Julius

Julius

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The gens Julia was one of the most ancient patrician families at Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

. Members of the gens
Gens
In ancient Rome, a gens , plural gentes, referred to a family, consisting of all those individuals who shared the same nomen and claimed descent from a common ancestor. A branch of a gens was called a stirps . The gens was an important social structure at Rome and throughout Italy during the...

attained the highest dignities of the state in the earliest times of the Republic
Roman Republic
The Roman Republic was the period of the ancient Roman civilization where the government operated as a republic. It began with the overthrow of the Roman monarchy, traditionally dated around 508 BC, and its replacement by a government headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and...

. The first of the family to obtain the consulship
Roman consul
A consul served in the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic.Each year, two consuls were elected together, to serve for a one-year term. Each consul was given veto power over his colleague and the officials would alternate each month...

 was Gaius Julius Iulus in 489 BC. The gens is perhaps best known, however, for Gaius Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman general and statesman and a distinguished writer of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the gradual transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire....

, the dictator
Roman dictator
In the Roman Republic, the dictator , was an extraordinary magistrate with the absolute authority to perform tasks beyond the authority of the ordinary magistrate . The office of dictator was a legal innovation originally named Magister Populi , i.e...

, and grand uncle of the emperor Augustus
Augustus
Augustus ;23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) is considered the first emperor of the Roman Empire, which he ruled alone from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD.The dates of his rule are contemporary dates; Augustus lived under two calendars, the Roman Republican until 45 BC, and the Julian...

, through whom the name was passed to the so-called Julio-Claudian dynasty
Julio-Claudian Dynasty
The Julio-Claudian dynasty normally refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula , Claudius, and Nero, or the family to which they belonged; they ruled the Roman Empire from its formation, in the second half of the 1st century BC, until AD 68, when the last of the line,...

 of the 1st century AD. The nomen
Roman naming conventions
By the Republican era and throughout the Imperial era, a name in ancient Rome for a male citizen consisted of three parts : praenomen , nomen and cognomen...

 Julius
became quite common in imperial times
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

, as the descendants of persons enrolled as citizens
Roman citizenship
Citizenship in ancient Rome was a privileged political and legal status afforded to certain free-born individuals with respect to laws, property, and governance....

 under the early emperors began to make their mark in history.

Origin of the gens


The Julii were without doubt of Alban origin, and it is mentioned as one of the leading Alban houses, which Tullus Hostilius
Tullus Hostilius
Tullus Hostilius was the legendary third of the Kings of Rome. He succeeded Numa Pompilius, and was succeeded by Ancus Marcius...

 removed to Rome upon the destruction of Alba Longa
Alba Longa
Alba Longa – in Italian sources occasionally written Albalonga – was an ancient city of Latium in central Italy southeast of Rome in the Alban Hills. Founder and head of the Latin League, it was destroyed by Rome around the middle of the 7th century BC. In legend, Romulus and Remus, founders of...

. The Julii also existed at an early period at Bovillae
Bovillae
Bovillae was an ancient town in Lazio, central Italy, currently part of the Frattocchie frazione in the municipality of Marino.It was a station on the Via Appia , located c. 18 km SE of Rome. It was a colony of Alba Longa, and appears as one of the thirty cities of the Latin league...

, as we learn from a very ancient inscription on an altar in the theatre of that town, which speaks of their offering sacrifices according to the lege Albana, or Alban rites; and their connection with Bovillae is also implied by the sacrarium, or chapel, which the emperor Tiberius
Tiberius
Tiberius , was Roman Emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD. Tiberius was by birth a Claudian, son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. His mother divorced Nero and married Augustus in 39 BC, making him a step-son of Octavian...

 dedicated to the gens Julia in the town, and in which he placed the statue of Augustus. It is not impossible that some of the Julii may have settled at Bovillae after the fall of Alba Longa.

As it became the fashion in the later times of the Republic to claim a divine origin for the most distinguished of the Roman gentes, it was contended that Iulus, the mythical ancestor of the race, was the same as Ascanius
Ascanius
Ascanius is the son of the Trojan hero Aeneas and a legendary king of Alba Longa. He is a character of Roman mythology, and has a divine lineage, being the son of Aeneas, who is son of Venus and the hero Anchises, a relative of Priam; thus Ascanius has divine ascendents by both parents, being...

, the son of Aeneas
Aeneas
Aeneas , in Greco-Roman mythology, was a Trojan hero, the son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite. His father was the second cousin of King Priam of Troy, making Aeneas Priam's second cousin, once removed. The journey of Aeneas from Troy , which led to the founding a hamlet south of...

, and founder of Alba Longa
Alba Longa
Alba Longa – in Italian sources occasionally written Albalonga – was an ancient city of Latium in central Italy southeast of Rome in the Alban Hills. Founder and head of the Latin League, it was destroyed by Rome around the middle of the 7th century BC. In legend, Romulus and Remus, founders of...

. Aeneas was, in turn, the son of Venus
Venus (mythology)
Venus is a Roman goddess principally associated with love, beauty, sex,sexual seduction and fertility, who played a key role in many Roman religious festivals and myths...

 and Anchises
Anchises
In Greek mythology, Anchises was the son of Capys and Themiste . His major claim to fame in Greek mythology is that he was a mortal lover of the goddess Aphrodite . One version is that Aphrodite pretended to be a Phrygian princess and seduced him for nearly two weeks of lovemaking...

. In order to prove the identity of Ascanius and Iulus, recourse was had to etymology, some specimens of which the reader curious in such matters will find in Servius. Other traditions held that Iulus was the son of Aeneas by his Trojan wife, Creusa
Creusa
In Greek mythology, four people had the name Creusa ; the name simply means "princess".-Naiad:According to Pindar's 9th Pythian Ode, Creusa was a naiad and daughter of Gaia who bore Hypseus, King of the Lapiths to the river god Peneus. Hypseus had one daughter, Cyrene. When a lion attacked her...

, while Ascanius was the son of Aeneas and Lavinia
Lavinia
In Roman mythology, Lavinia is the daughter of Latinus and Amata and the last wife of Aeneas.Lavinia, the only child of the king and "ripe for marriage", had been courted by many men in Ausonia who hoped to become the king of Latium. Turnus, ruler of the Rutuli, was the most likely of the suitors,...

, daughter of Latinus
Latinus
Latinus was a figure in both Greek and Roman mythology.-Greek mythology:In Hesiod's Theogony, Latinus was the son of Odysseus and Circe who ruled the Tyrsenoi, presumably the Etruscans, with his brothers Ardeas and Telegonus...

.

The dictator Caesar frequently alluded to the divine origin of his race, as, for instance, in the funeral oration which he pronounced when quaestor
Quaestor
A Quaestor was a type of public official in the "Cursus honorum" system who supervised financial affairs. In the Roman Republic a quaestor was an elected official whereas, with the autocratic government of the Roman Empire, quaestors were simply appointed....

 over his aunt Julia, and in giving Venus Genetrix as the word to his soldiers at the battles of Pharsalus
Battle of Pharsalus
The Battle of Pharsalus was a decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War. On 9 August 48 BC at Pharsalus in central Greece, Gaius Julius Caesar and his allies formed up opposite the army of the republic under the command of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus...

 and Munda
Battle of Munda
The Battle of Munda took place on March 17, 45 BC in the plains of Munda, modern southern Spain. This was the last battle of Julius Caesar's civil war against the republican armies of the Optimate leaders...

; and subsequent writers and poets were ready enough to fall in with a belief which flattered the pride and exalted the origin of the imperial family.

Though it would seem that the Julii first came to Rome in the reign of Tullus Hostilius, the name occurs in Roman legend as early as the time of Romulus
Romulus
- People:* Romulus and Remus, the mythical founders of Rome* Romulus Augustulus, the last Western Roman Emperor* Valerius Romulus , deified son of the Roman emperor Maxentius* Romulus , son of the Western Roman emperor Anthemius...

. It was Proculus Julius who was said to have informed the sorrowing Roman people, after the strange departure of Romulus from the world, that their king had descended from heaven and appeared to him, bidding him tell the people to honor him in future as a god, under the name of Quirinus
Quirinus
In Roman mythology, Quirinus was an early god of the Roman state. In Augustan Rome, Quirinus was also an epithet of Janus, as Janus Quirinus. His name is derived from Quiris meaning "spear."-History:...

