Kaiser Wilhelm Institute

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The Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science (German
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

 Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften) was a German
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 scientific institution established in 1911. It was implicated in Nazi science, and after the Second World War was wound up and its functions replaced by the Max Planck Society
Max Planck Society
The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes publicly funded by the federal and the 16 state governments of Germany....

. The Kaiser Wilhelm Society was an umbrella organization for many institutes, testing stations, and research units units spawned under its authority.

Constitution


The Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft (KWG) was founded in 1911 in order to promote the natural sciences in Germany, by founding and maintaining research institutions formally independent from the state and its administrations. The institutions were to be under the guidance of prominent directors, which included luminaries such as Walther Bothe
Walther Bothe
Walther Wilhelm Georg Bothe was a German nuclear physicist, who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1954 with Max Born....

, Peter Debye
Peter Debye
Peter Joseph William Debye FRS was a Dutch physicist and physical chemist, and Nobel laureate in Chemistry.-Early life:...

, Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of general relativity, effecting a revolution in physics. For this achievement, Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics and one of the most prolific intellects in human history...

, Fritz Haber
Fritz Haber
Fritz Haber was a German chemist, who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his development for synthesizing ammonia, important for fertilizers and explosives. Haber, along with Max Born, proposed the Born–Haber cycle as a method for evaluating the lattice energy of an ionic solid...

, Otto Hahn
Otto Hahn
Otto Hahn FRS was a German chemist and Nobel laureate, a pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry. He is regarded as "the father of nuclear chemistry". Hahn was a courageous opposer of Jewish persecution by the Nazis and after World War II he became a passionate campaigner...

 and Werner Heisenberg
Werner Heisenberg
Werner Karl Heisenberg was a German theoretical physicist who made foundational contributions to quantum mechanics and is best known for asserting the uncertainty principle of quantum theory...

; a board of trustees also provided guidance.

Funding was ultimately obtained from sources internal and external to Germany. Internally, money was raised from individuals, industry, and the government, as well as through the Notgemeinschaft der Deutschen Wissenschaft
Notgemeinschaft der Deutschen Wissenschaft
Notgemeinschaft der Deutschen Wissenschaft was founded on 30 October 1920 on the initiative of leading members of the Preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften – Fritz Haber, Max Planck, and Ernst von Harnack – and the former Preußischen...

 (Emergency Association of German Science).

External to Germany, the Rockefeller Foundation
Rockefeller Foundation
The Rockefeller Foundation is a prominent philanthropic organization and private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. The preeminent institution established by the six-generation Rockefeller family, it was founded by John D. Rockefeller , along with his son John D. Rockefeller, Jr...

 granted students worldwide one year study stipends, for whichever institute they chose, some studied in Germany. In contrast to the German universities with their formal independence from state administrations, the institutions of the Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft had no obligation to teach students.

The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute and its research facilities were involved in weapons research, experimentation and production in both World War One and World War Two.

After World War II


By the end of World War II, the KWG and its institutes had lost their central location in Berlin and were operating in other locations. The KWG was operating out of its Aerodynamics Testing Station in Göttingen
Göttingen
Göttingen is a university town in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is the capital of the district of Göttingen. The Leine river runs through the town. In 2006 the population was 129,686.-General information:...

. Albert Vögler
Albert Vögler
Albert Vögler , was a German liberal politician, industrialist and entrepreneur. He was a co-founder of the German People's Party, and an important executive in the munitions industry during the Second World War....

, the president of the KWG, committed suicide on 14 April. Thereupon, Ernst Telschow assumed the duties until Max Planck
Max Planck
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, ForMemRS, was a German physicist who actualized the quantum physics, initiating a revolution in natural science and philosophy. He is regarded as the founder of the quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.-Life and career:Planck came...

 could be brought from Magdeburg
Magdeburg
Magdeburg , is the largest city and the capital city of the Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Magdeburg is situated on the Elbe River and was one of the most important medieval cities of Europe....

 to Göttingen, which was in the British zone of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany
Allied Occupation Zones in Germany
The Allied powers who defeated Nazi Germany in World War II divided the country west of the Oder-Neisse line into four occupation zones for administrative purposes during 1945–49. In the closing weeks of fighting in Europe, US forces had pushed beyond the previously agreed boundaries for the...

