Kelp

Kelp

Overview
Kelps are large seaweed
Seaweed
Seaweed is a loose, colloquial term encompassing macroscopic, multicellular, benthic marine algae. The term includes some members of the red, brown and green algae...

s (algae
Algae
Algae are a large and diverse group of simple, typically autotrophic organisms, ranging from unicellular to multicellular forms, such as the giant kelps that grow to 65 meters in length. They are photosynthetic like plants, and "simple" because their tissues are not organized into the many...

) belonging to the brown algae
Brown algae
The Phaeophyceae or brown algae , is a large group of mostly marine multicellular algae, including many seaweeds of colder Northern Hemisphere waters. They play an important role in marine environments, both as food and for the habitats they form...

 (Phaeophyceae) in the order
Order (biology)
In scientific classification used in biology, the order is# a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, family, genus, and species, with order fitting in between class and family...

 Laminariales. There are about 30 different genera
Genus
In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

.

Kelps grow in underwater "forest
Forest
A forest, also referred to as a wood or the woods, is an area with a high density of trees. As with cities, depending where you are in the world, what is considered a forest may vary significantly in size and have various classification according to how and what of the forest is composed...

s" (kelp forest
Kelp forest
Kelp forests are underwater areas with a high density of kelp. They are recognized as one of the most productive and dynamic ecosystems on Earth. Smaller areas of anchored kelp are called kelp beds....

s) in shallow oceans. The organisms require nutrient-rich water with temperatures between 6 and 14 °C (42.8 and 57.2 F). They are known for their high growth rate — the genera Macrocystis
Macrocystis
Macrocystis is a genus of kelp . This genus contains the largest of all the phaeophyceae or brown algae. Macrocystis has pneumatocysts at the base of its blades. Sporophytes are perennial, and individual stipes may persist for many years...

 and Nereocystis
Nereocystis
Nereocystis is a genus of kelp. It forms thick beds on rocks, and is an important part of kelp forests. There is only one species, Nereocystis luetkeana. It can grow to a maximum of 74 meters...

 can grow as fast as half a metre a day, ultimately reaching 30 metre.

Through the 19th century, the word "kelp" was closely associated with seaweeds that could be burned to obtain soda ash (primarily sodium carbonate).
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Encyclopedia
Kelps are large seaweed
Seaweed
Seaweed is a loose, colloquial term encompassing macroscopic, multicellular, benthic marine algae. The term includes some members of the red, brown and green algae...

s (algae
Algae
Algae are a large and diverse group of simple, typically autotrophic organisms, ranging from unicellular to multicellular forms, such as the giant kelps that grow to 65 meters in length. They are photosynthetic like plants, and "simple" because their tissues are not organized into the many...

) belonging to the brown algae
Brown algae
The Phaeophyceae or brown algae , is a large group of mostly marine multicellular algae, including many seaweeds of colder Northern Hemisphere waters. They play an important role in marine environments, both as food and for the habitats they form...

 (Phaeophyceae) in the order
Order (biology)
In scientific classification used in biology, the order is# a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, family, genus, and species, with order fitting in between class and family...

 Laminariales. There are about 30 different genera
Genus
In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

.

Kelps grow in underwater "forest
Forest
A forest, also referred to as a wood or the woods, is an area with a high density of trees. As with cities, depending where you are in the world, what is considered a forest may vary significantly in size and have various classification according to how and what of the forest is composed...

s" (kelp forest
Kelp forest
Kelp forests are underwater areas with a high density of kelp. They are recognized as one of the most productive and dynamic ecosystems on Earth. Smaller areas of anchored kelp are called kelp beds....

s) in shallow oceans. The organisms require nutrient-rich water with temperatures between 6 and 14 °C (42.8 and 57.2 F). They are known for their high growth rate — the genera Macrocystis
Macrocystis
Macrocystis is a genus of kelp . This genus contains the largest of all the phaeophyceae or brown algae. Macrocystis has pneumatocysts at the base of its blades. Sporophytes are perennial, and individual stipes may persist for many years...

 and Nereocystis
Nereocystis
Nereocystis is a genus of kelp. It forms thick beds on rocks, and is an important part of kelp forests. There is only one species, Nereocystis luetkeana. It can grow to a maximum of 74 meters...

 can grow as fast as half a metre a day, ultimately reaching 30 metre.