. Some modern critics have inferred from this, that a few of the Julii might have settled in Rome in the reign of the first king; but considering the entirely fabulous nature of the tale, and the circumstance that the celebrity of the Julia gens in later times would easily lead to its connection with the earliest times of Roman story, no historical argument can be drawn from the mere name occurring in this legend.

In the later Empire, the distinction between praenomen, nomen, and cognomen was gradually lost, and Julius was treated much like a personal name, which it ultimately became. The Latin form is common in many languages, but other familiar forms exist, including Giulio
Giulio
Giulio may refer to:* Giulio Alberoni, Italian cardinal and statesman* Giulio Andreotti, Italian politician* Giulio Caccini , Florentine composer, significant innovator of the early Baroque era* Giulio Fioravanti, an Italian operatic baritone...

(Italian), Julio
Julio (given name)
JulioIn acting:* Julio Alemán, Mexican actor* Julio Mannino, Mexican actorIn politics:* Julio Acosta García, President of Costa Rica from 1920 to 1924* Julio Argentino Roca, army general who served as President of Argentina...

(Spanish), Jules (French), Júlio (Portuguese), Iuliu
Iuliu
Iuliu is a Romanian male given name derived from Latin Iulius. The female form is Iulia. In other cases Iuliu is the Romanianized form of the Hungarian name Gyula.People named Iuliu:*Iuliu Barasch*Iuliu Baratky*Iuliu Bodola*Iuliu Haţieganu...

(Romanian) and Юлий (Russian).

Praenomina used by the gens


The Julii of the Republic used the praenomina
Praenomen
The praenomen was a personal name chosen by the parents of a Roman child. It was first bestowed on the dies lustricus , the eighth day after the birth of a girl, or the ninth day after the birth of a boy...

 Lucius
Lucius (praenomen)
Lucius is a Latin praenomen, or personal name, which was one of the most common names throughout Roman history. The feminine form is Lucia . The praenomen was used by both patrician and plebeian families, and gave rise to the patronymic gentes Lucia and Lucilia, as well as the cognomen Lucullus...

, Gaius
Gaius (praenomen)
Gaius is a Latin praenomen, or personal name, which was one of the most common names throughout Roman history. The feminine form is Gaia. The praenomen was used by both patrician and plebeian families, and gave rise to the patronymic gens Gavia...

, Sextus
Sextus (praenomen)
Sextus is a Latin praenomen, or personal name, which was common throughout all periods of Roman history. It was used by both patrician and plebeian families, and gave rise to the patronymic gentes Sextia and Sextilia. The feminine form is Sexta...

, and Vopiscus
Vopiscus (praenomen)
Vopiscus is a Latin praenomen, or personal name, which was occasionally used during the period of the Roman Republic, and later as a cognomen, surviving into imperial times. The feminine form is Vopisca...

, of which the last was rare. The earliest of the Julii appearing in legend bore the praenomen Proculus
Proculus (praenomen)
Proculus is a Latin praenomen, or personal name, which was most common during the early centuries of the Roman Republic. It gave rise to the patronymic gentes Proculeia and Procilia, and later became a common cognomen, or surname. The feminine form is Procula...

, and it is not impossible that this name was used by some of the early Julii, although no later examples are known. In the later Republic and imperial times, Vopiscus and Proculus were sometimes used as personal cognomina.

The gens was always said to have descended from and been named after a mythical personage named Iulus or Iullus, even before he was asserted to be the son of Aeneas; and it is entirely possible that Iulus was an ancient praenomen, which had fallen out of use by the early Republic, and was preserved as a cognomen by the eldest branch of the Julii. The name was later revived as a praenomen by Marcus Antonius
Mark Antony
Marcus Antonius , known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. As a military commander and administrator, he was an important supporter and loyal friend of his mother's cousin Julius Caesar...

, the triumvir, who had a son and grandson named Iulus. Classical Latin did not distinguish between the letters "I" and "J", which were both written with "I", and for this reason the name is sometimes written Julus, just as Julius is also written Iulius.

The many Julii of imperial times, who were not descended from the gens Julia, did not limit themselves to the praenomina of that family. The imperial family set the example by freely mingling the praenomina of the Julii with those of the gens Claudia, using titles and cognomina as praenomina, and regularly changing their praenomina to reflect the political winds of the empire.

Branches and cognomina of the gens


The family-names of the Julii in the time of the Republic are Caesar, Iulus, Mento, and Libo, of which the first three are undoubtedly patrician; but the only families which were particularly celebrated were those of Iulus and Caesar, the former at the beginning and the latter in the last century of the Republic. On coins the only names which we find are Caesar and Bursio, the latter of which does not occur in ancient writers.

It is uncertain which member of the Julia gens first obtained the surname of Caesar, but the first who occurs in history is Sextus Julius Caesar, praetor
Praetor
Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, usually in the field, or the named commander before mustering the army; and an elected magistratus assigned varied duties...

 in BC 208. The origin of the name is equally uncertain. Spartianus
Augustan History
The Augustan History is a late Roman collection of biographies, in Latin, of the Roman Emperors, their junior colleagues and usurpers of the period 117 to 284...

, in his life of Aelius Verus
Lucius Aelius
Lucius Aelius Caesar became the adopted son and intended successor, of Roman Emperor Hadrian , but never attained the throne....

, mentions four different opinions respecting its origin:
  1. That the word signified an elephant in the language of the Moors
    Moors
    The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of the Maghreb region who are predominately of Berber and Arab descent. They came to conquer and rule the Iberian Peninsula for nearly 800 years. At that time they were Muslim, although earlier the people had followed...

    , and was given as a surname to one of the Julii because he had killed an elephant.
  2. That it was given to one of the Julii because he had been cut (caesus) out of his mother's womb after her death; or
  3. Because he had been born with a great quantity of hair (caesaries) on his head; or
  4. Because he had azure-colored (caesii) eyes of an almost supernatural kind.

Of these opinions the third, which is also given by Festus
Sextus Pompeius Festus
Sextus Pompeius Festus was a Roman grammarian, who probably flourished in the later 2nd century AD, perhaps at Narbo in Gaul.He made an epitome in 20 volumes of the encyclopedic treatise in many volumes De verborum significatu, of Verrius Flaccus, a celebrated grammarian who flourished in the...

, seems to come nearest the truth. Caesar and caesaries are both probably connected with the Sanskrit kêsa, "hair", and it is quite in accordance with the Roman custom for a surname to be given to an individual from some peculiarity in his personal appearance. The second opinion, which seems to have been the most popular one with the ancient writers, arose without doubt from a false etymology
False etymology
Folk etymology is change in a word or phrase over time resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one. Unanalyzable borrowings from foreign languages, like asparagus, or old compounds such as samblind which have lost their iconic motivation are...

.

With respect to the first, which was the one adopted, says Spartianus, by the most learned men, it is impossible to disprove it absolutely, as we know next to nothing of the ancient Moorish language; but it has no inherent probability in it; and the statement of Servius is undoubtedly false, that the grandfather of the dictator obtained the surname on account of killing an elephant with his own hand in Africa, as there were several of the Julii with this name before his time. An inquiry into the etymology of this name is of some interest, as no other name has ever obtained such celebrity — as Spartianus states, "clarum et duraturum cum aeternitate mundi nomen."

The Julii Caesares became physically extinct in the male line, either with Caesar's death on the Ides of March
Ides of March
The Ides of March is the name of the 15th day of March in the Roman calendar, probably referring to the day of the full moon. The word Ides comes from the Latin word "Idus" and means "half division" especially in relation to a month. It is a word that was used widely in the Roman calendar...

 or, if Caesarion was truly his son, with the latter's death. Legally however the name passed on to a member of the Gens Octavia through Augustus, the adopted son and heir of the dictator, and then to a member of the Gens Claudia through Augustus' adopted son, Tiberius. It continued to be used by Caligula
Caligula
Caligula , also known as Gaius, was Roman Emperor from 37 AD to 41 AD. Caligula was a member of the house of rulers conventionally known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Caligula's father Germanicus, the nephew and adopted son of Emperor Tiberius, was a very successful general and one of Rome's most...

, Claudius
Claudius
Claudius , was Roman Emperor from 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he was the son of Drusus and Antonia Minor. He was born at Lugdunum in Gaul and was the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italy...

, and Nero
Nero
Nero , was Roman Emperor from 54 to 68, and the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nero was adopted by his great-uncle Claudius to become his heir and successor, and succeeded to the throne in 54 following Claudius' death....