. Planck assumed the duties on 16 May until a president could be elected. Otto Hahn
Otto Hahn
Otto Hahn FRS was a German chemist and Nobel laureate, a pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry. He is regarded as "the father of nuclear chemistry". Hahn was a courageous opposer of Jewish persecution by the Nazis and after World War II he became a passionate campaigner...

 was selected by directors to be president, but there were a number of difficulties to be overcome. Hahn, being related to nuclear research had been captured by the allied forces of Operation Alsos
Operation Alsos
Operation Alsos was an effort at the end of World War II by the Allies , branched off from the Manhattan Project, to investigate the German nuclear energy project, seize German nuclear resources, materials and personnel to further American research and to prevent their capture by the Soviets, and...

, and he was still interned at Farm Hall in England, under Operation Epsilon
Operation Epsilon
Operation Epsilon was the codename of a program in which Allied forces near the end of World War II detained ten German scientists who were thought to have worked on Nazi Germany's nuclear program. The scientists were captured between May 1 and June 30, 1945, and interned at Farm Hall, a bugged...

. At first, Hahn was reluctant to accept the post, but others prevailed upon him to accept it. Hahn took over the presidency three months after being released and returned to Germany. However, the Office of Military Government, United States
Office of Military Government, United States
The Office of Military Government, United States was the United States military-established government created shortly after the end of hostilities in occupied Germany in World War II. Under General Lucius D...

 (OMGUS) passed a resolution to dissolve the KWG on 11 July 1946.

Meanwhile, members of the British occupation forces, specifically in the Research Branch of the OMGUS, saw the Society in a more favorable light and tried to dissuade the Americans from taking such action. The physicist Howard Percy Robertson
Howard Percy Robertson
Howard Percy Robertson was an American mathematician and physicist known for contributions related to physical cosmology and the uncertainty principle...

 was director of the department for science in the British Zone; he had a National Research Council Fellowship in the 1920s to study at the Georg-August University of Göttingen
Georg-August University of Göttingen
The University of Göttingen , known informally as Georgia Augusta, is a university in the city of Göttingen, Germany.Founded in 1734 by King George II of Great Britain and the Elector of Hanover, it opened for classes in 1737. The University of Göttingen soon grew in size and popularity...

 and the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich
Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich
The Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich , commonly known as the University of Munich or LMU, is a university in Munich, Germany...

. Also, Colonel Bertie Blount was on the staff of the British Research Branch, and he had received his doctorate at Göttingen under Walther Borsche. Among other things, Bertie suggested to Hahn to write to Sir Henry Hallett Dale
Henry Hallett Dale
Sir Henry Hallett Dale, OM, GBE, PRS was an English pharmacologist and physiologist. For his study of acetylcholine as agent in the chemical transmission of nerve impulses he shared the 1936 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Otto Loewi.-Biography:Henry Hallett Dale was born in Islington,...

, who had been the president of the Royal Society
Royal Society
The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, known simply as the Royal Society, is a learned society for science, and is possibly the oldest such society in existence. Founded in November 1660, it was granted a Royal Charter by King Charles II as the "Royal Society of London"...

, which he did. While in England, Bertie also spoke with Dale, who came up with a suggestion. Dale believed that it was only the name which conjured up a pejorative picture and suggested that the Society be renamed the Max Planck Gesellschaft. On 11 September 1946, the Max Planck Gesellschaft was founded in the British Zone only. The second founding took place on 26 February 1948 for both the American and British occupation zones. The physicists Max von Laue
Max von Laue
Max Theodor Felix von Laue was a German physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1914 for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals...

 and Walther Gerlach were also instrumental in establishing the Society across the allied zones, including the French zone.

Presidents

  • Adolf von Harnack
    Adolf von Harnack
    Adolf von Harnack , was a German theologian and prominent church historian.He produced many religious publications from 1873-1912....

     (1911–1930)
  • Max Planck
    Max Planck
    Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, ForMemRS, was a German physicist who actualized the quantum physics, initiating a revolution in natural science and philosophy. He is regarded as the founder of the quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.-Life and career:Planck came...