Through the 19th century, the word "kelp" was closely associated with seaweeds that could be burned to obtain soda ash (primarily sodium carbonate). The seaweeds used included species from both the orders Laminariales and Fucales
Fucales
Fucales is an order in the brown algae . Members of this order are fucoids. The list of families in Fucales, as well as additional taxonomic information on algae, is publicly accessible at Algaebase....

. The word "kelp" was also used directly to refer to these processed ashes.

Morphology



In most kelp, the thallus (or body) consists of flat or leaf-like structures known as blades. Blades originate from elongated stem-like structures, the stipes. The holdfast, a root-like structure, anchors the kelp to the substrate of the ocean.
Gas-filled bladders (pneumatocyst
Pneumatocyst
In phycology, a pneumatocyst is a large float containing gas found in brown algae. An organism may have more than one. They provide buoyancy to lift the blades toward the surface, allowing them to receive more sunlight for photosynthesis....

s) form at the base of blades of American species, such as Nereocystis lueteana (Mert. & Post & Rupr.) and keep the kelp blades close to the surface, holding up the blades by the gas they contain.

Growth and reproduction


Growth occurs at the base of the meristem
Meristem
A meristem is the tissue in most plants consisting of undifferentiated cells , found in zones of the plant where growth can take place....

, where the blades and stipe meet. Growth may be limited by grazing. Sea urchins, for example, can reduce entire areas to urchin barrens. The kelp life cycle involves a diploid
Ploidy
Ploidy is the number of sets of chromosomes in a biological cell.Human sex cells have one complete set of chromosomes from the male or female parent. Sex cells, also called gametes, combine to produce somatic cells. Somatic cells, therefore, have twice as many chromosomes. The haploid number is...

 sporophyte
Sporophyte
All land plants, and some algae, have life cycles in which a haploid gametophyte generation alternates with a diploid sporophyte, the generation of a plant or algae that has a double set of chromosomes. A multicellular sporophyte generation or phase is present in the life cycle of all land plants...

 and haploid gametophyte
Gametophyte
A gametophyte is the haploid, multicellular phase of plants and algae that undergo alternation of generations, with each of its cells containing only a single set of chromosomes....

 stage. The haploid phase begins when the mature organism releases many spores, which then germinate to become male or female gametophytes. Sexual reproduction
Sexual reproduction
Sexual reproduction is the creation of a new organism by combining the genetic material of two organisms. There are two main processes during sexual reproduction; they are: meiosis, involving the halving of the number of chromosomes; and fertilization, involving the fusion of two gametes and the...

 then results in the beginning of the diploid sporophyte stage, which will develop into a mature individual.

The parenchymatous thalli are generally covered with a mucliage layer, rather than cuticle.

Commercial uses



Giant kelp can be harvested fairly easily because of its surface canopy and growth habit of staying in deeper water.

Bongo kelp ash is rich in iodine
Iodine
Iodine is a chemical element with the symbol I and atomic number 53. The name is pronounced , , or . The name is from the , meaning violet or purple, due to the color of elemental iodine vapor....

 and alkali
Alkali
In chemistry, an alkali is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal element. Some authors also define an alkali as a base that dissolves in water. A solution of a soluble base has a pH greater than 7. The adjective alkaline is commonly used in English as a synonym for base,...

. In great amount, kelp ash can be used in soap
Soap
In chemistry, soap is a salt of a fatty acid.IUPAC. "" Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. . Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford . XML on-line corrected version: created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN...

 and glass
Glass
Glass is an amorphous solid material. Glasses are typically brittle and optically transparent.The most familiar type of glass, used for centuries in windows and drinking vessels, is soda-lime glass, composed of about 75% silica plus Na2O, CaO, and several minor additives...

 production. Until the Leblanc process
Leblanc process
The Leblanc process was the industrial process for the production of soda ash used throughout the 19th century, named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc. It involved two stages: Production of sodium sulfate from sodium chloride, followed by reaction of the sodium sulfate with coal and calcium...

 was commercialized in the early 19th century, burning of kelp in Scotland was one of the principal industrial sources of soda ash (predominantly sodium carbonate
Sodium carbonate
Sodium carbonate , Na2CO3 is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. It most commonly occurs as a crystalline heptahydrate, which readily effloresces to form a white powder, the monohydrate. Sodium carbonate is domestically well-known for its everyday use as a water softener. It can be extracted from the...