, as members either by adoption or by female-line descent from Caesar; but though the family became extinct with Nero, succeeding emperors still retained it as part of their titles, and it was the practice to prefix it to their own name, as for instance, Imperator Caesar Domitianus Augustus. When Hadrian
Hadrian
Hadrian , was Roman Emperor from 117 to 138. He is best known for building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Roman Britain. In Rome, he re-built the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma. In addition to being emperor, Hadrian was a humanist and was philhellene in...

 adopted Aelius Verus
Lucius Aelius
Lucius Aelius Caesar became the adopted son and intended successor, of Roman Emperor Hadrian , but never attained the throne....

, he allowed the latter to take the title of Caesar; and from this time, though the title of Augustus continued to be confined to the reigning prince, that of Caesar was also granted to the second person in the state and the heir presumptive to the throne.

In imperial times we find an immense number of persons named Julius; but it must not be supposed that they were connected by descent in any way with the Julia gens; for, in consequence of the imperial family belonging to this gens, it became the name of their numerous freedmen
Freedman
A freedman is a former slave who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means. Historically, slaves became freedmen either by manumission or emancipation ....

, and it may have been assumed by many other persons out of vanity and ostentation.

Members of the gens

This list includes abbreviated praenomina
Praenomen
The praenomen was a personal name chosen by the parents of a Roman child. It was first bestowed on the dies lustricus , the eighth day after the birth of a girl, or the ninth day after the birth of a boy...

. For an explanation of this practice, see filiation.

Julii Iuli

  • Gaius Julius L. f. Iulus, consul in 489 BC.
  • Gaius Julius C. f. L. n. Iulus, consul in 482 BC, and one of the decemvirs
    Decemviri
    Decemviri is a Latin term meaning "Ten Men" which designates any such commission in the Roman Republic...

     in 451.
  • Vopiscus Julius C. f. L. n. Iulus, consul in 473 BC.
  • Gaius Julius C. f. C. n. Iulus, consul in 447 and 435 BC.
  • Lucius Julius Vop. f. C. n. Iulus, tribunus militum consulari potestate
    Tribuni militum consulari potestate
    The tribuni militum consulari potestate , in English commonly also Consular Tribunes, were tribunes elected with consular power during the "Conflict of the Orders" in the Roman Republic, starting in 444 BC and then continuously from 408 BC to 394 BC and again from 391 BC to 367 BC.According to the...

    in 438, and consul in 430 BC.
  • Sextus Julius Iulus, tribunus militum consulari potestate in 424 BC.
  • Gaius Julius L. f. Vop. n. Iulus, tribunus militum consulari potestate in 408 and 405 BC.
  • Lucius Julius Iulus, tribunus militum consulari potestate in 403 BC, continued the siege against Veii
    Veii
    Veii was, in ancient times, an important Etrurian city NNW of Rome, Italy; its site lies in Isola Farnese, a village of Municipio XX, an administrative subdivision of the comune of Rome in the Province of Rome...

    .
  • Lucius Julius L. f. Vop. n. Iulus, tribunus militum consulari potestate in 401 and 397 BC.
  • Lucius Julius Iulus, tribunus militum consulari potestate in 388 and 379 BC.
  • Gaius Julius Iulus, nominated dictator
    Roman dictator
    In the Roman Republic, the dictator , was an extraordinary magistrate with the absolute authority to perform tasks beyond the authority of the ordinary magistrate . The office of dictator was a legal innovation originally named Magister Populi , i.e...

     in 352 BC, ostensibly to carry on war against the Etruscans
    Etruscan civilization
    Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to a civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany. The ancient Romans called its creators the Tusci or Etrusci...

    , but in fact to carry the election of two patricians in the consular comitia, in violation of the lex Licinia Sextia.

Julii Mentones

  • Gaius Julius Mento, consul in 431 BC.
  • Gaius Julius Mento, a rhetorician, cited by Seneca
    Seneca the Elder
    Lucius or Marcus Annaeus Seneca, known as Seneca the Elder and Seneca the Rhetorician , was a Roman rhetorician and writer, born of a wealthy equestrian family of Cordoba, Hispania...

    .

Julii Libones

  • Lucius Julius Libo, grandfather of the consul of 267 BC.
  • Lucius Julius L. f. Libo, father of the consul of 267 BC.
  • Lucius Julius L. f. L. n. Libo
    Lucius Julius Libo
    Lucius Julius Libo was a member of the influential Julii clan. This patrician family was always of the most distinguished blood, however they had long since fallen out of the inner Roman elite. The Julii were active in politics since the Punic Wars....

    , consul in 267 BC, triumphed over the Sallentini.

Julii Caesares

  • Sextus Julius Caesar, praetor
    Praetor
    Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, usually in the field, or the named commander before mustering the army; and an elected magistratus assigned varied duties...

     in 208 BC, obtained the province of Sicilia
    Sicily
    Sicily is a region of Italy, and is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. Along with the surrounding minor islands, it constitutes an autonomous region of Italy, the Regione Autonoma Siciliana Sicily has a rich and unique culture, especially with regard to the arts, music, literature,...

    .
  • Lucius Julius Caesar, grandfather of the consul of 157 BC, and perhaps father of the praetor of 183 and the military tribune of 181.
  • Lucius Julius (L. f.) Caesar, praetor in 183 BC, had the province of Gallia Cisalpina
    Cisalpine Gaul
    Cisalpine Gaul, in Latin: Gallia Cisalpina or Citerior, also called Gallia Togata, was a Roman province until 41 BC when it was merged into Roman Italy.It bore the name Gallia, because the great body of its inhabitants, after the expulsion of the Etruscans, consisted of Gauls or Celts...

    .
  • Sextus Julius (L. f.) Caesar, tribunus militum in 181 BC.
  • Lucius Julius (L. f. L. n.) Caesar, praetor in 166 BC.
  • Sextus Julius Sex. f. L. n. Caesar, consul in 157 BC.
  • Sextus Julius (Sex. f. Sex. n.) Caesar, praetor urbanus in 123 BC.
  • Lucius Julius Sex. f. Sex. n. Caesar, father of the consul of 90 BC, married Popillia, widow of Quintus Lutatius Catulus, and mother of Quintus Lutatius Catulus
    Quintus Lutatius Catulus
    Quintus Lutatius Catulus was consul of the Roman Republic in 102 BC, and the leading public figure of the gens Lutatia of the time. His colleague in the consulship was Gaius Marius, but the two feuded and Catulus sided with Sulla in the civil war of 88–87 BC...

    , consul in 102 BC.
  • Lucius Julius L. f. Sex. n. Caesar, consul in 90 BC, during the Social War, and censor in 89.
  • Julia L. f. L. n.
    Julia Antonia
    Julia Caesaris or Julia Antonia was a daughter to consul Lucius Julius Caesar III and mother to the future triumvir and deputy of Caesar, Mark Antony. She was a sister to consul Lucius Julius Caesar IV. Her mother is unknown. She was born and raised in Rome...

    , wife of Marcus Antonius Creticus
    Marcus Antonius Creticus
    Marcus Antonius Creticus was a Roman politician, member of the Antonius family. Creticus was son of Marcus Antonius Orator and by his marriage to Julia Antonia he had three sons: Triumvir Marcus Antonius, Gaius Antonius and Lucius Antonius.He was elected praetor in 74 BC and received an...

    , and mother of Marcus Antonius
    Mark Antony
    Marcus Antonius , known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. As a military commander and administrator, he was an important supporter and loyal friend of his mother's cousin Julius Caesar...

    , the triumvir.
  • Gaius Julius L. f. Sex. n. Caesar Strabo Vopiscus
    Gaius Julius Caesar Strabo Vopiscus
    Gaius Julius Caesar Strabo Vopiscus was the younger son to Lucius Julius Caesar II and his wife Poppilia and younger brother to Lucius Julius Caesar III...

