Valley in the counties of Lancashire and Greater Manchester in North West England. The river's source is at Irwell Springs on Deerplay Moor, approximately north of Bacup, in the parish of Cliviger, Lancashire...

 and on the east by Broughton
Broughton, Greater Manchester
Broughton is an inner city area of Salford, in Greater Manchester, England. It lies on the east bank of the River Irwell and A56 road, in the northeastern part of the City of Salford, north-northwest of Manchester city centre and south of Prestwich. Broughton consists of Broughton Park, Higher...

, although the exact position of the border with Broughton
Broughton, Greater Manchester
Broughton is an inner city area of Salford, in Greater Manchester, England. It lies on the east bank of the River Irwell and A56 road, in the northeastern part of the City of Salford, north-northwest of Manchester city centre and south of Prestwich. Broughton consists of Broughton Park, Higher...

 is difficult to determine. The west and south of the district lie in the flood-plain of the River Irwell, and consequently have historically been subject to flooding. Serious floods were documented in 1866, 1946, 1954 and 1980. The River Irwell Flood Defence Scheme, officially opened in 2005, uses levees and the playing fields alongside the river as an emergency water catchment area to alleviate this problem.

The land in the north east rises steeply before flattening out into a series of rolling hills. At one time it was a pastoral area (said to be of 100 acre (0.404686 km²)) known as Kersal Woods or Kersal Moor
Kersal Moor
Kersal Moor is a recreation area in Kersal, within the City of Salford, in Greater Manchester, England, consisting of eight hectares of moorland, bounded by Moor Lane, Heathlands Road, St...

. Much of it has now been developed for residential purposes or as a football ground, and the open land known today as Kersal Moor comprises an area of only 12 acre (0.04856232 km²).

Demography


The total population of Kersal Ward in the 2001 census was 11,940 with 94.6% of people describing themselves as white, 1.88% Chinese, 1.6% Asian or British Asian, 1.31% Black and 0.85% mixed. The area is predominately residential.

The religious mix is mainly Christian
Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

 and Jewish with 40.53% of the population describing themselves as Christian and 33.71% as Jewish. 1.79% describe themselves as Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

 with none of the other faiths exceeding 1%.

Religion



Churches in Kersal include the Anglican St. Paul's Church on Moor Lane, built at the instigation of Colonel William Legh Clowes and Miss Atherton of Kersal Cell "for the benefit of the poor of Rainscow" (Rainsough — a hamlet just across the border in Prestwich
Prestwich
Prestwich is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Bury, in Greater Manchester, England. It lies close to the River Irwell, north of Manchester city centre, north of Salford and south of Bury....

) in 1851–1852.

The only church in Lower Kersal is the Anglican St Aidan's on Littleton Road, a brick-built church opened in 1972 which seats about 120 people.

There is also the Roman Catholic church Our Lady of Dolours, on Bury New Road served by Servite Friars and known locally as "the Servite". The building adjacent to the church at number 500 Bury New Road, now used as the Servite Priory
Priory
A priory is a house of men or women under religious vows that is headed by a prior or prioress. Priories may be houses of mendicant friars or religious sisters , or monasteries of monks or nuns .The Benedictines and their offshoots , the Premonstratensians, and the...

 for the church, was originally the Greek
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

 Consulate and still has many Greek motifs adorning its internal decor.

The former Catholic Chaplaincy at St Philip's Church on Northallerton Road, Lower Kersal, is now home to the "Just Youth" ministry of the Holy Ghost Fathers
Holy Ghost Fathers
The Congregation of the Holy Spirit is a Roman Catholic congregation of priests, lay brothers, and since Vatican II, lay associates...

.

There are convents of the Roman Catholic Sisters of the Cross and Passion
Sisters of the Cross and Passion
Sisters of the Cross and Passion is a Roman Catholic religious order founded in nineteenth-century Manchester, England, by Elizabeth Prout, later called Mother Mary Joseph. It is part of the larger Passionist movement.-External links:**...

 on Bury New Road and Faithful Companions of Jesus
Faithful Companions of Jesus
The Faithful Companions of Jesus Sisters was founded in Amiens in France in 1820 by Marie Madeleine de Bonnault d'Hoüet. They are a Christian religious order of the Roman Catholic Church in direct service to the Pope.-Service:...

 on Singleton Road, and there was also a closed order of nuns at a Carmelite Convent
Convent
A convent is either a community of priests, religious brothers, religious sisters, or nuns, or the building used by the community, particularly in the Roman Catholic Church and in the Anglican Communion...

 on Vine Street for many years.

