Kazakhstani tenge

Kazakhstani tenge

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The tenge is the currency of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan , officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental country in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Ranked as the ninth largest country in the world, it is also the world's largest landlocked country; its territory of is greater than Western Europe...

. It is divided into 100 tïın (тиын, also transliterated as tiyin or tijn). It was introduced on 15th of November 1993 to replace the Soviet ruble
Soviet ruble
The Soviet ruble or rouble was the currency of the Soviet Union. One ruble is divided into 100 kopeks, ....

 at a rate of 1 tenge = 500 rubles. The ISO-4217 code is KZT.

The word tenge in the Kazakh
Kazakh language
Kazakh is a Turkic language which belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages, closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak....

 and most other Turkic languages
Turkic languages
The Turkic languages constitute a language family of at least thirty five languages, spoken by Turkic peoples across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family.Turkic languages are spoken...

 means a set of scales
Weighing scale
A weighing scale is a measuring instrument for determining the weight or mass of an object. A spring scale measures weight by the distance a spring deflects under its load...

 (cf the old Uzbek
Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan , officially the Republic of Uzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia and one of the six independent Turkic states. It shares borders with Kazakhstan to the west and to the north, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east, and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the south....

 tenga or the Tajik
Tajik language
Tajik, Tajik Persian, or Tajiki, is a variety of modern Persian spoken in Central Asia. Historically Tajiks called their language zabani farsī , meaning Persian language in English; the term zabani tajikī, or Tajik language, was introduced in the 20th century by the Soviets...

 borrowed term tanga). The origin of the word is the Turkic teğ- which means being equal, balance. The name of this currency is thus similar to the lira
Lira
Lira is the name of the monetary unit of a number of countries, as well as the former currency of Italy, Malta, San Marino and the Vatican City and Israel. The term originates from the value of a Troy pound of high purity silver. The libra was the basis of the monetary system of the Roman Empire...

, pound
Pound (currency)
The pound is a unit of currency in some nations. The term originated in England as the value of a pound of silver.The word pound is the English translation of the Latin word libra, which was the unit of account of the Roman Empire...

 and peso
Peso
The word peso was the name of a coin that originated in Spain and became of immense importance internationally...

. The name of the currency is related to the Russian word for money , which was borrowed from Turkic.

History


Kazakhstan was one of the last countries of the CIS
Commonwealth of Independent States
The Commonwealth of Independent States is a regional organization whose participating countries are former Soviet Republics, formed during the breakup of the Soviet Union....

 to introduce a national currency. In 1991 a "special group" of designers was created: Mendybay Alin, Timur Suleymenov, Asimsaly Duzelkhanov and Khayrulla Gabzhalilov. On November 12, 1993, a decree
Decree
A decree is a rule of law issued by a head of state , according to certain procedures . It has the force of law...

 of the President of Kazakhstan
President of Kazakhstan
President of Kazakhstan is the head of state, supreme commander-in-chief and holder of the highest office within the Kazakhstan. The authorities of this position are described in special section of Constitution of Kazakhstan....

, "About introducing national currency of Republic of Kazakhstan", was issued. On November 15, 1993, the tenge was brought into circulation. As such, November 15 is celebrated as the "Day of National Currency of Republic of Kazakhstan". In 1995, a tenge printing factory was opened in Kazakhstan. The first consignment of tenge was printed abroad, in the U.K.. The first coins were minted in Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

.


On March 20, 2007 two days before the Nauryz holiday, the National Bank of Kazakhstan
National Bank of Kazakhstan
-History:The National Bank was formed on April 13, 1993 with the reorganisation of the of the Soviet era Kazakh Republican bank to become the central bank of Kazakhstan.-External links:...

 approved a graphical symbol for the Tenge: . The character was proposed for encoding in Unicode in March 2008 It was released at the codepoint as of Unicode 5.2. It resembles the Japanese postal mark.