     (1930–1937)
  • Carl Bosch
    Carl Bosch
    Carl Bosch was a German chemist and engineer and Nobel laureate in chemistry. He was a pioneer in the field of high-pressure industrial chemistry and founder of IG Farben, at one point the world's largest chemical company....

     (1937–1940)
  • Albert Vögler
    Albert Vögler
    Albert Vögler , was a German liberal politician, industrialist and entrepreneur. He was a co-founder of the German People's Party, and an important executive in the munitions industry during the Second World War....

     (1941–1945)
  • Max Planck
    Max Planck
    Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, ForMemRS, was a German physicist who actualized the quantum physics, initiating a revolution in natural science and philosophy. He is regarded as the founder of the quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.-Life and career:Planck came...

     (16 May 1945 - 31 March 1946)
  • Otto Hahn
    Otto Hahn
    Otto Hahn FRS was a German chemist and Nobel laureate, a pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry. He is regarded as "the father of nuclear chemistry". Hahn was a courageous opposer of Jewish persecution by the Nazis and after World War II he became a passionate campaigner...

     (1 April 1946 - 10 September 1946 in the British Occupation Zone)

Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes

  • KWI for Animal Breeding Research, founded in Dummerstorf
    Dummerstorf
    Dummerstorf is a municipality in the Rostock district, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.- References :...

    . Transformed into a research institute of the (East)-German Academy of Sciences.
  • KWI of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics
    Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics
    The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics was founded in 1927. The Rockefeller Foundation supported both the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Psychiatry and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics...

    , founded 1926 in Berlin-Dahlem.
  • KWI for Bast Fiber Research, founded 1938 in Sorau. It was relocated to Mährisch Schönberg
    Šumperk
    Šumperk is a town and district in the Olomouc Region of the Czech Republic. It is called "The Gate to Jeseníky mountains."- History :Šumperk was founded by German colonists in 1269. The German name Schönberg means "beautiful hill", and the name Šumperk is a Czech garbling of the original German...

     in 1941 and to Bielefeld in 1946. After its incorporation into the Max Planck Society
    Max Planck Society
    The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes publicly funded by the federal and the 16 state governments of Germany....

     in 1948 and two further relocations to Westheim and Niedermarsberg in 1951 it was incorporated into the Max Planck Institute for Breeding Research and relocated to Köln-Vogelsang. The Institute was closed down in 1957. Its first director was Ernst Schilling 1938-1945 and 1948-1951.
  • KWI for Biology, founded 1912 in Berlin and moved to Tübingen
    Tübingen
    Tübingen is a traditional university town in central Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated south of the state capital, Stuttgart, on a ridge between the Neckar and Ammer rivers.-Geography:...

     in 1943. It is now the Max Planck Institute for Biology
    Max Planck Institute for Biology
    The Max Planck Institute for Biology was located in Tübingen, Germany. It was created as the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology in Berlin in 1912, and moved to Tübingen 1943. It was one of 80 institutes in the Max Planck Society and was closed in 2005....

    .
  • KWI for Biochemistry, founded 1912. Nowadays, there exists the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry
    Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry
    The Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry is a research institute of the Max Planck Society located in Martinsried, a suburb of Munich. The Institute was "founded in 1973 by the merger of three formerly independent institutes: the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, the Max Planck Institute of...

    , but there is no straight relation between the institutes.
  • KWI for Biophysics, formerly the Institut für Physikalische Grundlagen der Medizin of Friedrich Dessauer
    Friedrich Dessauer
    Friedrich Dessauer was a physicist, a philosopher, a socially engaged entrepreneur and a journalist.Friedrich Dessauer was born in Aschaffenburg, Germany. As a young man he was fascinated by new discoveries in the natural sciences. He was particularly interested in the X-rays discovered by...

     was incorporated into the KWG by Boris Rajewsky in 1937. The Institute is located in Frankfurt am Main. It is now the Max Planck Institute for Biophysics
    Max Planck Institute for Biophysics
    The Max Planck Institute for Biophysics is located in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It was founded as Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biophysics in 1937, and moved into a new building in 2003...

    .
  • KWI for Brain Research, founded 1914 in Berlin by Oskar Vogt
    Oskar Vogt
    Oskar Vogt was a German physician and neurologist. He was born in Husum - Schleswig-Holstein...

