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Kermanshah Province

Kermanshah Province

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Kermanshah Province is one of the 31 provinces
Provinces of Iran
Iran is subdivided into thirty one provinces , each governed from a local center, usually the largest local city, which is called the capital of that province...

 of Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

. The province was known from 1969 to 1986 as Kermanshahan and from 1986 to 1995 as Bakhtaran.

Counties


Kemanshah consists of 14 shahrestans (counties): Dalaho County
Dalaho County
Dalahu County is a county in Kermanshah Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Kerend-e Gharb. It was separated from Eslamabad-e Gharb County in 2004. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 42,310, in 9,665 families. The county is subdivided into two districts: the Central...

; Gilan-e-gharb County
Gilan-e-gharb County
Gilan-e Gharb County is a county in Kermanshah Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Gilan-e Gharb. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 60,671, in 13,452 families. The county is subdivided into two districts: the Central District and Govar District...

; Harsin County
Harsin County
Harsin County is a county in Kermanshah Province in western Iran. The capital of the county is Harsin. The county is bounded to the north by Sahneh County, to the south by Khorramabad County in Lorestan Province, to the east by Nahavand County in Hamadan Province and to the west by Kermanshah...

; Islamabad-e-gharb County
Islamabad-e-gharb County
Eslamabad-e Gharb County is a county in Kermanshah Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Eslamabad-e Gharb. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 149,376, in 34,270 families. The county is subdivided into two districts: the Central District and Homeyl District...

; Javanrud County
Javanrud County
Javanrud County is a county in Kermanshah Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Javanrud. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 62,259, in 13,629 families. The county is subdivided into two districts: the Central District and Kalashi District...

; Kangavar County
Kangavar County
Kangavar County is a county in Kermanshah Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Kangavar. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 80,215, in 19,825 families. The county has one district: the Central District. The county has one city: Kangavar.- References :* اطلس گیتاشناسی...

; Kermanshah County
Kermanshah County
Kermanshah County is a county in Kermanshah Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Kermanshah. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 950,400, in 235,408 families. The county is subdivided into four districts: the Central District, Kuzaran District, Mahidasht District, and...

; Paveh County
Paveh County
Paveh County is a county in Kermanshah Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Paveh. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 51,755, in 13,309 families. The county is subdivided into three districts: the Central District, Bayangan District, and Nowsud District...

; Qasr-e-Shirin County
Qasr-e-Shirin County
Qasr-e-Shirin County is a county in Kermanshah Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Qasr-e Shirin. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 19,821, in 4,999 families. The county is subdivided into two districts: the Central District and Sumar District...

; Ravansar county
Ravansar county
Ravansar county is a county in Kermanshah Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Ravansar. It was separated from Javanrud County in 2004. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 44,983, in 10,012 families. The county is subdivided into two districts: the Central District and Shahu...

; Sahneh County
Sahneh County
Sahneh County is a county in Kermanshah Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Sahneh. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 75,827, in 19,106 families. The county is subdivided into two districts: the Central District and Dinavar District...

; Sarpol-e-Zahab County
Sarpol-e-Zahab County
Sarpol-e Zahab County is a county in Kermanshah Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Sarpol-e Zahab. The inhabitants speak Jafi variant of the Sorani dialect of Kurdish. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 81,428, in 18,233 families. The county has one district: the Central...

; Solas-e-Babajani County
Solas-e-Babajani County
Salas-e Babajani County is a county in Kermanshah Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Tazehabad. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 37,056, in 7,734 families. The county is subdivided into two districts: the Central District and Ozgoleh District...

; Sonqor County
Sonqor County
Sonqor County is a county in Kermanshah Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Sonqor. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 95,904, in 23,755 families. The county is subdivided into two districts: the Central District and Kolyai District...

.

Major cities and towns in Kermanshah Province:
Kermanshah
Kermanshah
Kermanshah is a city in and the capital of Kermanshah Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 784,602, in 198,117 families.The overwhelming majority of Kermanshahi people are Shi'a Muslims...

; Eslamabad-e Gharb
Eslamabad-e Gharb
Eslamabad-e Gharb is a city in and the capital of Eslamabad-e Gharb County, Kermanshah Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 89,430, in 20,956 families....

; Paveh
Paveh
Paveh is a city in and the capital of Paveh County, Kermanshah Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 19,774, in 5,171 families....

; Harsin
Harsin
Harsin is a city in and the capital of Harsin County, Kermanshah Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 51,562, in 12,001 families. Harsin is situated 44 km east of Kermanshah, and lies above sea level.-External links:*...

; Kangavar; Sonqor
Sonqor
Sonqor is a city in and the capital of Sonqor County, Kermanshah Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 43,184, in 11,377 families.-Situation and History:The town contains the Ilkhanate Malek Tomb....