    , a notable orator and poet, proscribed and put to death by Marius
    Gaius Marius
    Gaius Marius was a Roman general and statesman. He was elected consul an unprecedented seven times during his career. He was also noted for his dramatic reforms of Roman armies, authorizing recruitment of landless citizens, eliminating the manipular military formations, and reorganizing the...

     and Cinna
    Lucius Cornelius Cinna
    Lucius Cornelius Cinna was a four-time consul of the Roman Republic, serving four consecutive terms from 87 to 84 BC, and a member of the ancient Roman Cinna family of the Cornelii gens....

     in 87 BC.
  • Lucius Julius L. f. L. n. Caesar, consul in 64 BC.
  • Julia L. f. L. n., married Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura, one of Catiline's
    Catiline
    Lucius Sergius Catilina , known in English as Catiline, was a Roman politician of the 1st century BC who is best known for the Catiline conspiracy, an attempt to overthrow the Roman Republic, and in particular the power of the aristocratic Senate.-Family background:Catiline was born in 108 BC to...

     conspirators.
  • Lucius Julius L. f. L. n. Caesar, a partisan of Pompeius
    Pompey
    Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, also known as Pompey or Pompey the Great , was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic...

     during the Civil War
    Caesar's civil war
    The Great Roman Civil War , also known as Caesar's Civil War, was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire...

    .
  • Gaius Julius (Sex. f. L. n.) Caesar, grandfather of the dictator, married Marcia.
  • Gaius Julius C. f. (Sex. n.) Caesar, praetor, and father of the dictator, married Aurelia.
  • Julia C. f. (Sex. n.)
    Julia Caesaris (wife of Marius)
    Julia Caesaris was a daughter of Gaius Julius Caesar II and Marcia . She was a sister of Gaius Julius Caesar III and Sextus Julius Caesar III....

    , aunt of the dictator, married Gaius Marius
    Gaius Marius
    Gaius Marius was a Roman general and statesman. He was elected consul an unprecedented seven times during his career. He was also noted for his dramatic reforms of Roman armies, authorizing recruitment of landless citizens, eliminating the manipular military formations, and reorganizing the...

    .
  • Sextus Julius C. f. (Sex. n.) Caesar, consul in 91 BC, uncle of the dictator.
  • Gaius Julius C. f. C. n. Caesar
    Julius Caesar
    Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman general and statesman and a distinguished writer of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the gradual transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire....

    , consul in 59, 48, 46, 45, and 44 BC, dictator in 49, and from 47 to 44 BC.
  • Julia C. f. C. n.
    Julia Caesaris (sister of Julius Caesar)
    Julia is the name of two daughters of praetor Gaius Julius Caesar and Aurelia Cotta, the parents of dictator Gaius Julius Caesar. The sisters were born and raised in Rome....

    , sister of the dictator, and wife of Lucius Pinarius and Quintus Pedius.
  • Julia C. f. C. n.
    Julia Caesaris (sister of Julius Caesar)
    Julia is the name of two daughters of praetor Gaius Julius Caesar and Aurelia Cotta, the parents of dictator Gaius Julius Caesar. The sisters were born and raised in Rome....

    , sister of the dictator, and wife of Marcus Atius Balbus
    Marcus Atius
    Marcus Atius Balbus was the son and heir of an elder Marcus Atius Balbus and Pompeia. Pompeia was a sister to consul Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo, father of triumvir Pompey. The family of the elder Balbus came from a Roman senatorial family plebs status from Aricia . ‘Balbus’ in Latin means stammer...

    .
  • Julia C. f. C. n.
    Julia (daughter of Julius Caesar)
    Julia Caesaris , 83 or 82 BC-54 BC, was the daughter of Gaius Julius Caesar the Roman dictator, by his first wife, Cornelia Cinna, and his only child in marriage. Julia became the fourth wife of Pompey the Great and was renowned for her beauty and virtue.-Life:Julia was born around 83 BC–82 BC...

    , daughter of the dictator, and wife of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus
    Pompey
    Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, also known as Pompey or Pompey the Great , was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic...

    .
  • Caesarion
    Caesarion
    Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar , better known by the nicknames Caesarion and Ptolemy Caesar , was the last king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, who reigned jointly with his mother Cleopatra VII of Egypt, from September 2, 44 BC...

    , the son of the dictator by Cleopatra, executed by order of Augustus in 30 BC.
  • Sextus Julius Sex. f. C. n. Caesar, Flamen Quirinalis
    Flamen Quirinalis
    In ancient Roman religion, the Flamen Quirinalis was the flamen devoted to the cult of god Quirinus. He was one of the three flamines majores, third in order of importance after the Flamen Dialis and the Flamen Martialis....

    in 57 BC.
  • Sextus Julius Sex. f. Sex. n. Caesar, appointed governor of Syria
    Syria (Roman province)
    Syria was a Roman province, annexed in 64 BC by Pompey, as a consequence of his military presence after pursuing victory in the Third Mithridatic War. It remained under Roman, and subsequently Byzantine, rule for seven centuries, until 637 when it fell to the Islamic conquests.- Principate :The...

     in 47 BC, killed in a revolt of the soldiers.
  • Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus
    Augustus
    Augustus ;23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) is considered the first emperor of the Roman Empire, which he ruled alone from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD.The dates of his rule are contemporary dates; Augustus lived under two calendars, the Roman Republican until 45 BC, and the Julian...

    , adopted son of the dictator, afterwards the emperor Augustus.

The Julio-Claudian Dynasty

  • Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus
    Augustus
    Augustus ;23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) is considered the first emperor of the Roman Empire, which he ruled alone from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD.The dates of his rule are contemporary dates; Augustus lived under two calendars, the Roman Republican until 45 BC, and the Julian...

    , emperor from 27 BC to AD 14.
  • Julia Augusta
    Livia
    Livia Drusilla, , after her formal adoption into the Julian family in AD 14 also known as Julia Augusta, was a Roman empress as the third wife of the Emperor Augustus and his adviser...

    , empress of Augustus, and mother of the emperor Tiberius.
  • Julia C. f. C. n.
    Julia the Elder
    Julia the Elder , known to her contemporaries as Julia Caesaris filia or Julia Augusti filia was the daughter and only biological child of Augustus, the first emperor of the Roman Empire. Augustus subsequently adopted several male members of his close family as sons...

    , daughter of Augustus by his second wife, Scribonia, married first Marcus Claudius Marcellus
    Marcus Claudius Marcellus (Julio-Claudian dynasty)
    Marcus Claudius Marcellus was the eldest son of Octavia Minor, sister of Augustus, and Gaius Claudius Marcellus Minor, a former consul...

    , second Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
    Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
    Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was a Roman statesman and general. He was a close friend, son-in-law, lieutenant and defense minister to Octavian, the future Emperor Caesar Augustus...

    , and lastly, the emperor Tiberius.
  • Gaius Julius Caesar
    Gaius Caesar
    Gaius Julius Caesar , most commonly known as Gaius Caesar or Caius Caesar, was the oldest son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder...

    , the eldest son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia, adopted by Augustus.
  • Lucius Julius Caesar
    Lucius Caesar
    Lucius Julius Caesar , most commonly known as Lucius Caesar, was the second son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. He was born between 14 of June and 15 July 17 BC with the name Lucius Vipsanius Agrippa, but when he was adopted by his maternal grandfather Roman Emperor Caesar...

    , the second son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia, adopted by Augustus.
  • Marcus Julius Caesar Agrippa Postumus, the third son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia, adopted by Augustus.
  • Tiberius Julius Caesar
    Tiberius
    Tiberius , was Roman Emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD. Tiberius was by birth a Claudian, son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. His mother divorced Nero and married Augustus in 39 BC, making him a step-son of Octavian...

    , emperor from AD 14 to 37.
  • Drusus Julius Caesar
    Julius Caesar Drusus
    Nero Claudius Drusus, later Drusus Julius Caesar was the only child of Roman Emperor Tiberius and his first wife, Vipsania Agrippina...

    , son of the emperor Tiberius.
  • Tiberius Julius Caesar Nero Gemellus
    Tiberius Gemellus
    Tiberius Julius Caesar Nero Gemellus, known as Tiberius Gemellus was the son of Drusus and Livilla, the grandson of the Emperor Tiberius, and the cousin of the Emperor Caligula. Gemellus is a nickname meaning "the twin"...

    , son of Drusus.
  • Germanicus Julius Caesar
    Germanicus
    Germanicus Julius Caesar , commonly known as Germanicus, was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and a prominent general of the early Roman Empire. He was born in Rome, Italia, and was named either Nero Claudius Drusus after his father or Tiberius Claudius Nero after his uncle...

    , nephew of Tiberius.
  • Gaius Julius Caesar, son of Germanicus, died in early childhood.
  • Nero Julius Caesar Germanicus
    Nero Caesar
    Nero Julius Caesar Germanicus was a close relative of the Roman Emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.Nero was born around AD 6, to Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder. His paternal grandparents were Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia Minor, daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia Minor...