Synagogue
Synagogue
A synagogue is a Jewish house of prayer. This use of the Greek term synagogue originates in the Septuagint where it sometimes translates the Hebrew word for assembly, kahal...

s in Kersal include the Spanish & Portuguese Synagogue (Shaare Tephillah), founded in 1873, and North Salford Synagogue. Greater Manchester has the largest Jewish community in the United Kingdom outside London and Kersal, along with Higher Broughton, Prestwich
Prestwich
Prestwich is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Bury, in Greater Manchester, England. It lies close to the River Irwell, north of Manchester city centre, north of Salford and south of Bury....

, and Whitefield
Whitefield, Greater Manchester
Whitefield is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Bury, in Greater Manchester, England. It lies on undulating ground in the Irwell Valley, along the south bank of the River Irwell, south-southeast of Bury, and to the north-northwest of the city of Manchester...

, is home to most of the Orthodox Jewish community.

Education


There are three schools serving the area, St Philip's Roman Catholic Primary School on Cavendish Road, Lower Kersal Community Primary School on St. Aidan's Grove, off Littleton Road and St. Paul's Church of England Primary School on Nevile Road which replaced a school of the same name built in the 19th century on Kersal Moor
Kersal Moor
Kersal Moor is a recreation area in Kersal, within the City of Salford, in Greater Manchester, England, consisting of eight hectares of moorland, bounded by Moor Lane, Heathlands Road, St...

 and demolished in the 20th century. There was also a high school
High school
High school is a term used in parts of the English speaking world to describe institutions which provide all or part of secondary education. The term is often incorporated into the name of such institutions....

 off Moor Lane on Mesnefield Road, Kersal High School, which was replaced in 2003 with the Albion High School, based on Lissadel Street, Charlestown. Kersal High School was demolished in 2006 and its site used for housing.

Health


The mortality rate in Lower Kersal and Charlestown is more than twice the national average and approximately one third of the population has a chronic illness. Although 52 General Practitioner
General practitioner
A general practitioner is a medical practitioner who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education for all ages and both sexes. They have particular skills in treating people with multiple health issues and comorbidities...

s serve the area, only three are located within it and there is just one pharmacy and one part-time dentist. New Deal for Communities (NDC) is a programme that is part of the Government strategy to regenerate deprived neighbourhoods in England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

. The two neighbourhoods covered by the Salford NDC are Charlestown and Lower Kersal. A grant of £53m has been awarded to the area and a 10-year plan developed. It focuses on health, crime, education and employment, young people, building communities and the physical environment. Plans for new health services in Kersal, including two GP practices, a pharmacy, a healthy living project, children and young people's health services and community health services, were implemented with the opening of the Horizon Centre, part of the Willow Tree Healthy Living Centre, at 94 Littleton Road in 2007.

Sports


The Salford City Football Club ("The Ammies")
Salford City F.C.
Salford City F.C. are a semi-professional football club based in the Kersal area of Salford, Greater Manchester, England. They are the only semi-professional side in the City of Salford, with Manchester United the closest league club. Salford City currently play in the Northern Premier League...

 is based at the Moor Lane ground in Kersal. The club, founded in 1940, moved into this historic ground in 1978, a location with a sporting legacy which includes horse racing, golf, cricket, rugby union, rugby league, tennis and archery, going back as far as 1681.

Horse racing moved from Kersal Moor to a new racecourse at Castle Irwell, just across the River Irwell
River Irwell
The River Irwell is a long river which flows through the Irwell Valley in the counties of Lancashire and Greater Manchester in North West England. The river's source is at Irwell Springs on Deerplay Moor, approximately north of Bacup, in the parish of Cliviger, Lancashire...

 from Kersal, in 1847. In 1867 it was moved to New Barnes, Weaste
Weaste
Weaste is an inner city area of Salford, in Greater Manchester, England. It is an industrial area, with many industrial estates. The A57 road passes through Weaste, which lies close to the M602 motorway...

 but the site had to be vacated in 1901 when Salford Docks expanded and built its Dock 9. Castle Irwell later staged a Classic – the 1941 St. Leger Stakes
St. Leger Stakes
The St. Leger Stakes is a Group 1 flat horse race in Great Britain which is open to three-year-old thoroughbred colts and fillies. It is run at Doncaster over a distance of 1 mile, 6 furlongs and 132 yards , and it is scheduled to take place each year in September.Established in 1776, the St. Leger...

, and was most famous as home of the Lancashire Oaks
Lancashire Oaks
The Lancashire Oaks is a Group 2 flat horse race in Great Britain open to thoroughbred fillies and mares aged three years or older. It is run at Haydock Park over a distance of 1 mile, 3 furlongs and 200 yards , and it is scheduled to take place each year in early July.-History:The event was...