; Javanrood; Salas-e-babajani; Ravansar
Ravansar
-See also:*Dekhmeh Rawansar*Khanileh*Jaff tribe*Ardalan*Javanroud*Paveh...

; Dalahoo; Gilan-Gharb; Sahneh
Sahneh
Sahneh is a city in and the capital of Sahneh County, Kermanshah Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 34,133, in 8,861 families....

; Qasr-e Shirin; Sarpol-e-Zahab.

Capital


The province's capital is Kermanshah
Kermanshah
Kermanshah is a city in and the capital of Kermanshah Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 784,602, in 198,117 families.The overwhelming majority of Kermanshahi people are Shi'a Muslims...

 (34°18′N 47°4′E), located in the middle of the western part of Iran. The population of the city is 822,921.

The city is built on the slopes of Mt.Sefid Kooh
Sefid Kooh
Sefid-Kooh is a mountain ten km to the south of Kermanshah, Iran. Its highest peak is 2805 above sea level. The watershed of the mountain is the separating line between two districts of Kermanshah, ie Dorood-Faraman and Sarfiroozabad of Mahidasht....

 and extended toward south during last two decades. The builtup areas run alongside Sarab River and Valley. City's elevation average about 1350 meters above sea level.

The distance between Kermanshah and Teheran is 525 km. It is the trade center of rich agricultural region that produces grain, rice, vegetable, fruits, and oilseeds, and there are many industrial centers, oil and sugar refineries, and cement, textile and flour factories, etc. The airport (Shahid Ashrafi Esfahani Airport) is located in north east of the city, and the distance from Tehran is 413 km by air.

History


The province has a rich Paleolithic heritage. Many caves with Paleolithic
Paleolithic
The Paleolithic Age, Era or Period, is a prehistoric period of human history distinguished by the development of the most primitive stone tools discovered , and covers roughly 99% of human technological prehistory...

 remains have been surveyed or excavated there. some of these cave sites are located in Bisetun and north of Kermanshah. The first known physical remains of Neanderthal man in Iran was discovered in Bisetun cave. Do-Ashkaft, Kobeh, Warwasi, and Mar Tarik are some of the Middle Paleolithic
Middle Paleolithic
The Middle Paleolithic is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. The term Middle Stone Age is used as an equivalent or a synonym for the Middle Paleolithic in African archeology. The Middle Paleolithic and the Middle Stone Age...

 sites in the region. Kermanshah
Kermanshah
Kermanshah is a city in and the capital of Kermanshah Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 784,602, in 198,117 families.The overwhelming majority of Kermanshahi people are Shi'a Muslims...

 also has many Neolithic
Neolithic
The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 9500 BC in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world. It is traditionally considered as the last part of the Stone Age...

 sites, of which the most famous are Ganj Dareh
Ganj Dareh
Ganj Dareh is a Neolithic settlement in the Iranian Kurdistan portion of Iran...

, Sarab, and Asiab. At Ganj Dareh, the earliest evidence for goat
Goat
The domestic goat is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe. The goat is a member of the Bovidae family and is closely related to the sheep as both are in the goat-antelope subfamily Caprinae. There are over three hundred distinct breeds of...

 domestication
Domestication
Domestication or taming is the process whereby a population of animals or plants, through a process of selection, becomes accustomed to human provision and control. In the Convention on Biological Diversity a domesticated species is defined as a 'species in which the evolutionary process has been...

 have been documented. In May 2009, based on a research conducted by the University of Hamedan and UCL
University College London
University College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and the oldest and largest constituent college of the federal University of London...

, the head of Archeology Research Center of Iran's Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization announced that the oldest prehistoric village in the Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

 dating back to 9800 B.C., was discovered in Sahneh
Sahneh County
Sahneh County is a county in Kermanshah Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Sahneh. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 75,827, in 19,106 families. The county is subdivided into two districts: the Central District and Dinavar District...

, located in west of Kermanshah.

The monuments found in Kermanshah show two glorious periods, the Achaemenid and Sassanid eras. The mythical ruler of the Pishdadian is described as founding the city while Tahmores Divband built it. An alternative narrative is that the construction was by Bahram IV of the Sassanid dynasty during the 4th century CE. Kermanshah reached a peak during the reign of Hormizd IV
Hormizd IV
Hormizd IV, son of Khosrau I, reigned as the twenty-first King of Persia from 579 to 590.He seems to have been imperious and violent, but not without some kindness of heart. Some very characteristic stories are told of him by Tabari. His father's sympathies had been with the nobles and the priests...

 and Khosrau I
Khosrau I
Khosrau I , also known as Anushiravan the Just or Anushirawan the Just Khosrau I (also called Chosroes I in classical sources, most commonly known in Persian as Anushirvan or Anushirwan, Persian: انوشيروان meaning the immortal soul), also known as Anushiravan the Just or Anushirawan the Just...

 of Sassanids, before being demoted to a secondary royal residence.