). Alginate, a kelp-derived carbohydrate, is used to thicken products such as ice cream
Ice cream
Ice cream is a frozen dessert usually made from dairy products, such as milk and cream, and often combined with fruits or other ingredients and flavours. Most varieties contain sugar, although some are made with other sweeteners...

, jelly, salad dressing, and toothpaste
Toothpaste
Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used with a toothbrush as an accessory to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of teeth. Toothpaste is used to promote oral hygiene: it serves as an abrasive that aids in removing the dental plaque and food from the teeth, assists in suppressing...

, as well as an ingredient in exotic dog food
Dog food
Dog food refers to food specifically intended for consumption by dogs. Though technically omnivorous, dogs exhibit a natural carnivorous bias, have sharp, pointy teeth, and have short gastrointestinal tracts better suited for the consumption of meat...

 and in manufactured goods. Alginate powder is also used frequently in general dentistry and orthodontics for making impressions of the upper and lower arches. These impressions are subsequently poured up in stone and the stone models are used in diagnosis and treatment

Kelp is also used frequently in seaweed fertilizer, especially in the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
The Channel Islands are an archipelago of British Crown Dependencies in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy. They include two separate bailiwicks: the Bailiwick of Guernsey and the Bailiwick of Jersey...

, where it is known as vraic.

Kombu
Kombu
Kombu or konbu , also called dashima or haidai , is edible kelp from the family Laminariaceae widely eaten in East Asia....

 (Saccharina japonica
Saccharina japonica
Saccharina japonica is a marine species of Phaeophyceae , a type of kelp or seaweed, that is extensively cultivated in China, Japan and Korea....

 and others), several Pacific species of kelp, is a very important ingredient in Japanese cuisine. Kombu is used to flavor broths and stews (especially dashi
Dashi
Dashi is a class of soup and cooking stock, considered fundamental to Japanese cooking. In 1980, Shizuo Tsuji wrote: "Many substitutes for dashi are possible, but without dashi, dishes are merely à la japonaise and lack the authentic flavor." Dashi forms the base for miso soup, clear broth, noodle...

), as a savory garnish (tororo konbu) for rice and other dishes, as a vegetable, and a primary ingredient in popular snacks (such as tsukudani
Tsukudani
is small seafood, meat or seaweed that has been simmered in soy sauce and mirin. High osmotic pressure preserves the ingredients. Its name originates from Tsukudajima, the island where it was first made in the Edo period. Many kinds of tsukudani are sold...

). Transparent sheets of kelp (oboro konbu) are used as an edible decorative wrapping for rice and other foods.

Kombu can be used to soften beans during cooking, and to help convert indigestible sugars and thus reduce flatulence.

Because of its high concentration of iodine, brown kelp (Laminaria) has been used to treat goiter, an enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by a lack of iodine, since medieval times.

In 2010 a group of researchers in the University of Newcastle found that a fibrous material called alginate in sea kelp was better at preventing fat absorption than most over-the-counter slimming treatments in laboratory trials. As a food additive it may be used to reduce fat absorption and thus obesity.

As a possible renewable energy source


See also: Biomass energy, Algae fuel
Algae fuel
Algae fuel might be an alternative to fossil fuel and uses algae as its source of natural deposits. Several companies and government agencies are funding efforts to reduce capital and operating costs and make algae fuel production commercially viable...



Kelp has a high rate of growth and its decay is quite efficient in yielding methane
Methane
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula . It is the simplest alkane, the principal component of natural gas, and probably the most abundant organic compound on earth. The relative abundance of methane makes it an attractive fuel...

, as well as sugars that can be converted to ethanol
Ethanol
Ethanol, also called ethyl alcohol, pure alcohol, grain alcohol, or drinking alcohol, is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid. It is a psychoactive drug and one of the oldest recreational drugs. Best known as the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, it is also used in thermometers, as a...

. It has been proposed that large open-ocean kelp farms could serve as a source of renewable energy. Unlike some biofuels such as corn ethanol
Corn ethanol
Corn ethanol is ethanol produced from corn as a biomass through industrial fermentation, chemical processing and distillation. Corn is the main feedstock used for producing ethanol fuel in the United States and it is mainly used as an oxygenate to gasoline in the form of low-level blends, and to a...

, kelp energy avoids "food vs fuel
Food vs fuel
Food vs. fuel is the dilemma regarding the risk of diverting farmland or crops for biofuels production in detriment of the food supply on a global scale. The "food vs. fuel" or "food or fuel" debate is international in scope, with good and valid arguments on all sides of this issue...