    , son of Germanicus.
  • Drusus Julius Caesar, son of Germanicus.
  • Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus
    Caligula
    Caligula , also known as Gaius, was Roman Emperor from 37 AD to 41 AD. Caligula was a member of the house of rulers conventionally known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Caligula's father Germanicus, the nephew and adopted son of Emperor Tiberius, was a very successful general and one of Rome's most...

    , son of Germanicus, better known as Caligula, emperor from AD 37 to 41.
  • Julia Agrippina
    Agrippina the Younger
    Julia Agrippina, most commonly referred to as Agrippina Minor or Agrippina the Younger, and after 50 known as Julia Augusta Agrippina was a Roman Empress and one of the more prominent women in the Julio-Claudian dynasty...

    , daughter of Germanicus, and mother of the emperor Nero
    Nero
    Nero , was Roman Emperor from 54 to 68, and the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nero was adopted by his great-uncle Claudius to become his heir and successor, and succeeded to the throne in 54 following Claudius' death....

    .
  • Julia Drusilla, daughter of Germanicus, married first Lucius Cassius Longinus, and second Marcus Aemilius Lepidus.
  • Julia Livilla
    Julia Livilla
    Julia Livilla was the youngest child of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder and the youngest sister of the Emperor Caligula.-Life:Livilla was the youngest great granddaughter of Emperor Augustus, great-niece and adoptive granddaughter...

    , daughter of Germanicus, married Marcus Vinicius, consul in AD 30.
  • Julia Drusilla, daughter of Caligula.

Others

  • Proculus Julius, a legendary figure who announced the apotheosis of Romulus
    Romulus
    - People:* Romulus and Remus, the mythical founders of Rome* Romulus Augustulus, the last Western Roman Emperor* Valerius Romulus , deified son of the Roman emperor Maxentius* Romulus , son of the Western Roman emperor Anthemius...

     to the Roman people, circa 716 BC.
  • Lucius Julius Bursio, triumvir monetalis
    Moneyer
    A moneyer is someone who physically creates money. Moneyers have a long tradition, dating back at least to ancient Greece. They became most prominent in the Roman Republic, continuing into the empire.-Roman Republican moneyers:...

    in 85 BC.
  • Julius Polyaenus, a contemporary of Caesar, and the author of four epigrams in the Anthologia Graeca
    Greek Anthology
    The Greek Anthology is a collection of poems, mostly epigrams, that span the classical and Byzantine periods of Greek literature...

    .
  • Lucius Julius Calidus, a poet in the final years of the Republic, proscribed by Volumnius, the partisan of Marcus Antonius, but saved through the intercession of Atticus
    Titus Pomponius Atticus
    Titus Pomponius Atticus, born Titus Pomponius , came from an old but not strictly noble Roman family of the equestrian class and the Gens Pomponia. He was a celebrated editor, banker, and patron of letters with residences in both Rome and Athens...

    .
  • Gaius Julius Hyginus
    Gaius Julius Hyginus
    Gaius Julius Hyginus was a Latin author, a pupil of the famous Cornelius Alexander Polyhistor, and a freedman of Caesar Augustus. He was by Augustus elected superintendent of the Palatine library according to Suetonius' De Grammaticis, 20...

    , a freedman of Augustus, appointed head of the Palatine library, and the author of numerous books about history, mythology, and science.
  • Julius Modestus, a freedman of Gaius Julius Hyginus, who became a distinguished grammarian, and the author of Quaestiones Confusae.
  • Julius Marathas, a freedman of Augustus, who wrote a life of his master.
  • Marcus Julius Cottius
    Cottius
    Marcus Julius Cottius was king of the Ligurian tribes inhabiting the mountainous region now known as the Cottian Alps early in the 1st century BC He was the son and successor of King Donnus, who had previously opposed but later made peace with Julius Caesar...

    , king of several Alpine tribes of the Ligures
    Ligures
    The Ligures were an ancient people who gave their name to Liguria, a region of north-western Italy.-Classical sources:...

    , submitted to Augustus and granted the title of praefectus
    Prefect
    Prefect is a magisterial title of varying definition....

    .
  • Julius Florus
    Julius Florus
    Julius Florus was a poet, orator, and jurist of the Augustan age.His name has been immortalized by Horace, who dedicated to him two of his Epistles , from which it would appear that he composed lyrics of a light, agreeable kind...

    , a poet and the author or editor of satires, perhaps the same Julius Florus called by Quintilian
    Quintilian
    Marcus Fabius Quintilianus was a Roman rhetorician from Hispania, widely referred to in medieval schools of rhetoric and in Renaissance writing...

     one of the foremost orators of Gaul
    Gaul
    Gaul was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age and Roman era, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg and Belgium, most of Switzerland, the western part of Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the left bank of the Rhine. The Gauls were the speakers of...

    . A Julius Florus, perhaps also the same man, led an insurrection of the Treviri
    Treveri
    The Treveri or Treviri were a tribe of Gauls who inhabited the lower valley of the Moselle from around 150 BCE, at the latest, until their eventual absorption into the Franks...

     during the reign of Tiberius
    Tiberius
    Tiberius , was Roman Emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD. Tiberius was by birth a Claudian, son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. His mother divorced Nero and married Augustus in 39 BC, making him a step-son of Octavian...

    .
  • Julius Sacrovir, a leader of the Aedui
    Aedui
    Aedui, Haedui or Hedui , were a Gallic people of Gallia Lugdunensis, who inhabited the country between the Arar and Liger , in today's France. Their territory thus included the greater part of the modern departments of Saône-et-Loire, Côte-d'Or and Nièvre.-Geography:The country of the Aedui is...

    , who together with Julius Florus revolted in AD 21.
  • Julius Secundus Florus, an orator and friend of Quintilian, and nephew of the Gallic orator.
  • Julius Montanus, a poet and friend of Tiberius, cited by both the elder
    Seneca the Elder
    Lucius or Marcus Annaeus Seneca, known as Seneca the Elder and Seneca the Rhetorician , was a Roman rhetorician and writer, born of a wealthy equestrian family of Cordoba, Hispania...

     and younger Seneca
    Seneca the Younger
    Lucius Annaeus Seneca was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and in one work humorist, of the Silver Age of Latin literature. He was tutor and later advisor to emperor Nero...

    .
  • Sextus Julius Postumus, used by Sejanus
    Sejanus
    Lucius Aelius Seianus , commonly known as Sejanus, was an ambitious soldier, friend and confidant of the Roman Emperor Tiberius...

     in one of his schemes, AD 23.
  • Julius Africanus, of the Gallic
    Gauls
    The Gauls were a Celtic people living in Gaul, the region roughly corresponding to what is now France, Belgium, Switzerland and Northern Italy, from the Iron Age through the Roman period. They mostly spoke the Continental Celtic language called Gaulish....

     state of the Santoni
    Santones
    The Santones or Santoni were a tribe of ancient Gaul located in the modern region of Saintonge and around the city of Saintes, city to which they gave their name. The Romans occupied the territory of the Santones from the 1st century BC....

    , condemned by Tiberius in AD 32.
  • Julius Celsus, a tribune of the city cohort, condemned to death under Tiberius, who broke his own neck in prison, in order to avoid a public execution.
  • Julius Canus, a Stoic
    Stoicism
    Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early . The Stoics taught that destructive emotions resulted from errors in judgment, and that a sage, or person of "moral and intellectual perfection," would not suffer such emotions.Stoics were concerned...

     philosopher, condemned to death by the emperor Caligula
    Caligula
    Caligula , also known as Gaius, was Roman Emperor from 37 AD to 41 AD. Caligula was a member of the house of rulers conventionally known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Caligula's father Germanicus, the nephew and adopted son of Emperor Tiberius, was a very successful general and one of Rome's most...

    , who promised to appear to his friends after his death, and fulfilled his promise by appearing to one of them in a vision.
  • Julius Graecinus, a writer on botany and the father of Gnaeus Julius Agricola, put to death by Caligula
    Caligula
    Caligula , also known as Gaius, was Roman Emperor from 37 AD to 41 AD. Caligula was a member of the house of rulers conventionally known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Caligula's father Germanicus, the nephew and adopted son of Emperor Tiberius, was a very successful general and one of Rome's most...

    .
  • Gaius Julius Callistus
    Gaius Julius Callistus
    Gaius Julius Callistus was a Greek imperial freedman during the reigns of Roman Emperors Caligula and Claudius. Callistus was originally a freedman of Caligula, and was given great authority during his reign, which he used to amass even greater wealth...

