Karp Zolotaryov

Karp Zolotaryov

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Karp Ivanovich Zolotaryov ' onMouseout='HidePop("62527")' href="http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Floruit">fl.
Floruit
Floruit , abbreviated fl. , is a Latin verb meaning "flourished", denoting the period of time during which something was active...

 last quarter of the 17th century) was a Muscovite
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

 painter, interior designer and wood carver, employed by Posolsky prikaz
Prikaz
Prikaz was an administrative or judicial office in Muscovy and Russia of 15th-18th centuries. The term is usually translated as "ministry", "office" or "department". In modern Russian "prikaz" means administrative or military order...

 and the Kremlin Armoury
Kremlin Armoury
The Kremlin Armory is one of the oldest museums of Moscow, established in 1808 and located in the Moscow Kremlin .The Kremlin Armoury originated as the royal arsenal in 1508. Until the transfer of the court to St Petersburg, the Armoury was in charge of producing, purchasing and storing weapons,...

. Zolotaryov was the author of iconostasis
Iconostasis
In Eastern Christianity an iconostasis is a wall of icons and religious paintings, separating the nave from the sanctuary in a church. Iconostasis also refers to a portable icon stand that can be placed anywhere within a church...

 of the Transfiguration church in Novodevichy Convent
Novodevichy Convent
Novodevichy Convent, also known as Bogoroditse-Smolensky Monastery is probably the best-known cloister of Moscow. Its name, sometimes translated as the New Maidens' Monastery, was devised to differ from an ancient maidens' convent within the Moscow Kremlin. Unlike other Moscow cloisters, it has...

 and the Church of the Intercession at Fili
Church of the Intercession at Fili
The Church of the Intercession at Fili is a Naryshkin baroque church commissioned by the boyar Lev Naryshkin in his suburban estate Fili; the territory has belonged to City of Moscow since 1935...

 and the icon
Icon
An icon is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from Eastern Christianity and in certain Eastern Catholic churches...

s of Donskoy Monastery
Donskoy Monastery
Donskoy Monastery is a major monastery in Moscow, founded in 1591 in commemoration of Moscow's deliverance from an imminent threat of Khan Kazy-Girey’s invasion...

. Surviving paintings by Zolotaryov, created in the period directly preceding the reforms of Peter I, form a bridge between traditional Orthodox icon painting and the modern
Modernity
Modernity typically refers to a post-traditional, post-medieval historical period, one marked by the move from feudalism toward capitalism, industrialization, secularization, rationalization, the nation-state and its constituent institutions and forms of surveillance...

 realistic painting introduced in Russia in the 18th century.

Biography


The identity of Karp Zolotaryov was discovered in archives by Ivan Snegiryov and first published in print in 1857. For the next hundred years Zolotaryov was known only through archival evidence: historians knew the sites where he worked and the themes of his icons but could not positively attribute the unsigned icons to the artist. In 1955 Elena Ovchinnikova was the first to attribute an apparently unsigned icon of the Fili church to Zolotaryov. In 1960s this was confirmed by a newly found autograph
Autograph
An autograph is a document transcribed entirely in the handwriting of its author, as opposed to a typeset document or one written by an amanuensis or a copyist; the meaning overlaps with that of the word holograph.Autograph also refers to a person's artistic signature...

 of Zolotaryov on the iconostasis of the Fili church; more autographs were discovered during restoration
Painting restoration
Painting restoration is the art and science of restoring old and/or damaged paintings back to their original or a near-original state. This may include "resetting" a painting if it is set on damaged wood. Also "relining" the painting: attaching a new canvas to the back of the painting, if the...

 of its icons in 1973.

The year of birth and family origins of Zolotaryov are unknown. Official records declared him "a natural born and eternal slave
Slavery
Slavery is a system under which people are treated as property to be bought and sold, and are forced to work. Slaves can be held against their will from the time of their capture, purchase or birth, and deprived of the right to leave, to refuse to work, or to demand compensation...

" of the Tsar
Tsar
Tsar is a title used to designate certain European Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers. As a system of government in the Tsardom of Russia and Russian Empire, it is known as Tsarist autocracy, or Tsarism...

. In 1667–1672 Zolotaryov was an apprentice to Bogdan Saltanov
Bogdan Saltanov
Bogdan Saltanov , also known as Ivan Ievlevich Saltanov, was an Armenian-born Russian painter at the court of Alexis I of Russia and his successors. Saltanov headed the painting workshop of the Kremlin Armoury from 1686...