" issues and does not require irrigation.

Kelp in history and culture


During the Highland Clearances
Highland Clearances
The Highland Clearances were forced displacements of the population of the Scottish Highlands during the 18th and 19th centuries. They led to mass emigration to the sea coast, the Scottish Lowlands, and the North American colonies...

, many Scottish Highlanders were moved off their crofts
Crofting
Crofting is a form of land tenure and small-scale food production unique to the Scottish Highlands, the Islands of Scotland, and formerly on the Isle of Man....

, and went to industries such as fishing and kelping (producing soda ash from the ashes of kelp). At least until the 1820s, when there were steep falls in the price of kelp, landlords wanted to create pools of cheap or virtually free labour, supplied by families subsisting in new crofting townships. Kelp collection and processing was a very profitable way of using this labour, and landlords petitioned successfully for legislation designed to stop emigration. But the economic collapse of the kelp industry in northern Scotland
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

 led to further emigration, especially to North America
North America
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

.

Natives of the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
The Falkland Islands are an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean, located about from the coast of mainland South America. The archipelago consists of East Falkland, West Falkland and 776 lesser islands. The capital, Stanley, is on East Falkland...

 are sometimes nickname
Nickname
A nickname is "a usually familiar or humorous but sometimes pointed or cruel name given to a person or place, as a supposedly appropriate replacement for or addition to the proper name.", or a name similar in origin and pronunciation from the original name....

d "Kelpers
Kelpers
Kelpers is a nickname given to Falkland Islanders because the islands are surrounded by large seaweeds called kelp.This term is no longer used as commonly as it once was . Instead most prefer "Falkland Islanders" or even "Bennies".The term is used to describe the population in Argentine research...

". The name is primarily applied by outsiders rather than the natives themselves.

Conservation


Overfishing nearshore ecosystems leads to the degradation of kelp forests. Herbivores are released from their usual population regulation, leading to over-grazing of kelp and other algae. This can quickly result in barren landscapes where only a small number of species can thrive.

Commercial kelp production in China


Laminaria japonica, the important commercial seaweed, was first introduced into China in the late 1920s from Hokkaido, Japan. Commercial production of kelp harvested from its natural habitat took place in Japan for over a century. Yet mariculture
Mariculture
Mariculture is a specialized branch of aquaculture involving the cultivation of marine organisms for food and other products in the open ocean, an enclosed section of the ocean, or in tanks, ponds or raceways which are filled with seawater. An example of the latter is the farming of marine fish,...

 of this algae on a very large commercial scale was realized in China only in the 1950s. Between the 1950s and the 1980s kelp production in China increased from about 60 to over 250,000 dry weight metric tons annually, making China the largest producer of Laminaria.

Prominent species

  • Bull-head kelp, Nereocystis luetkeana, a northwestern American species. Used by coastal indigenous peoples
    Indigenous peoples of the Americas
    The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of North and South America, their descendants and other ethnic groups who are identified with those peoples. Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, and in the United States as Native Americans...

     to create fishing net
    Fishing net
    A fishing net or fishnet is a net that is used for fishing. Fishing nets are meshes usually formed by knotting a relatively thin thread. Modern nets are usually made of artificial polyamides like nylon, although nets of organic polyamides such as wool or silk thread were common until recently and...

    s.
  • Giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera
    Macrocystis pyrifera
    Macrocystis pyrifera, commonly known as Giant kelp or Giant bladder kelp, is a species of kelp , and one of four species in the genus Macrocystis...

    , the largest seaweed. Found in the Pacific coast of North America
    North America
    North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

     and South America
    South America
    South America is a continent situated in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. The continent is also considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east...

    .
  • Kombu
    Kombu
    Kombu or konbu , also called dashima or haidai , is edible kelp from the family Laminariaceae widely eaten in East Asia....

    , Laminaria japonica and others, several edible species of kelp found in Japan
    Japan
    Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

    .


Species of Laminaria in the British Isles;
  • Laminaria digitata
    Laminaria digitata
    Laminaria digitata is a large brown alga in the family Laminariaceae, also known by the common name Oarweed. It is found in the sublittoral zone of the northern Atlantic Ocean.-Description:...