    , a freedman
    Freedman
    A freedman is a former slave who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means. Historically, slaves became freedmen either by manumission or emancipation ....

     of the Caligula, influential during his reign and that of Claudius
    Claudius
    Claudius , was Roman Emperor from 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he was the son of Drusus and Antonia Minor. He was born at Lugdunum in Gaul and was the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italy...

    .
  • Gaius Julius Sex. f. Postumus, praefect
    Prefect
    Prefect is a magisterial title of varying definition....

     of Egypt in the reign of Claudius.
  • Marcus Julius M. f. Cottius, son of Marcus Julius Cottius, praefect of the Ligures, upon whom the title of king was conferred by the emperor Claudius.
  • Julius Pelignus, Procurator
    Procurator (Roman)
    A procurator was the title of various officials of the Roman Empire, posts mostly filled by equites . A procurator Augusti was the governor of the smaller imperial provinces...

     of Cappadocia
    Cappadocia (Roman province)
    Cappadocia was a province of the Roman empire in Anatolia , with its capital at Caesarea. It was established in 17 AD by the emperor Tiberius , following the death of Cappadocia's last king, Archelaus. It was an imperial province, meaning that its governor was directly appointed by the emperor...

     in the reign of Claudius, AD 52.
  • Julius Bassus, said by the elder Plinius
    Pliny the Elder
    Gaius Plinius Secundus , better known as Pliny the Elder, was a Roman author, naturalist, and natural philosopher, as well as naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and personal friend of the emperor Vespasian...

     to have written a medical work in Greek.
  • Gaius Julius Aquila, an eques, sent to protect Cotys
    Tiberius Julius Cotys I
    Tiberius Julius Cotys I Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Cotys I or Kotys I was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom....

    , King of the Bosporus
    Bosporan Kingdom
    The Bosporan Kingdom or the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus was an ancient state, located in eastern Crimea and the Taman Peninsula on the shores of the Cimmerian Bosporus...

    , in AD 50.
  • Julius Densus, an eques during the reign of Nero
    Nero
    Nero , was Roman Emperor from 54 to 68, and the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nero was adopted by his great-uncle Claudius to become his heir and successor, and succeeded to the throne in 54 following Claudius' death....

    , accused of being too favorably disposed towards Britannicus
    Britannicus
    Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus was the son of the Roman emperor Claudius and his third wife Valeria Messalina. He became the heir-designate of the empire at his birth, less than a month into his father's reign. He was still a young boy at the time of his mother's downfall and Claudius'...

     in AD 56.
  • Julius Diocles of Carystus
    Carystus
    Carystus ; was an ancient city-state on Euboea. In the Iliad it is controlled by the Abantes. By the time of Thucydides it was inhabited by Dryopians.- Persian War :...

    , author of four epigrams in the Anthologia Graeca
    Greek Anthology
    The Greek Anthology is a collection of poems, mostly epigrams, that span the classical and Byzantine periods of Greek literature...

    .
  • Gaius Julius Alpinus Classicianus
    Gaius Julius Alpinus Classicianus
    Gaius Julius Alpinus Classicianus was procurator of Roman Britain from 61 to his death in 65.He was appointed after his predecessor, Catus Decianus, had fled to Gaul in the aftermath of the rebellion of Boudica. He expressed concern to the Emperor Nero that the punitive policies of the governor,...

    , procurator of Britannia
    Roman Britain
    Roman Britain was the part of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire from AD 43 until ca. AD 410.The Romans referred to the imperial province as Britannia, which eventually comprised all of the island of Great Britain south of the fluid frontier with Caledonia...

     from AD 61 to 65.
  • Julia Pacata
    Julia Pacata
    Julia Pacata was the daughter of Julius Indus, a 1st century nobleman of the Gaulish Treveri who helped put down a Gaulish rebellion in 21 and led an auxiliary cavalry unit in the Roman army, the Ala Gallorum Indiana. She married Gaius Julius Alpinus Classicianus, the procurator of Roman Britain...

    , wife of Classicanus.
  • Julius Indus
    Julius Indus
    Julius Indus was a nobleman of the Gaulish Treveri tribe. In 21 AD he helped the Romans put down a rebellion of the Treveri and Aedui. He went on to lead the Ala Gallorum Indiana cavalry unit which may have been involved in the Roman invasion of Britain, and was certainly posted at Corinum in the...

    , a cavalry commander of the Treviri
    Treveri
    The Treveri or Treviri were a tribe of Gauls who inhabited the lower valley of the Moselle from around 150 BCE, at the latest, until their eventual absorption into the Franks...

    , and father-in-law of Classicanus.
  • Julius Africanus
    Julius Africanus
    Julius Africanus was a celebrated orator in the reign of Nero, and seems to have been the son of the Julius Africanus, of the Gallic state of the Santoni, who was condemned by Tiberius in 32 AD. Quintilian, who had heard Julius Africanus, spoke of him and Domitius Afer as the best orators of their...

    , a celebrated orator in the reign of Nero.
  • Julius Rufus, consul in AD 67, his death is related by the elder Plinius
    Pliny the Elder
    Gaius Plinius Secundus , better known as Pliny the Elder, was a Roman author, naturalist, and natural philosopher, as well as naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and personal friend of the emperor Vespasian...

    .
  • Gaius Julius Vindex
    Vindex
    Gaius Iulius Vindex, of a noble Gaulish family of Aquitania given senatorial status under Claudius, was a Roman governor in the province of Gallia Lugdunensis. In either late 67 or early 68, he rebelled against the tax policy of the Emperor Nero...

    , one of the chief supporters of Galba
    Galba
    Galba , was Roman Emperor for seven months from 68 to 69. Galba was the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, and made a bid for the throne during the rebellion of Julius Vindex...

    , led the rebellion against Nero.
  • Julius Fronto, a supporter of Otho
    Otho
    Otho , was Roman Emperor for three months, from 15 January to 16 April 69. He was the second emperor of the Year of the four emperors.- Birth and lineage :...

    , put in chains by the soldiers because his brother, Julius Gratus, was a supporter of Vitellius
    Vitellius
    Vitellius , was Roman Emperor for eight months, from 16 April to 22 December 69. Vitellius was acclaimed Emperor following the quick succession of the previous emperors Galba and Otho, in a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors...

    .
  • Julius Gratus, praefectus
    Prefect
    Prefect is a magisterial title of varying definition....

     of the camp in the army of Aulus Caecina Alienus
    Aulus Caecina Alienus
    Aulus Caecina Alienus, Roman general, was born in Vicetia .He was quaestor of Hispania Baetica in AD 68. On the death of Nero, he attached himself to Galba, who appointed him to the command of Legio IV Macedonica at Mogontiacum in Germania Superior...

    , the general of Vitellius
    Vitellius
    Vitellius , was Roman Emperor for eight months, from 16 April to 22 December 69. Vitellius was acclaimed Emperor following the quick succession of the previous emperors Galba and Otho, in a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors...

    , put in chains by the soldiers because his brother, Julius Fronto, was a supporter of Otho
    Otho
    Otho , was Roman Emperor for three months, from 15 January to 16 April 69. He was the second emperor of the Year of the four emperors.- Birth and lineage :...

    .
  • Julius Carus, one of the murderers of Titus Vinius
    Titus Vinius
    Titus Vinius was a Roman general who was one of the most powerful men in Rome during the reign of the Emperor Galba.-Stories:Plutarch has a number of stories of Vinius' early life, all to his discredit...

     when the emperor Galba was put to death in AD 69.
  • Gaius Julius Civilis
    Gaius Julius Civilis
    Gaius Julius Civilis was the leader of the Batavian rebellion against the Romans in 69. By his nomen, it can be told that he was made a Roman citizen by either Augustus or Caligula....

    , leader of the Batavian Rebellion in AD 69.
  • Julius Classicus
    Julius Classicus
    Julius Classicus was a Gaulish nobleman of the 1st century AD, belonging to the tribe of the Treviri. He served as a commander of the Roman auxiliaries...

    , of the Treviri
    Treveri
    The Treveri or Treviri were a tribe of Gauls who inhabited the lower valley of the Moselle from around 150 BCE, at the latest, until their eventual absorption into the Franks...