Coins



In 1993, coins were introduced in denominations of 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 tiyn, 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 tenge. 50 tenge were introduced in 1997, followed by 100 tenge in 2002 and 2 tenge in 2005. Coins currently in circulation are:
  • 1 tenge (Brass)
  • 2 tenge (Brass)
  • 5 tenge (Brass)
  • 10 tenge (Brass)
  • 20 tenge (Copper-Nickel)
  • 50 tenge (Copper-Nickel)
  • 100 tenge (Bimetallic, Brass and Copper-Nickel)


Commemorative coin
Commemorative coin
Commemorative coins are coins that were issued to commemorate some particular event or issue. Most world commemorative coins were issued from the 1960s onward, although there are numerous examples of commemorative coins of earlier date. Such coins have a distinct design with reference to the...

s are issued in denominations of 20, 50, 100, 500, 1,000, 2,500, 5,000 and 10,000 tenge. Silver and gold bullion coin
Bullion coin
A bullion coin is a coin struck from precious metal and kept as a store of value or an investment, rather than used in day-to-day commerce. Investment coins are generally coins that have been minted after 1800, have a purity of not less than 900 thousandths and are or have been a legal tender in...

s exist in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 tenge.


Banknotes



1993 series


In 1993, the National Bank of Kazakhstan
National Bank of Kazakhstan
-History:The National Bank was formed on April 13, 1993 with the reorganisation of the of the Soviet era Kazakh Republican bank to become the central bank of Kazakhstan.-External links:...

 issued notes in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 tiyn, 1, 3, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 tenge. These were followed by 500 and 1,000 tenge notes in 1994. 2,000 tenge notes were introduced in 1996, with 5,000 tenge in 1998 and 10,000 tenge in 2003. Notes currently in circulation are:
  • 200 tenge portrait of Al-Farabi
    Al-Farabi
    ' known in the West as Alpharabius , was a scientist and philosopher of the Islamic world...

  • 500 tenge portrait of Al-Farabi, fragment of Khodzha Akhmet Yassaui
    Ahmed Yesevi
    Khoja Ahmat Yssawi , was a Turkic poet and Sufi , an early mystic who exerted a powerful influence on the development of mystical orders throughout the Turkic-speaking world. Yasavi is currently the earliest known Turkic poet who composed poetry in a Turkic dialect...

     mausoleum
    Mausoleum
    A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or persons. A monument without the interment is a cenotaph. A mausoleum may be considered a type of tomb or the tomb may be considered to be within the...

  • 1,000 tenge portrait of Al-Farabi
  • 2,000 tenge portrait of Al-Farabi
  • 5,000 tenge portrait of Al-Farabi
  • 10,000 tenge portrait of Al-Farabi, image of snow leopard
    Snow Leopard
    The snow leopard is a moderately large cat native to the mountain ranges of South Asia and Central Asia...

    .


Interestingly, the text on the reverse side of 200 tenge banknote is written in Kazakh
Kazakh language
Kazakh is a Turkic language which belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages, closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak....

, although text on the reverse sides of the other banknotes is written in Russian
Russian language
Russian is a Slavic language used primarily in Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Ukraine, Moldova, Latvia, Turkmenistan and Estonia and, to a lesser extent, the other countries that were once constituent republics...

.

1993 Series
Image Value Main Colour Description Date
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse issue annul
1 tiyn value in numeral and Kazakh, unique geometric design background value in numeral and Kazakh, Kazakhstan coat of arms, unique geometric design background 1993 2001
2 tiyn
5 tiyn
10 tiyn
20 tiyn
50 tiyn
1 tenge dark blue pink Portrait of Al-Farabi
Al-Farabi
' known in the West as Alpharabius , was a scientist and philosopher of the Islamic world...

Geometrical constructions and formulations of Al-Farabi 2012-2018
3 tenge green, grey green Portrait of Suinbay Alatau
Alatau
Alatau or Ala-Too is a generic name for a number of mountain ranges in Central Asia, characterized by interleaving areas of vegetation, scattered rocks and snows.The Alatau Mountains are located in the North East of Kazakhstan...

 landscape
5 tenge brown yellow, red Portrait of Kurmangazy Mausoleum
10 tenge dark blue pink Portrait of Chokan Ualihanov Ok Zhetpes mountain
20 tenge dark brown brown Portrait of Abay Kunanbaev Illustration of golden eagle with the man, drawn from works of Abay Kunanbaev
50 tenge light brown brown Portrait of Abulhair Khan
Abul Khair Khan
Abul Khair Khan was leader of the Kazakh Little jüz in present-day western Kazakhstan. During this period, the Little jüz participated in the 1723-1730 war against the Dzungars, following their "Great Disaster" invasion of Kazakh territories...