, an Armenian
Armenians
Armenian people or Armenians are a nation and ethnic group native to the Armenian Highland.The largest concentration is in Armenia having a nearly-homogeneous population with 97.9% or 3,145,354 being ethnic Armenian....

-born lead painter of the Kremlin Armoury
Kremlin Armoury
The Kremlin Armory is one of the oldest museums of Moscow, established in 1808 and located in the Moscow Kremlin .The Kremlin Armoury originated as the royal arsenal in 1508. Until the transfer of the court to St Petersburg, the Armoury was in charge of producing, purchasing and storing weapons,...

. By 1680 Zolotaryov, still employed by the Armoury, trained his own class of at least five identified apprentices. His 15-year tenure at the Armoury was dedicated primarily to the interiors of the Kremlin and country residences of the Romanovs. Work assignments included designing and carving furniture, painting palace fresco
Fresco
Fresco is any of several related mural painting types, executed on plaster on walls or ceilings. The word fresco comes from the Greek word affresca which derives from the Latin word for "fresh". Frescoes first developed in the ancient world and continued to be popular through the Renaissance...

es and church art, realistic parsuna portraits and even a handmade calendar
Calendar
A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial, or administrative purposes. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months, and years. The name given to each day is known as a date. Periods in a calendar are usually, though not...

 of the celestial movement
Zodiac
In astronomy, the zodiac is a circle of twelve 30° divisions of celestial longitude which are centred upon the ecliptic: the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year...

 (1679) for teaching Peter I
Peter I of Russia
Peter the Great, Peter I or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are Old Style. All other dates in this article are New Style. ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his half-brother, Ivan V...

 who was then seven years old. All this artwork was eventually lost with the exception of two carved khorugv
Khorugv
Khorúgv , is a religious banner used liturgically in the Eastern Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches.The khorugv or banner consists of an icon of Christ, the Theotokos or a saint, either painted or embroidered on a rectangular piece of cloth. The cloth will often be pointed, swallow-tailed, or...

 stakes.

In March of 1681 Feodor III of Russia
Feodor III of Russia
Feodor III Alexeevich of Russia was the Tsar of all Russia between 1676 and 1682....

 sent Zolotaryov to Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

 to study Ukrainian church architecture. The assignment coincided with Feodor's plans to build a new palace and spiritual center on the Presnya River. In May of 1681, immediately upon Zolotaryov's return, Feodor authorized construction of a new church of "previously unknown layout", presumably modeled upon Saint Nicholas cathedral in Nizhyn; the project was abandoned when Feodor died in 1682. In the same year Zolotaryov was transferred to the gold-painting
Gilding
The term gilding covers a number of decorative techniques for applying fine gold leaf or powder to solid surfaces such as wood, stone, or metal to give a thin coating of gold. A gilded object is described as "gilt"...

 workshop of Posolsky prikaz
Prikaz
Prikaz was an administrative or judicial office in Muscovy and Russia of 15th-18th centuries. The term is usually translated as "ministry", "office" or "department". In modern Russian "prikaz" means administrative or military order...

 (equivalent of modern ministries of foreign affairs) and awarded an unusually high salary of 138 roubles annually. The workshop, an extension of the Armory, traditionally produced illuminated manuscript
Illuminated manuscript
An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented by the addition of decoration, such as decorated initials, borders and miniature illustrations...

s, however, Zolotaryov was not involved in this function; the only book credited to him was the Book on building mills (1691). Instead, Zolotaryov led interior decoration "department" within the workshop; he designed and personally carved the beds of Ivan V
Ivan V of Russia
Ivan V Alekseyevich Romanov was a joint Tsar of Russia who co-reigned between 1682 and 1696. He was the youngest son of Alexis I of Russia and Maria Miloslavskaya. His reign was only formal, since he had serious physical and mental disabilities...

, his sisters Feodosia, Natalia and Ekaterina, and for Vasily Golitsyn. The least expensive of these beds cost more than his annual pay. In 1686 Vasily Golitsyn paid Zolotaryov 126 roubles for painting, presumably, icons and murals of Golitsyn's country church.