    , with Civilis, one of the leaders of the Batavian Rebellion.
  • Julius Paulus, the brother of Civilis, put to death on a false charge of treason by Gaius Fonteius Capito
    Gaius Fonteius Capito
    Gaius Fonteius Capito was a consul of the Roman Empire on 59, succeeding Nero. As governor of Lower Germany, he drove Julius Civilis to rebellion in 69. He was replaced by Vitellius under Galba....

    , the governor of
    Roman governors of Germania Inferior
    This is a list of Roman governors of Germania Inferior . Capital and largest city of Germania Inferior was Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium , modern-day Cologne....

     Germania Inferior
    Germania Inferior
    Germania Inferior was a Roman province located on the left bank of the Rhine, in today's Luxembourg, southern Netherlands, parts of Belgium, and North Rhine-Westphalia left of the Rhine....

    .
  • Julius Briganticus
    Julius Briganticus
    Julius Briganticus was a Batavian who commanded auxiliary cavalry in the Roman Army. He was the son of the sister of Gaius Julius Civilis, the leader of the Batavian rebellion, who apparently hated his nephew. The nomen Julius indicates he was a Roman citizen...

    , a nephew of Civilis, who fought under Cerealis in Germania
    Germania
    Germania was the Greek and Roman geographical term for the geographical regions inhabited by mainly by peoples considered to be Germani. It was most often used to refer especially to the east of the Rhine and north of the Danube...

    , and fell in battle in AD 71.
  • Julius Sabinus
    Julius Sabinus
    Julius Sabinus was an aristocratic Gaul of the Lingones at the time of the Batavian rebellion of AD69. He attempted to take advantage of the turmoil in Rome after the death of Nero to set up an independent Gaulish state....

    , of the Lingones
    Lingones
    Lingones were a Celtic tribe that originally lived in Gaul in the area of the headwaters of the Seine and Marne rivers. Some of the Lingones migrated across the Alps and settled near the mouth of the Po River in Cisalpine Gaul of northern Italy around 400 BCE. These Lingones were part of a wave of...

    , joined in the revolt of the Batavi.
  • Julius Tutor, of the Treviri, joined in the rebellion of Classicus.
  • Julius Calenus, of the Aedui
    Aedui
    Aedui, Haedui or Hedui , were a Gallic people of Gallia Lugdunensis, who inhabited the country between the Arar and Liger , in today's France. Their territory thus included the greater part of the modern departments of Saône-et-Loire, Côte-d'Or and Nièvre.-Geography:The country of the Aedui is...

    , a partisan of Vitellius
    Vitellius
    Vitellius , was Roman Emperor for eight months, from 16 April to 22 December 69. Vitellius was acclaimed Emperor following the quick succession of the previous emperors Galba and Otho, in a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors...

    , sent to Gaul
    Gaul
    Gaul was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age and Roman era, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg and Belgium, most of Switzerland, the western part of Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the left bank of the Rhine. The Gauls were the speakers of...

     as proof of the emperor's defeat at Cremona
    Battle of Bedriacum
    The Battle of Bedriacum refers to two battles fought during the Year of the Four Emperors near the village of Bedriacum , about from the town of Cremona in northern Italy...

     in AD 69.
  • Julius Burdo, commander of the Roman fleet in Germania
    Germania
    Germania was the Greek and Roman geographical term for the geographical regions inhabited by mainly by peoples considered to be Germani. It was most often used to refer especially to the east of the Rhine and north of the Danube...

    , in AD 70. Previously suspected by the soldiers of having a hand in the death of Gaius Fonteius Capito, he was protected by the emperor Vitellius
    Vitellius
    Vitellius , was Roman Emperor for eight months, from 16 April to 22 December 69. Vitellius was acclaimed Emperor following the quick succession of the previous emperors Galba and Otho, in a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors...

    .
  • Julius Priscus, appointed Praetorian Prefect
    Praetorian prefect
    Praetorian prefect was the title of a high office in the Roman Empire. Originating as the commander of the Praetorian Guard, the office gradually acquired extensive legal and administrative functions, with its holders becoming the Emperor's chief aides...

     by Vitellius in AD 69, he failed to hold the passes of the Apennines, and returned to Rome in disgrace.
  • Julius Placidus, tribune of a cohort in the army of Vespasian
    Vespasian
    Vespasian , was Roman Emperor from 69 AD to 79 AD. Vespasian was the founder of the Flavian dynasty, which ruled the Empire for a quarter century. Vespasian was descended from a family of equestrians, who rose into the senatorial rank under the Emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty...

    , who dragged Vitellius from his hiding place.
  • Sextus Julius Gabinianus, a celebrated rhetorician who taught in Gaul during the time of Vespasian
    Vespasian
    Vespasian , was Roman Emperor from 69 AD to 79 AD. Vespasian was the founder of the Flavian dynasty, which ruled the Empire for a quarter century. Vespasian was descended from a family of equestrians, who rose into the senatorial rank under the Emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty...

    , and was spoken of by Suetonius
    Suetonius
    Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius , was a Roman historian belonging to the equestrian order in the early Imperial era....

     in de Claris Rhetoribus.
  • Julia Procilla, the mother of Agricola.
  • Gnaeus Julius Agricola
    Gnaeus Julius Agricola
    Gnaeus Julius Agricola was a Roman general responsible for much of the Roman conquest of Britain. His biography, the De vita et moribus Iulii Agricolae, was the first published work of his son-in-law, the historian Tacitus, and is the source for most of what is known about him.Born to a noted...

    , consul in AD 77, the conqueror of Britannia
    Roman Britain
    Roman Britain was the part of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire from AD 43 until ca. AD 410.The Romans referred to the imperial province as Britannia, which eventually comprised all of the island of Great Britain south of the fluid frontier with Caledonia...

    .
  • Julius Cerealis, a poet, and a friend and contemporary of the younger Plinius
    Pliny the Younger
    Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, born Gaius Caecilius or Gaius Caecilius Cilo , better known as Pliny the Younger, was a lawyer, author, and magistrate of Ancient Rome. Pliny's uncle, Pliny the Elder, helped raise and educate him...

     and Martial
    Martial
    Marcus Valerius Martialis , was a Latin poet from Hispania best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan...

    is.
  • Julius Rufus, a writer of satires, contemporary with Martial.
  • Sextus Julius Frontinus
    Sextus Julius Frontinus
    Sextus Julius Frontinus was one of the most distinguished Roman aristocrats of the late 1st century AD, but is best known to the post-Classical world as an author of technical treatises, especially one dealing with the aqueducts of Rome....

    , twice consul in the late 1st century, and author of De Aquaeductu
    De aquaeductu
    ' is a two-book official report given to the emperor on the state of the aqueducts of Rome, and was written by Julius Sextus Frontinus at the end of the 1st century AD. It is also known as or . It is the earliest official report of an investigation made by a distinguished citizen on Roman...

    .
  • Julius Naso, a friend of both the younger Plinius
    Pliny the Younger
    Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, born Gaius Caecilius or Gaius Caecilius Cilo , better known as Pliny the Younger, was a lawyer, author, and magistrate of Ancient Rome. Pliny's uncle, Pliny the Elder, helped raise and educate him...

     and Tacitus
    Tacitus
    Publius Cornelius Tacitus was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire. The surviving portions of his two major works—the Annals and the Histories—examine the reigns of the Roman Emperors Tiberius, Claudius, Nero and those who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors...

    , who were interested in his success as a candidate for public office.
  • Julius Calvaster, a military tribune who took part in the rebellion of Lucius Antonius Saturninus
    Lucius Antonius Saturninus
    Lucius Antonius Saturninus was the Roman governor of the province Germania Superior during the reign of the Emperor Domitian. In the spring of 89, motivated by a personal grudge against the Emperor, he led a rebellion known as the Revolt of Saturninus, involving the legions Legio XIV Gemina and...

    , but was pardoned by Domitian
    Domitian
    Domitian was Roman Emperor from 81 to 96. Domitian was the third and last emperor of the Flavian dynasty.Domitian's youth and early career were largely spent in the shadow of his brother Titus, who gained military renown during the First Jewish-Roman War...

    .
  • Julius Ferox, consul suffectus Ex. Kal. Nov. in AD 100, and curator alvei et riparum Tiberis et cloacarum, sometimes confused with the jurist Urseius Ferox.
  • Gaius Julius Servilius Ursus Servianus
    Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus
    Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus was a Spanish Roman politician. According to an inscription found, his full name is Gaius Julius Servilius Ursus Servianus, however in Augustan History, he is known as Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus. Little is known on his origins.Servianus was a prominent public...