 (nowadays run at Haydock Park Racecourse
Haydock Park Racecourse
Haydock Park Racecourse is a racecourse in Haydock, Merseyside, England. The track is a mostly flat left-handed oval of around 1 mile 5 furlongs with a very slight rise on the run-in. There are courses for flat racing and National Hunt racing...

) and the November Handicap
November Handicap
The November Handicap is a flat horse race in Great Britain which is open to thoroughbreds aged three years or older. It is run at Doncaster over a distance of 1 mile and 4 furlongs , and it is scheduled to take place each year in early November....

, which was traditionally the last major race of the British flat season. Both the Castle Irwell and New Barnes sites were named "the Manchester Racecourse" even though they were entirely within the borders of Salford. Through the late 1950s and early 1960s the track saw jockeys such as Scobie Breasley
Scobie Breasley
Arthur Edward "Scobie" Breasley was an Australian jockey. He won the Caulfield Cup in Melbourne five times: 1942-45 consecutively on Tranquil Star, Skipton, Counsel and St Fairy; then on Peshawar in 1952...

 and Lester Piggott
Lester Piggott
Lester Keith Piggott is a retired English professional jockey, popularly known as "The Long Fellow". With 4,493 career wins, including nine Epsom Derby victories, he is one of the most well-known English flat racing jockeys of all time....

 annually battle out the closing acts of the jockey's title until racing ceased on 7 November 1963. The intention was to sell the land, apart from 4.5 acres (18,210.9 m²), to a property development company. Both the City Council and the Royal Technical College objected and their objections were upheld at a Public Enquiry
Public inquiry
A Tribunal of Inquiry is an official review of events or actions ordered by a government body in Common Law countries such as the United Kingdom, Ireland or Canada. Such a public inquiry differs from a Royal Commission in that a public inquiry accepts evidence and conducts its hearings in a more...

 two years later. The main stand at Castle Irwell was designed by local architect Ernst Atherton and was the first stand at any sports venue in the UK to include private boxes, the idea having later been copied by Manchester United and then made commonplace throughout the country. The structure still survives as a Students' Union
Students' union
A students' union, student government, student senate, students' association, guild of students or government of student body is a student organization present in many colleges and universities, and has started appearing in some high schools...

 building; and in the early 1970s the majority of the site was used to build a student village for the University of Salford
University of Salford
The University of Salford is a campus university based in Salford, Greater Manchester, England with approximately 20,000 registered students. The main campus is about west of Manchester city centre, on the A6, opposite the former home of the physicist, James Prescott Joule and the Working Class...

, the first student houses opening in October 1972.

Kersal's long association with sport continues with the building of Salford Sports Village, a major sports facility centred on Littleton Road which opened in March 2006. This facility is a £4.7m flagship project for the Charlestown
Pendleton, Greater Manchester
Pendleton is an inner city area of Salford, Greater Manchester, England. It is about from Manchester city centre. The A6 dual carriageway skirts the east of the district....

 and Lower Kersal New Deal for Communities Partnership, Salford Community Leisure and Manchester Football Association. The football facilities include mini, junior and adult grass pitches, a third generation artificial floodlit pitch, a 60 metre x 40 metre artificial pitch, 18 adult grass pitches and players and officials changing rooms. There is also a community suite with a meeting room/social facility with catering facilities, office accommodation training room and an ICT
Information technology
Information technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications...

 suite.

The Riverbank Park, a neighbourhood park and children's play area, opened next to the Sports Village in 2007.

Community facilities


Kersal Dale Country Park occupies about 32 hectares of countryside straddling a large meander of the River Irwell
River Irwell
The River Irwell is a long river which flows through the Irwell Valley in the counties of Lancashire and Greater Manchester in North West England. The river's source is at Irwell Springs on Deerplay Moor, approximately north of Bacup, in the parish of Cliviger, Lancashire...

 to the east of Kersal. Approximately half of the park is beech
Beech
Beech is a genus of ten species of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe, Asia and North America.-Habit:...

 woodland on the side of the Irwell Valley and half is flat land on the flood-plain of the river, which occupies part of the area formerly taken up by the Irwell Castle Racecourse and Kersal Links golf course. The park is designated as a "Local Nature Reserve
Local Nature Reserve
Local nature reserve or LNR is a designation for nature reserves in the United Kingdom. The designation has its origin in the recommendations of the Wild Life Conservation Special Committee which established the framework for nature conservation in the United Kingdom and suggested a national suite...

"
(LNR
LNR
LNR may refer to:* Aeronca L-3, a World War II aircraft also known by the designation LNR* Ligue nationale de rugby, the organization that operates the two professional rugby union leagues in France* Liquid natural rubber, another name for latex...