Rock paintings of Mangistau
100 tenge violet pink Portrait of Ablay Khan Hodja Ahmed Yassavi mausoleum
200 tenge brown, red yellow, blue Portrait of Al-Farabi
Al-Farabi
' known in the West as Alpharabius , was a scientist and philosopher of the Islamic world...

Hodja Ahmed Yassavi mausoleum 1994
500 tenge dark blue, blue blue, violet Portrait of Al-Farabi
Al-Farabi
' known in the West as Alpharabius , was a scientist and philosopher of the Islamic world...

Hodja Ahmed Yassavi mausoleum
1,000 tenge green, red green, blue, red Portrait of Al-Farabi
Al-Farabi
' known in the West as Alpharabius , was a scientist and philosopher of the Islamic world...

Hodja Ahmed Yassavi mausoleum
2,000 tenge green, blue green, brown Portrait of Al-Farabi
Al-Farabi
' known in the West as Alpharabius , was a scientist and philosopher of the Islamic world...

Hodja Ahmed Yassavi mausoleum 1996
5,000 tenge brown, violet brown Portrait of Al-Farabi
Al-Farabi
' known in the West as Alpharabius , was a scientist and philosopher of the Islamic world...

Hodja Ahmed Yassavi mausoleum 1998
10,000 tenge blue blue, brown Portrait of Al-Farabi
Al-Farabi
' known in the West as Alpharabius , was a scientist and philosopher of the Islamic world...

Snow leopard against a background of mountains 2003

2006 series



The National Bank of Kazakhstan
National Bank of Kazakhstan
-History:The National Bank was formed on April 13, 1993 with the reorganisation of the of the Soviet era Kazakh Republican bank to become the central bank of Kazakhstan.-External links:...

 issued banknotes of new series in 2006. They have the same values as the previously existed ones.

The 2006 series is far more exotic than its predecessors. The obverse is vertical and the denomination is written in Kazakh
Kazakh language
Kazakh is a Turkic language which belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages, closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak....

. All denominations depict the Astana
Astana
Astana , formerly known as Akmola , Tselinograd and Akmolinsk , is the capital and second largest city of Kazakhstan, with an officially estimated population of 708,794 as of 1 August 2010...

 Bayterek monument
Bayterek
Bayterek , is a monument and observation tower in Astana, the capital of Kazakhstan. A tourist attraction popular with foreign visitors and native Kazakhs alike, it is a common symbol of the city, epitomizing its elevation in 1997 to the status of capital of the country.- Design :The monument is...

, the flag of Kazakhstan
Flag of Kazakhstan
The current flag of Kazakhstan or Kazakh flag was adopted on 4 June 1992, replacing the flag of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic. The flag was designed by Shaken Niyazbekov.-Description:...

, the Coat of arms
Coat of arms of Kazakhstan
The emblem of Kazakhstan was adopted on June 4, 1992. The authors of the emblem are Jandarbek Melibekov and Shota Walikhanov. About 245 projects and 67 description designs of the future arms took part in the final competition.-Overview:...

, the handprint with a signature of president
President
A president is a leader of an organization, company, trade union, university, or country.Etymologically, a president is one who presides, who sits in leadership...

 Nazarbayev and fragments of the national anthem
My Kazakhstan (anthem)
My Kazakhstan is the national anthem of Kazakhstan, adopted on January 7, 2006. It is based on a homonymous song written in 1956, with music by Shamshi Kaldayakov and lyrics by Jumeken Najimedenov. This replaced the anthem of the Republic of Kazakhstan as the state anthem, which was used after...

. The main differences across each denomination are only the colours, the values, the underprint patterns.

On the contrast, the reverses are more differentiated. The value is written in Russian
Russian language
Russian is a Slavic language used primarily in Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Ukraine, Moldova, Latvia, Turkmenistan and Estonia and, to a lesser extent, the other countries that were once constituent republics...

. Each denomination shows a unique building and geography of Kazakhstan
Geography of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan is located in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. With an area of about 2,717,300 square kilometers, Kazakhstan is more than twice the combined size of the other four Central Asian states, or about twice the size of Alaska...

 in the outline of Kazakhstan border.