In the 1680s Zolotaryov was regularly commissioned to design, carve and erect templa
Iconostasis
In Eastern Christianity an iconostasis is a wall of icons and religious paintings, separating the nave from the sanctuary in a church. Iconostasis also refers to a portable icon stand that can be placed anywhere within a church...

; his work in the Dormition Cathedral, lesser churches of the Kremlin and the church of Izmaylovo Estate
Izmaylovo Estate
Izmaylovo Estate was a country residence of the House of Romanov built in the reign of Alexis I of Russia. Originally located 7 kilometres east of Moscow's city limits, it became part of the expanding city in the 20th century...

 has disappeared, but the eight-level Baroque
Baroque
The Baroque is a period and the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music...

 iconostasis of the Transfiguration church of Novodevichy Convent
Novodevichy Convent
Novodevichy Convent, also known as Bogoroditse-Smolensky Monastery is probably the best-known cloister of Moscow. Its name, sometimes translated as the New Maidens' Monastery, was devised to differ from an ancient maidens' convent within the Moscow Kremlin. Unlike other Moscow cloisters, it has...

 is extant in its original form. Zolotaryov also worked on the iconostasis and icons of the Donskoy Monastery
Donskoy Monastery
Donskoy Monastery is a major monastery in Moscow, founded in 1591 in commemoration of Moscow's deliverance from an imminent threat of Khan Kazy-Girey’s invasion...

 and New Jerusalem Monastery
New Jerusalem Monastery
The New Jerusalem Monastery or Novoiyerusalimsky Monastery , also known as the Voskresensky Monastery, is a male monastery, located in the town of Istra in Moscow Oblast, Russia....

, but these works were severely altered by later renovation and cannot be reliably attributed. Lev Naryshkin, who became chief of the Prikaz in 1989, assigned Zolotaryov to work on the interiors of the Church of Intercession
Church of the Intercession at Fili
The Church of the Intercession at Fili is a Naryshkin baroque church commissioned by the boyar Lev Naryshkin in his suburban estate Fili; the territory has belonged to City of Moscow since 1935...

 in his Fili
Fili (Moscow)
Fili is a former suburban village, now a neighborhood in the western section of Moscow, Russia, notable for the events of September 1812, following the Battle of Borodino. The village was located between the Moskva River and Poklonnaya Hill, near the present-day Fili station of Moscow Metro and...

 estate. The iconostasis and three icons signed by Zolotaryov (1692–1694) are also extant (the icon of Saint Stephan was relocated to Andrey Rublyov museum). More icons attributed to Zolotaryov are preserved in the Museum of Andrey Rublyov and in Novodevichy Convent. Icons attributed to Zolotaryov School are displayed at Ostankino Palace
Ostankino Palace
Ostankino Palace is a former summer residence and private opera theater of Sheremetev family, originally situated several kilometres to the north from Moscow but now a part of the North-Eastern Administrative Okrug of Moscow...

 and other museums.

European Baroque
Baroque
The Baroque is a period and the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music...

 influence was common among Moscow artists of the period (Vasily Poznansky, Bogdan Saltanov
Bogdan Saltanov
Bogdan Saltanov , also known as Ivan Ievlevich Saltanov, was an Armenian-born Russian painter at the court of Alexis I of Russia and his successors. Saltanov headed the painting workshop of the Kremlin Armoury from 1686...

 et al.); Zolotaryov's painting stands out among them for its use of contrasting shadows approaching that of the Italian chiaroscuro
Chiaroscuro
Chiaroscuro in art is "an Italian term which literally means 'light-dark'. In paintings the description refers to clear tonal contrasts which are often used to suggest the volume and modelling of the subjects depicted"....

 school, for its sculpture-like depiction of bodies and for its finely detailed depiction of clothing and crown
Crown (headgear)
A crown is the traditional symbolic form of headgear worn by a monarch or by a deity, for whom the crown traditionally represents power, legitimacy, immortality, righteousness, victory, triumph, resurrection, honour and glory of life after death. In art, the crown may be shown being offered to...

s. The faces of saints share the same elongated, almond
Almond
The almond , is a species of tree native to the Middle East and South Asia. Almond is also the name of the edible and widely cultivated seed of this tree...

-shaped outline with thin, long noses and small mouths.

Presumably, the artist died or retired in 1698: in that year his name disappeared from known official records; his chair at the workshop passed to Ivan Refusitsky.