    . It is now the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research
    Max Planck Institute for Brain Research
    The Max Planck Institute for Brain Research is located in Frankfurt, Germany. It was founded as Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research in Berlin 1914, and moved into new buildings in Frankfurt 1962...

    .
  • KWI for Cell Physiology, founded 1930 in in Dahlem
    Dahlem (Berlin)
    Dahlem is a locality of the Steglitz-Zehlendorf borough in southwestern Berlin. Until Berlin's 2001 administrative reform it was a part of the former borough of Zehlendorf. Dahlem is one of the most affluent parts of the city and home to the main campus of the Free University of Berlin with the...

    , Berlin
    Berlin
    Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

     by Otto Heinrich Warburg
    Otto Heinrich Warburg
    Otto Heinrich Warburg , son of physicist Emil Warburg, was a German physiologist, medical doctor and Nobel laureate. He served as an officer in the elite Uhlan during the First World War and won the Iron Cross for bravery. Warburg was one of the twentieth century's leading biochemists...

     and the Rockefeller Foundation
    Rockefeller Foundation
    The Rockefeller Foundation is a prominent philanthropic organization and private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. The preeminent institution established by the six-generation Rockefeller family, it was founded by John D. Rockefeller , along with his son John D. Rockefeller, Jr...

    .
  • KWI for Chemistry, founded 1911 in Dahlem. It is now the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry
    Max Planck Institute for Chemistry
    The Max Planck Institute for Chemistry is a scientific research institute under the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft.Basic research in chemistry and related subjects is carried out at the four departments of the institute. The departments are independently led by their Directors.-The departments:The...

    , also known as the Otto Hahn Institute.
  • KWI for Coal Research Institute of the KWG, founded 1912 in Mülheim
    Mülheim
    Mülheim an der Ruhr, also called "City on the River", is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany. It is located in the Ruhr Area between Duisburg, Essen, Oberhausen and Ratingen...

    . It is now the Max Planck Institute für Kohlenforschung.
  • KWI for Comparative Public Law and International Law, founded 1924 in Berlin. It is now the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law in Heidelberg
    Heidelberg
    -Early history:Between 600,000 and 200,000 years ago, "Heidelberg Man" died at nearby Mauer. His jaw bone was discovered in 1907; with scientific dating, his remains were determined to be the earliest evidence of human life in Europe. In the 5th century BC, a Celtic fortress of refuge and place of...

    .
  • KWI for Experimental Therapy, founded in 1915 by August von Wasserman.
  • KWI for Fiber Chemistry, founded in 1920 by Reginald Oliver Herzog, closed in 1934.
  • KWI of Flow (Fluid Dynamics) Research, founded 1925. Ludwig Prandtl was the director from 1926 to 1946. It is now the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization
    Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization
    The Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-organisation in Göttingen, Germany, is a research institute for investigations of complex non-equilibrium systems, particularly in physics and biology....

    .
  • KWI for Foreign Private and Private International Law, founded 1926 in Berlin by Ernst Rabel. It is now the Max Planck Institute for Foreign Private and Private International Law in Hamburg
    Hamburg
    -History:The first historic name for the city was, according to Claudius Ptolemy's reports, Treva.But the city takes its modern name, Hamburg, from the first permanent building on the site, a castle whose construction was ordered by the Emperor Charlemagne in AD 808...

    .
  • KWI for German History, founded 1917 in Berlin. It was later the Max Planck Institute for History,, now transformed a Max Planck Institute for multi-ethnic societies.
  • KWI for Hydrobiological Research. One of its directors was August Friedrich Thienemann.
  • KWI for Iron Research, founded 1917 in Aachen
    Aachen
    Aachen has historically been a spa town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Aachen was a favoured residence of Charlemagne, and the place of coronation of the Kings of Germany. Geographically, Aachen is the westernmost town of Germany, located along its borders with Belgium and the Netherlands, ...

     and it moved to Düsseldorf
    Düsseldorf
    Düsseldorf is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and centre of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region.Düsseldorf is an important international business and financial centre and renowned for its fashion and trade fairs. Located centrally within the European Megalopolis, the...

     in 1921. It is now the Max Planck Institute for Iron Research GmbH
    Max Planck Institute for Iron Research GmbH
    The Max Planck Institute for Iron Research GmbH is a research institute of the Max Planck Society located in Düsseldorf. The institute was founded as Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Iron Research in Aachen 1917 and moved 1921 to Düsseldorf.-External links:* *...