     (Hudson) J.V. Lamouroux (Oarweed; Tangle)
  • Laminaria hyperborea
    Laminaria hyperborea
    Laminaria hyperborea is a species of large brown alga, a kelp in the family Laminariaceae, also known by the common names of tangle and cuvie. It is found in the sublittoral zone of the northern Atlantic Ocean. A variety, Laminaria hyperborea f...

     (Gunnerus) Foslie (Curvie)
  • Laminaria ochroleuca Bachelot de la Pylaie
  • Laminaria saccharina
    Laminaria saccharina
    Saccharina latissima is a brown algae , of the family Laminariaceae. It is also known by the common name sea belt. It is found in the north east Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea south to Galicia in Spain. It is not found in the Bay of Biscay but is common round the coasts of the British...

     (Linnaeus) J.V.Lamouroux (sea belt; sugar kelp; sugarwack)


Species of Laminaria
Laminaria
Laminaria is a genus of 31 species of brown algae , all sharing the common name "kelp". This economically important genus is characterized by long, leathery laminae and relatively large size. Some species are referred to by the common name Devil's apron, due to their shape, or sea colander, due to...

 worldwide, listing of species at AlgaeBase
AlgaeBase
AlgaeBase is a global species database of information on all groups of algae, as well as one group of flowering plants, the sea-grasses.AlgaeBase evolved from Michael Guiry's seaweed website, and has grown into a database of algae from throughout the world, and in freshwater, terrestrial, and...

:
  • Laminaria agardhii (NE. America
    Americas
    The Americas, or America , are lands in the Western hemisphere, also known as the New World. In English, the plural form the Americas is often used to refer to the landmasses of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions, while the singular form America is primarily...

    )
  • Laminaria angustata
    Kombu
    Kombu or konbu , also called dashima or haidai , is edible kelp from the family Laminariaceae widely eaten in East Asia....

     (Japan
    Japan
    Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

    )
  • Laminaria bongardina Postels et Ruprecht (Bering Sea to California
    California
    California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

    )
  • Laminaria cuneifolia (NE. America)
  • Laminaria dentigera Klellm. (California - America)
  • Laminaria digitata
    Laminaria digitata
    Laminaria digitata is a large brown alga in the family Laminariaceae, also known by the common name Oarweed. It is found in the sublittoral zone of the northern Atlantic Ocean.-Description:...

     (NE. America)
  • Laminaria ephemera Setchell (Sitka, Alaska, to Monterey County, California - America)
  • Laminaria farlowii Setchell (Santa Cruz, California, to Baja California - America)
  • Laminaria groenlandica (NE. America)
  • Laminaria japonica (Japan), synonym of Saccharina japonica
    Saccharina japonica
    Saccharina japonica is a marine species of Phaeophyceae , a type of kelp or seaweed, that is extensively cultivated in China, Japan and Korea....

  • Laminaria longicruris (NE. America)
  • Laminaria nigripes (NE. America)
  • Laminaria ontermedia (NE. America)
  • Laminaria pallida Greville ex J. Agardh (South Africa
    South Africa
    The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

    )
  • Laminaria platymeris (NE. America)
  • Laminaria saccharina
    Laminaria saccharina
    Saccharina latissima is a brown algae , of the family Laminariaceae. It is also known by the common name sea belt. It is found in the north east Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea south to Galicia in Spain. It is not found in the Bay of Biscay but is common round the coasts of the British...

     (Linnaeus) Lamouroux (Aleutian Islands, Alaska to southern California America)
  • Laminaria setchellii Silva (Aleutian Islands, Alaska to Baja California America)
  • Laminaria sinclairii (Harvey ex Hooker f. ex Harvey) Farlow, Anderson et Eaton (Hope Island, British Columbia to Los Angeles, California - America)
  • Laminaria solidungula (NE. America)
  • Laminaria stenophylla (NE. America)


Other species in the Laminariales that may be considered as kelp
  • Alaria marginata Post. & Rupr. (Alaska and California - America
    Americas
    The Americas, or America , are lands in the Western hemisphere, also known as the New World. In English, the plural form the Americas is often used to refer to the landmasses of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions, while the singular form America is primarily...

  • Costaria costata (C.Ag.) Saunders Japan; Alaska, California - America)
  • Durvillea antarctica (New Zealand
    New Zealand
    New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

    , South America
    South America
    South America is a continent situated in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. The continent is also considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east...