). The Salford Ranger Team organise environmental walks and talks, educational programmes for schools and other activities. There is also a permanent orienteering
Orienteering
Orienteering is a family of sports that requires navigational skills using a map and compass to navigate from point to point in diverse and usually unfamiliar terrain, and normally moving at speed. Participants are given a topographical map, usually a specially prepared orienteering map, which they...

 course.

Kersal Moor is an eight hectare recreation ground to the north of Kersal which consists of open moorland
Moorland
Moorland or moor is a type of habitat, in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome, found in upland areas, characterised by low-growing vegetation on acidic soils and heavy fog...

 popular with dog walkers and schools. Kersal Moor
Kersal Moor
Kersal Moor is a recreation area in Kersal, within the City of Salford, in Greater Manchester, England, consisting of eight hectares of moorland, bounded by Moor Lane, Heathlands Road, St...

 is designated as a Site of Biological Importance
Site of Biological Importance
A Site of Biological Importance is one of the non-statutory designations used locally by the Greater Manchester, Cheshire and Staffordshire County Councils in England to protect locally valued sites of biological diversity which are described generally as Local Wildlife Sites by the UK Government...

 and a Local Nature Reserve
Local Nature Reserve
Local nature reserve or LNR is a designation for nature reserves in the United Kingdom. The designation has its origin in the recommendations of the Wild Life Conservation Special Committee which established the framework for nature conservation in the United Kingdom and suggested a national suite...

 (LNR
LNR
LNR may refer to:* Aeronca L-3, a World War II aircraft also known by the designation LNR* Ligue nationale de rugby, the organization that operates the two professional rugby union leagues in France* Liquid natural rubber, another name for latex...

).

The Lower Kersal Activities Centre, Northallerton Road, Lower Kersal,
runs a variety of community activities for different age groups, including holiday play schemes. Salford College also runs community courses for over 16s at the centre.

There is a sports and social club The Lower Kersal Social Club on Stamford Road.

The Community Groups' Network gives local community groups, residents' groups and volunteers in Charlestown and Lower Kersal the chance to meet and share information.

The Lower Kersal Young People's Group is a Greater Manchester youth network.

The Y-Talk Website has been designed with, and for, young people in Charlestown and Kersal. The site is produced and managed by Salford Youth Service.

Industry


A soap factory was established in Kersal Vale, by the side of the Irwell
River Irwell
The River Irwell is a long river which flows through the Irwell Valley in the counties of Lancashire and Greater Manchester in North West England. The river's source is at Irwell Springs on Deerplay Moor, approximately north of Bacup, in the parish of Cliviger, Lancashire...

 on the border with Prestwich
Prestwich
Prestwich is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Bury, in Greater Manchester, England. It lies close to the River Irwell, north of Manchester city centre, north of Salford and south of Bury....

 in 1920 by Alexander Tom Cussons
Alexander Tom Cussons
Alexander Tom Cussons . Born in Holbeck, Leeds, England to Thomas Tomlinson Cussons and his wife Elizabeth Cussons . Alexander was the Chairman of Cussons Sons & Co, maker of the brand Cussons Imperial Leather and other toiletries.-Career:Tom Cussons was apprenticed in the town of Ossett...

. The factory produced the famous brands of Carex, Cussons Imperial Leather and Morning Fresh but was factory closed down in 2009 and was demolished in 2010.

Future plans


The Charlestown and Lower Kersal New Deal for Communities has made many improvements to the area including the sports village and improvements to housing and the local environment. There is much work yet to be done, including the demolition of old housing stock to make way for new development. The New Deal Team is working closely with Salford City Council, partner agencies and a network of well-established community groups with their stated aim being to "make sure that the area can become a prosperous and thriving part of Salford." The plans have not been universally welcomed and action groups have been formed to protest at the perceived lack of consultation and the threat to existing homes.

Notable residents

  • John Byrom
    John Byrom
    John Byrom or John Byrom of Kersal or John Byrom of Manchester FRS was an English poet and inventor of a revolutionary system of shorthand. He is also remembered as the writer of the lyrics of Anglican hymn Christians Awake, salute the happy morn.- Early life :John Byrom was descended from an old...

     (1692–1763), hymn writer
  • Edward Schunck
    Edward Schunck
    Henry Edward Schunck was a British chemist who did much work with dyes.-Early life and education:Henry Edward Schunck was born in Manchester, the son of Martin Schunck, a German merchant. He started studying chemistry in Manchester with William Henry...

      (1829–1903), organic chemist
  • Annie Swynnerton
    Annie Swynnerton
    Annie Louisa Robinson Swynnerton was an English painter.She was born in Kersal, then a suburb of Manchester. She was one of the seven daughters of solicitor Francis Robinson; she began painting to contribute to the family's support. Later she trained at the Manchester School of Art and the...

    (1844–1933), artist

External links