    .
  • KWI for Leather Research, founded 1921 in Dresden
    Dresden
    Dresden is the capital city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany. It is situated in a valley on the River Elbe, near the Czech border. The Dresden conurbation is part of the Saxon Triangle metropolitan area....

     by Max Bergmann
    Max Bergmann
    Max Bergmann was a Jewish-German biochemist. He was the first to use the Carboxybenzyl protecting group for the synthesis of oligopeptides.-Life and work:Bergmann was born in Fürth, Bavaria, Germany on February 12, 1886....

    . It became a part of an institute that later the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry
    Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry
    The Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry is a research institute of the Max Planck Society located in Martinsried, a suburb of Munich. The Institute was "founded in 1973 by the merger of three formerly independent institutes: the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, the Max Planck Institute of...

     in Martinsried
    Martinsried
    Martinsried is a section of Planegg, a municipality neighboring Munich, Germany. Martinsried lies about 15 km southwest of Munich's city center.Martinsried is mostly known as the location of the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry and the...

    .
  • KWI for Medical Research founded 1929 in Heidelberg
    Heidelberg
    -Early history:Between 600,000 and 200,000 years ago, "Heidelberg Man" died at nearby Mauer. His jaw bone was discovered in 1907; with scientific dating, his remains were determined to be the earliest evidence of human life in Europe. In the 5th century BC, a Celtic fortress of refuge and place of...

     by Ludolf von Krehl
    Ludolf von Krehl
    Albrecht Ludolf von Krehl was a German internist and physiologist who was a native of Leipzig. He was the son of Orientalist Christoph Krehl...

    . It is now the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research
    Max Planck Institute for Medical Research
    The Max Planck Institute for Medical Research in Heidelberg, Germany, is a facility of the Max Planck Society for basic medical research. Since its foundation, six Nobel Prize laureates worked at the Institute: Otto Fritz Meyerhof , Richard Kuhn , Walther Bothe , André Michel Lwoff , Rudolf...

     in Heidelberg.
  • KWI for Metals Research, founded 1921 in Neubabelsberg. It closed in 1933 and reopened in Stuttgart in 1934. It is now the Max Planck Institute for Metals Research
    Max Planck Institute for Metals Research
    The Max Planck Institute for Metals Research is a research institute of the Max Planck Society located in Stuttgart. The institute was founded 1921 as Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Metal Research in Berlin and closed 1932. 1934 it was reopened in Stuttgart and incorporated into the Max Planck...

     in Stuttgart
    Stuttgart
    Stuttgart is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. The sixth-largest city in Germany, Stuttgart has a population of 600,038 while the metropolitan area has a population of 5.3 million ....

    .
  • KWI for Plant Breeding Research, founded in Müncheberg
    Müncheberg
    Müncheberg is a small town in Märkisch-Oderland, Germany approximately half-way between Berlin and the border with Poland.-Geography:Prior to 2003 the area today covered by Müncheberg was organized as the so-called "Amt Müncheberg"...

     in 1929 by Erwin Baur
    Erwin Baur
    Erwin Baur was a German geneticist and botanist. Baur worked primarily on plant genetics. He was director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Breeding Research . Baur is considered to be the father of plant virology...

    . It is now the Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research
    Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research
    The Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research is located in Cologne, Germany. The institute was founded as part of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society as the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Plant Breeding Research in 1928 in Müncheberg, midway between Berlin and the German-Polish border...

     located in Cologne
    Cologne
    Cologne is Germany's fourth-largest city , and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.Cologne is located on both sides of the...

    .
  • KWI for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, founded 1911 in Dahlem, Berlin. It is now the Fritz Haber Institute of the MPG
    Fritz Haber Institute of the MPG
    The Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society is a science research institute located at the heart of the academic district of Dahlem, in Berlin, Germany....