The city suffered major damage during the Arab invasions but recovered in the Safavid period to make great progress. Concurrent with the Afghan attack and the fall of Isfahan
Isfahan (city)
Isfahan , historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about 340 km south of Tehran. It has a population of 1,583,609, Iran's third largest city after Tehran and Mashhad...

, Kermanshah was almost comletely destroyed by the Ottoman
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 invasion.

During the Iran–Iraq War the province suffered heavy fighting. Most towns and cities were badly damaged and some like Sar-e Pol-e Zahab and Qhasr-e-Shirin were almost completely destroyed.


Climate


As it is situated between two cold and warm regions enjoys a moderate climate. Kermanshah has a moderate and mountainous climate. It rains most in winter and is moderately warm in summer. The annual rainfall is 500 mm. The average temperature in the hottest months is above 22 °C.

Higher education and research

  1. Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences
  2. Razi University
    Razi University
    Razi University is a university based in Kermanshah, Iran.It is also a centre of CFD , Membrane Research, and Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in the west of Iran....

  3. Islamic Azad University of Kermanshah http://www.iauksh.ac.ir/en.aspx

Local products


Kermanshah lends its name to a type of Persian carpet named after the region. It also has famous sweets made of rice, locally known as Nân berendji. The other famous Kermanshahi good is a special kind of oil, locally known as Rüne Dân and globally in Iran known as Roghan Kermanshahi. The Giveh
Giveh
Giveh, prnounced /gi:ve/ in Persian or /gi:wæ/ in Kurdish, is a kind of soft, comfortable, durable and handwoven-top shoe common in several parts of Iran especially in rural and mountainous areas of Kermanshah Province. The production centers of Giveh in Kermanshah Province are Paveh, Harsin, and...

 of Kermanshah known as Klash is the highest quality Giveh.

Historical attractions


Various attractions exist that date from the pre-Islamic era, such as the Kohneh Bridge, to contemporary parks and museums. Some of the more popular sites are:
  • Bisotun
    Bisotun
    Bisotun is a city in and the capital of Bisotun District, in Harsin County, Kermanshah Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 2,075, in 527 families....

    :
Darius the Great's inscription at Bisotun, which dates to 522 BCE, lies some 1300 meters high in the mountains, and counts as one of the most famous sites in Near Eastern archeology. The site is a UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

, and has been attracting visitors for centuries. The Behistun inscription is to Old Persian cuneiform what the Rosetta Stone
Rosetta Stone
The Rosetta Stone is an ancient Egyptian granodiorite stele inscribed with a decree issued at Memphis in 196 BC on behalf of King Ptolemy V. The decree appears in three scripts: the upper text is Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, the middle portion Demotic script, and the lowest Ancient Greek...

 is to Egyptian hieroglyphs: the trilingual inscription (in Old Persian, Elamite and Akkadian
Akkadian language
Akkadian is an extinct Semitic language that was spoken in ancient Mesopotamia. The earliest attested Semitic language, it used the cuneiform writing system derived ultimately from ancient Sumerian, an unrelated language isolate...

) was crucial in the decipherment of the script. The relief above the inscription depicts Darius facing nine rebels who objected to his crowning. At the king's feet lies Gaumata. The location of this important historical document is not coincidental: Gaumata, a usurper who is depicted as lying at Darius' feet, was a Medean and in Achaemenid times Behistun lay on the Medea-Parsa highway.


Behistun is also notable for three reliefs at the foot of the hill that date from the Parthian era. Among them is a Hellenistic-era depiction of the divinity Bahram
Vahram
Verethragna is an Avestan language neuter noun literally meaning "smiting of resistance" . Representing this concept is the divinity Verethragna, who is the hypostasis of "victory", and "as a giver of victory Verethragna plainly enjoyed the greatest popularity of old" .The neuter noun verethragna...

 as the Greek hero Hercules, who reclines with a goblet in his hand, a club at his feet and a lion-skin beneath him. Because it lies on the route of an ancient highway, this life-size rock sculpture may reflect Bahram's status as patron divinity of travelers.

  • Taq-e Bostan
    Taq-e Bostan
    Taqwasân or Taq-e Bostan or Taq-i-Bustan is a series of large rock relief from the era of Sassanid Empire of Persia, the Iranian dynasty which ruled western Asia from 226 to 650 AD. This example of Sassanid art is located 5 km from the city center of Kermanshah in western Iran...