    , and Australia
    Australia
    Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

    )
  • Durvillea willana (New Zealand)
  • Durvillaea potatorum (Labillardière
    Jacques Labillardière
    Jacques-Julien Houtou de Labillardière was a French naturalist noted for his descriptions of the flora of Australia. Labillardière was a member of a voyage in search of the La Pérouse expedition...

    ) Areschoug (Tasmania
    Tasmania
    Tasmania is an Australian island and state. It is south of the continent, separated by Bass Strait. The state includes the island of Tasmania—the 26th largest island in the world—and the surrounding islands. The state has a population of 507,626 , of whom almost half reside in the greater Hobart...

    ; Australia)
  • Ecklonia brevipes J. Agardh (Australia; New Zealand)
  • Ecklonia maxima
    Ecklonia maxima
    Ecklonia maxima, sea bamboo, is a species of kelp native to the southern oceans. It is most typically found along the southern Atlantic coast of Africa, from the very south of South Africa north to Namibia...

     (Osbeck) Papenfuss (South Africa)
  • Ecklonia radiata
    Ecklonia radiata
    Ecklonia radiata is a species of kelp found in the Canary Islands, the Cape Verde Islands, Madagascar, Mauritania, Senegal, South Africa, Oman, southern Australia, Lord Howe Island, and New Zealand.-Further reading:...

     (C.Agardh) J. Agardh (Australia; Tasmania; New Zealand; South Africa)
  • Eisena arborea Aresch. (Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Montrey, Santa Catalina Island, California - America)
  • Egregia menziesii
    Egregia menziesii
    Egregia menziesii is a species of kelp known commonly as feather boa kelp. It is native to the coastline of western North America from Alaska to Baja California, where it is a common kelp of the intertidal zone. It is dark brown in color, shiny and bumpy in texture, and may reach over five meters...

     (Turn.) Aresch.
  • Hedophyllum sessile (C.Ag.) Setch (Alaska, California - America)
  • Macrocystis angustifolia Bory (Australia; Tasmania and South Africa)
  • Pleurophycus gardneri Setch. & Saund. (Alaska, California - America)
  • Pterygophora californica
    Pterygophora californica
    Pterygophora californica is a large species of kelp, commonly known as stalked kelp or southern palm kelp. It is the only species in its genus Pterygophora . It grows in shallow water on the Pacific coast of North America where it forms part of a biodiverse community in a "kelp forest".-Description:P...

     Rupr. (Vancouver Island, British Columbia to Bahia del Ropsario, Baja California and California - America)
  • Saccharina japonica
    Saccharina japonica
    Saccharina japonica is a marine species of Phaeophyceae , a type of kelp or seaweed, that is extensively cultivated in China, Japan and Korea....

     (Japan)

Interactions


Some animals are named after the kelp, either because they inhabit the same habitat
Habitat (ecology)
A habitat is an ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular species of animal, plant or other type of organism...

 as kelp or because they feed on kelp. These include:
  • Northern kelp crab (Pugettia producta) and graceful kelp crab (Pugettia gracilis), Pacific coast of North America.
  • Kelpfish
    Kelpfish
    The kelpfishes are a family of perciform fishes, native to coastal Australia and New Zealand.The name of the family, "Chironemidae", is from Greek cheir meaning "hands" and nema meaning "thread".There are six species in two genera:...

     (blenny) (e.g., Heterosticbus rostratus, genus Gibbonsia
    Gibbonsia
    Gibbonsia is a genus of clinids found in the eastern Pacific ocean.-Species:* Spotted kelpfish, Gibbonsia elegans * Gibbonsia evides * Striped kelpfish, Gibbonsia metzi...

    ), Pacific coast of North America.
  • Kelp goose (kelp hen)
    Kelp Goose
    The Kelp Goose , Chloephaga hybrida, is a member of the duck, goose and swan family Anatidae. It is in the shelduck subfamily Tadorninae...

     (Chloephaga hybrida), South America and the Falkland Islands
  • Kelp pigeon (sheathbill)
    Sheathbill
    The sheathbills are a family of birds, Chionidae. Classified in the wader order Charadriiformes, the family contains one genus, Chionis, with only two species...

    (Chionis alba and Chionis minor), Antarctic

Further reading

  • Druehl, L.D. 1988. Cultivated edible kelp. in Algae and Human Affairs. Lembi, C.A. and Waaland, J.R. (Editors) 1988.ISBN 0 521 32115 8.