    , named after Fritz Haber
    Fritz Haber
    Fritz Haber was a German chemist, who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his development for synthesizing ammonia, important for fertilizers and explosives. Haber, along with Max Born, proposed the Born–Haber cycle as a method for evaluating the lattice energy of an ionic solid...

    , who was the director 1911-1933.
  • KWI for Physics, founded 1917 in Berlin. Albert Einstein
    Albert Einstein
    Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of general relativity, effecting a revolution in physics. For this achievement, Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics and one of the most prolific intellects in human history...

     was the director 1917-1933; in 1922, Max von Laue
    Max von Laue
    Max Theodor Felix von Laue was a German physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1914 for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals...

     became deputy director and took over administrative duties from Einstein. It is now the Max Planck Institute for Physics
    Max Planck Institute for Physics
    Max Planck Institute for Physics is a physics institute in Munich, Germany that specializes in High Energy Physics and Astroparticle physics. It is part of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft and is also known as the Werner Heisenberg Institute, after its first director.It was founded as the Kaiser Wilhelm...

    ; also known as the Werner Heisenberg Institute.
  • KWI for Physiology of Effort (Work)/KWI for Occupational Physiology, founded 1912 in Berlin, moved to Dortmund in 1929. It is now the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Physiology
    Max Planck Institute for Molecular Physiology
    The Max Planck Institute for Molecular Physiology is located in Dortmund, Germany next to the university. It is one of 80 institutes in the Max Planck Society .The institute is divided into four departments:...

     in Dortmund.
  • German Research Institute for Psychiatry (a Kaiser Wilhelm institute) in Munich. It is now the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry.
  • KWI for Silicate Research, founded 1926 in Berlin-Dahlem by Wilhelm Eitel.
  • KWI for Textile Chemistry
  • KWI Vine Breeding

Kaiser Wilhelm Society Organizations

  • Aerodynamic Testing Station (Göttingen e. V.) of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society. The testing unit Aerodynamische Versuchsanstalt (AVA) was formed in 1925 along with the KWI of Flow (Fluid Dynamics) Research. In 1937, it became the testing station of the KWG.
  • Biological Station Lunz of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
  • German Entomological Institute of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
  • Hydrobiological Station of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
  • Institute for Agricultural Work Studies in the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
  • Research Unit "D" in the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
  • Rossitten Bird Station
    Rossitten Bird Observatory
    The Rossitten Bird Observatory was the world's first ornithological observatory. It was sited at Rossitten, East Prussia , on the Curonian Spit on the south-eastern coast of the Baltic Sea...

     of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, founded 1901 in Rossitten and integrated into the Kaiser Wilhelm Society in 1921. The ornithological station was ceased at the end of the Second World War, but work continues at the ornithological station Radolfzell
    Radolfzell
    Radolfzell am Bodensee is a town in Germany at the western end of Lake Constance approximately 18 km northwest of Konstanz. It is the third largest town, after Constance and Singen, in the district of Konstanz, in Baden-Württemberg....

     which is part of the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology.
  • Silesian
    Province of Silesia
    The Province of Silesia was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1815 to 1919.-Geography:The territory comprised the bulk of the former Bohemian crown land of Silesia and the County of Kladsko, which King Frederick the Great had conquered from the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy in the 18th...

     Coal Research Institute of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, in Breslau.

Institutions outside Germany

  • Bibliotheca Hertziana, founded 1913 in Rome. It is now the Bibliotheca Hertziana - Max Planck Institute of Art History
    Bibliotheca Hertziana - Max Planck Institute of Art History
    The Bibliotheca Hertziana – Max Planck Institute of Art History is located in Rome, Italy. It was founded by a donation of Henriette Hertz in 1913 as a Kaiser Wilhelm Institute...

    in Rome.
  • German-Bulgarian Institute for Agricultural Science founded in 1940 in Sofia.
  • German-Greek Institute for Biology in the Kaiser Wilhelm Society founded in 1940 in Athens.
  • German-Italian Institute for Marine Biology at Rovigno, Italy.
  • Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Cultivated Plant Research founded in 1940 in Vienna, Austria.

Other

  • Institute for the Science of Agricultural Work founded in 1940 in Breslau.
  • Research Unit for Virus Research of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biochemistry and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology. The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for theoretical physics was taught by William Killian.

External links