    :
The rock reliefs at Taq-e Bostan lie four miles northeast of Kermanshah, where a spring gushes from a mountain cliff and empties into a large reflecting pool. One of the more impressive reliefs, inside the largest grotto (ivan), is the oversized depiction of Sassanid king Khosrau II
Khosrau II
250px|thumb|Khosrau II 250px|thumb|Khosrau II 250px|thumb|Khosrau II (Khosrow II, Chosroes II, or Xosrov II in classical sources, sometimes called Parvez, "the Ever Victorious" – (in Persian: خسرو پرویز), was the twenty-second Sassanid King of Persia, reigning from 590 to 628...

 (591-628 CE), who appears mounted on his favorite charger, Shabdiz. Both the horse and the rider are arrayed in full battle armor.
There are two hunting scenes on complementary sides of the ivan: one depicts an imperial boar hunt and the other depicting the king stalking deer. Elephants flush out the boar from a marshy lake for the king who stands poised with bow and arrow in hand while he is serenaded by female musicians following in other boats. These royal hunting scenes are narrative murals in stone are count among the most vivid of all Iranian rock reliefs.
The Taq-e Bostan reliefs are not limited to the Sassanid era. An upper relief depicts the 19th century Qajar king Fath-Ali shah holding court.


  • The Kangavar archaeological complex:
Kangavar is the site of the archaeological remains of a vast Hellenic-style edifice on a raised platform. The visible remains at the site date to early Sassanid times, but the platform of the complex may be several centuries older. By the time excavation began in 1968, the complex had been preemptorily associated with a comment by Isidore of Charax
Isidore of Charax
Isidorus Characenus , commonly translated Isidore of Charax, was a geographer of the 1st century BC/1st century AD about whom nothing is known but his name and that he wrote at least one work....

 who referred to a temple of Anahita
Anahita
Anahita is the Old Persian form of the name of an Iranian goddess and appears in complete and earlier form as ' ; the Avestan language name of an Indo-Iranian cosmological figure venerated as the divinity of 'the Waters' and hence associated with fertility, healing and wisdom...

 at Concobar (the Greek name of Kangavar, which was then in Lower Medea
Medes
The MedesThe Medes...

). Despite archaeological findings to the contrary, the association with the divinity of fertility, healing, and wisdom has made the site a popular tourist attraction. The vast edifice was built of enormous blocks of dressed stone with an imposing entrance of opposed staircases that may have been inspired by the Apadana in Persepolis
Persepolis
Perspolis was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire . Persepolis is situated northeast of the modern city of Shiraz in the Fars Province of modern Iran. In contemporary Persian, the site is known as Takht-e Jamshid...

.

Notable people


One of the renowned scientists and writers of this region is Al-Dinawari
Al-Dinawari
Ābu Ḥanīfah Āḥmad ibn Dawūd Dīnawarī was a Persian polymath excelling as much in astronomy, agriculture, botany and metallurgy and as he did in geography, mathematics and history. He was born in Dinawar, . He studied astronomy, mathematics and mechanics in Isfahan and philology and poetry in...

 who was born at Dinawar north-east of Kermanshah
Kermanshah
Kermanshah is a city in and the capital of Kermanshah Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 784,602, in 198,117 families.The overwhelming majority of Kermanshahi people are Shi'a Muslims...

. He lived in 9th century and has written many books in astronomy
Astronomy
Astronomy is a natural science that deals with the study of celestial objects and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth...

, botany
Botany
Botany, plant science, or plant biology is a branch of biology that involves the scientific study of plant life. Traditionally, botany also included the study of fungi, algae and viruses...

 and history.
Notable people born in Kermansha include British author
Author
An author is broadly defined as "the person who originates or gives existence to anything" and that authorship determines responsibility for what is created. Narrowly defined, an author is the originator of any written work.-Legal significance:...

, Nobel prize
Nobel Prize
The Nobel Prizes are annual international awards bestowed by Scandinavian committees in recognition of cultural and scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, established the prizes in 1895...

 winner, Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
Doris May Lessing CH is a British writer. Her novels include The Grass is Singing, The Golden Notebook, and five novels collectively known as Canopus in Argos....

 (b. 1919), whose father, a British army
British Army
The British Army is the land warfare branch of Her Majesty's Armed Forces in the United Kingdom. It came into being with the unification of the Kingdom of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The new British Army incorporated Regiments that had already existed in England...

 officer, was stationed there at the time of her birth.
Mirza Ahmad Khan Motazed-Dowleh Vaziri created the first printing office and founded the first private school
Private school
Private schools, also known as independent schools or nonstate schools, are not administered by local, state or national governments; thus, they retain the right to select their students and are funded in whole or in part by charging their students' tuition, rather than relying on mandatory...

 of Kermanshahan. Guity Novin
Guity Novin
Guity Novin is an Iranian-Canadian figurative painter, and graphic designer residing in Canada. She classifies her work as Transpressionism, a movement she has introduced.Her works are in private and public collections worldwide....

 a painter and a graphic designer who has founded the Transpressionism movement was born in Kermanshah.

External links