The first printing of the 2,000 and 5,000 tenge notes issued in 2006 had misspellings of the word for "bank" (the correct spelling "банкі" was misspelled "банқі"). The misspelling was a politically sensitive issue due to the cultural and political importance of the Kazakh language.

2006 Series
Image Value Main Colour Description Date of issue
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse
200 tenge orange, green Astana Bayterek monument, Kazakhstan flag, Kazakhstan coat of arms, handprint with a signature of Nursultan Nazarbayev
Nursultan Nazarbayev
Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev has served as the President of Kazakhstan since the nation received its independence in 1991, after the fall of the Soviet Union...

, fragments of the national anthem, value in numerals and Kazakh words, issuing bank in Kazakh, inscription in Kazakh stating that counterfeiting banknotes is against the law
Transport and Communication Ministry and a winged snow leopard on the bridge over River Ishim, outline map of Kazakhstan with Ministry of Defense and the steppes in the background, value in Russian, name of issuing in Kazakh, logo of issuing bank, inscription in Russian stating that counterfeiting banknotes is against the law 2006
500 tenge blue, grey Ministry of Finance and Akimat (City Hall) of Astana, outline map of Kazakhstan with gulls over the sea in background, value in Russian, name of issuing in Kazakh, logo of issuing bank, inscription in Russian stating that counterfeiting banknotes is against the law
1,000 tenge yellow, brown President Culture Center, outline map of Kazakhstan with mountains in background, value in Russian, name of issuing in Kazakh, logo of issuing bank, inscription in Russian stating that counterfeiting banknotes is against the law
2,000 tenge dark and light green Abai Opera House, outline map of Kazakhstan with mountain lake in background, value in Russian, name of issuing in Kazakh, logo of issuing bank, inscription in Russian stating that counterfeiting banknotes is against the law
5,000 tenge deep-brown, red Independence Monument and the Kazakhstan Hotel, outline map of Kazakhstan with mountains in background, value in Russian, name of issuing in Kazakh, logo of issuing bank, inscription in Russian stating that counterfeiting banknotes is against the law
10,000 tenge violet, blue Residence Akorda (presidential palace), outline map of Kazakhstan with canyons in the background, value in Russian, name of issuing in Kazakh, logo of issuing bank, inscription in Russian stating that counterfeiting banknotes is against the law

Commemorative banknotes

  • 5,000 tenge (2001)

5,000 tenge issued banknote in 2001 to commemorate the 10th anniversary of independence from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

.
  • 5,000 tenge (2008)

5,000 tenge banknote issued in 2008 to commemorate 15 years of the Kazakhstani tenge.
  • 1,000 tenge (2010)

1,000 tenge banknote issued in 2010 to commemorate the Chairmanship of Kazakhstan in the OSCE
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization. Its mandate includes issues such as arms control, human rights, freedom of the press and fair elections...

.
  • 1,000 tenge (2011)

1,000 tenge banknote issued in 2011 to commemorate Kazakhstan's chairmanship in the Organisation of the Islamic Conference.
  • 2,000 tenge (2011)

2,000 tenge banknote issued in 2011 to commemorate the 7th Asian Winter Games
Asian Winter Games
The Asian Winter Games is a multi-sport event held every four years for members of the Olympic Council of Asia which features winter events. The Japanese Olympic Committee first suggested the idea of holding a winter version of the Asian Games in 1982...

 in Astana
Astana
Astana , formerly known as Akmola , Tselinograd and Akmolinsk , is the capital and second largest city of Kazakhstan, with an officially estimated population of 708,794 as of 1 August 2010...

.
  • 10,000 tenge (2011)

10,000 tenge banknote issued in 2011 to commemorate the 20th anniversary of independence from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

.

Inflation level

Year Annual inflation
Inflation
In economics, inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.When the general price level rises, each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services. Consequently, inflation also reflects an erosion in the purchasing power of money – a...

level
2001     6.4%
2002     6.6%
2003     5.7%
2004     7.9%
2005     9%
2006     8.6%
2007     18.8%
2008     9.5%
2009     6.2%
2010     7.8 %

Source:

External links