    , the brother-in-law of Hadrian
    Hadrian
    Hadrian , was Roman Emperor from 117 to 138. He is best known for building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Roman Britain. In Rome, he re-built the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma. In addition to being emperor, Hadrian was a humanist and was philhellene in...

    , and consul in AD 107, 111, and 136.
  • Gaius Julius Africanus, grandson of the orator, consul suffectus in AD 108.
  • Gaius Julius Antiochus Epiphanes Philopappus
    Philopappos
    Gaius Julius Antiochus Epiphanes Philopappos or Philopappus, was a Prince of the Kingdom of Commagene who lived in the Roman Empire during the 1st century and 2nd century. He was one of the most prominent Greeks who lived in the Roman Empire....

    , a prince of Commagene
    Kingdom of Commagene
    The Kingdom of Commagene was an ancient kingdom of the Hellenistic Age.Little is known of the region of Commagene prior to the beginning of the 2nd century BC. However, it seems that, from what little evidence remains, Commagene formed part of a larger state that also included Sophene...

    , consul suffectus in AD 109.
  • Julius Severianus, a rhetorician in the time of Hadrian, and the author of Syntomata, or Praecepta Artis Rhetoricae.
  • Sextus Julius Severus
    Sextus Julius Severus
    Sextus Julius Severus was an accomplished Roman General of the 2nd century.Julius Severus served as Governor of Moesia; he was appointed Governor of Britain around 131.In 133 he was transferred to Judea, to help suppress the Bar Kochba rebellion there...

    , governor of Britannia
    Roman Britain
    Roman Britain was the part of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire from AD 43 until ca. AD 410.The Romans referred to the imperial province as Britannia, which eventually comprised all of the island of Great Britain south of the fluid frontier with Caledonia...

     and Bithynia
    Bithynia et Pontus
    Bithynia et Pontus was the name of a province of the Roman empire on the Black Sea coast of Anatolia . It was formed by the amalgamation of the former kingdoms of Bithynia and Pontus ....

     under Hadrian, sent to Judaea
    Iudaea Province
    Judaea or Iudaea are terms used by historians to refer to the Roman province that extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Israel...

     to suppress the Bar Kokhba revolt.
  • Julius Aquila, a jurist, probably of the late 2nd century.
  • Lucius Julius Aquila, author of de Etrusca disciplina.
  • Julius Vestinus, a sophist, who made an abridgement of the lexicon of Pamphilus
    Pamphilus of Alexandria
    Pamphilus was a Greek grammarian, of the school of Aristarchus of Samothrace.He was the author of a comprehensive lexicon, in 95 books, of foreign or obscure words, the idea of which was credited to another grammarian, Zopyrion, himself the compiler of the first four books...

    .
  • Julius Pollux
    Julius Pollux
    Julius Pollux was a Greek or Egyptian grammarian and sophist from Alexandria who taught at Athens, where he was appointed professor of rhetoric at the Academy by the emperor Commodus — on account of his melodious voice, according to Philostratus' Lives of the Sophists. Nothing of his...

    , a Greek sophist and grammarian, and a teacher of grammar and rhetoric at Athens
    Athens
    Athens , is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, as its recorded history spans around 3,400 years. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state...

     during the reign of Commodus
    Commodus
    Commodus , was Roman Emperor from 180 to 192. He also ruled as co-emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177 until his father's death in 180. His name changed throughout his reign; see changes of name for earlier and later forms. His accession as emperor was the first time a son had succeeded...

    .
  • Julius Titianus, a scholar and writer of the late 2nd century, and the father of the rhetorician Titianus.
  • Julius Titianus, a rhetorician, and tutor of the younger Maximinus.
  • Julius Solon, purchased the rank of senator
    Roman Senate
    The Senate of the Roman Republic was a political institution in the ancient Roman Republic, however, it was not an elected body, but one whose members were appointed by the consuls, and later by the censors. After a magistrate served his term in office, it usually was followed with automatic...

     under Commodus, but put to death by Septimius Severus
    Septimius Severus
    Septimius Severus , also known as Severus, was Roman Emperor from 193 to 211. Severus was born in Leptis Magna in the province of Africa. As a young man he advanced through the customary succession of offices under the reigns of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus. Severus seized power after the death of...

    , at the commencement of his reign.
  • Julius Crispus, a distinguished tribune of the Praetorian Guard
    Praetorian Guard
    The Praetorian Guard was a force of bodyguards used by Roman Emperors. The title was already used during the Roman Republic for the guards of Roman generals, at least since the rise to prominence of the Scipio family around 275 BC...

    , capriciously put to death by Septimius Severus during the Parthian War in AD 199.
  • Julius Rufus, a nobilis
    Nobiles
    During the Roman Republic, nobilis was a descriptive term of social rank, usually indicating that a member of the family had achieved the consulship. Those who belonged to the hereditary patrician families were noble, but plebeians whose ancestors were consuls were also considered nobiles...

    , slain by the emperor Severus.
  • Julius Frontinus, a Latin rhetorician, who gave instruction in his art to Severus Alexander
    Alexander Severus
    Severus Alexander was Roman Emperor from 222 to 235. Alexander was the last emperor of the Severan dynasty. He succeeded his cousin Elagabalus upon the latter's assassination in 222, and was ultimately assassinated himself, marking the epoch event for the Crisis of the Third Century — nearly fifty...

    .
  • Julius Granianus, a rhetorician at the time of Severus Alexander, who was instructed by him in rhetoric.
  • Julius Paulus, a distinguished jurist and prolific writer on the law, during the early 3rd century.
  • Julius Martialis, joined the conspiracy against the emperor Caracalla
    Caracalla
    Caracalla , was Roman emperor from 198 to 217. The eldest son of Septimius Severus, he ruled jointly with his younger brother Geta until he murdered the latter in 211...

    , whom he killed with his own hand, before being slain by the emperor's Scythian guards.
  • Sextus Julius Africanus
    Sextus Julius Africanus
    Sextus Julius Africanus was a Christian traveller and historian of the late 2nd and early 3rd century AD. He is important chiefly because of his influence on Eusebius, on all the later writers of Church history among the Fathers, and on the whole Greek school of chroniclers.His name indicates that...

    , a chronographer and Christian writer of the early 3rd century.
  • Gaius Julius Solinus
    Gaius Julius Solinus
    Gaius Julius Solinus, Latin grammarian and compiler, probably flourished in the early third century. Historical scholar Theodor Mommsen dates him to the middle of the third century....

    , a grammarian and geographer, probably of the early 3rd century.
  • Julia Aquilia Severa
    Aquilia Severa
    Iulia Aquilia Severa was the second and fourth wife of Emperor Elagabalus. She was the daughter of Quintus Aquilius, twice consul under Caracalla. The praenomen of Julia was given to her after becoming an empress.Severa was a Vestal Virgin...

    , a vestal virgin, taken as a wife by the emperor Elagabalus
    Elagabalus
    Elagabalus , also known as Heliogabalus, was Roman Emperor from 218 to 222. A member of the Severan Dynasty, he was Syrian on his mother's side, the son of Julia Soaemias and Sextus Varius Marcellus. Early in his youth he served as a priest of the god El-Gabal at his hometown, Emesa...

    .
  • Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus, surnamed Thrax, emperor from AD 235 to 238.
  • Marcus Julius Philippus
    Philip the Arab
    Philip the Arab , also known as Philip or Philippus Arabs, was Roman Emperor from 244 to 249. He came from Syria, and rose to become a major figure in the Roman Empire. He achieved power after the death of Gordian III, quickly negotiating peace with the Sassanid Empire...

    , emperor from AD 244 to 249.
  • Marcus Julius M. f. Philippus
    Philippus II
    Marcus Julius Philippus Severus, also known as Philippus II, Philip II and Philip the Younger was the son and heir of the Roman Emperor Philip the Arab by his wife Roman Empress Marcia Otacilia Severa...

    , emperor with his father from AD 247 to 249.
  • Gaius Julius Saturninus, a name assigned to the younger Marcus Julius Philippus by Aurelius Victor
    Aurelius Victor
    Sextus Aurelius Victor was a historian and politician of the Roman Empire.Aurelius Victor was the author of a History of Rome from Augustus to Julian , published ca. 361. Julian honoured him and appointed him prefect of Pannonia Secunda...

    .
  • Quintus Julius Gallienus, a son of the emperor Gallienus
    Gallienus
    Gallienus was Roman Emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260, and alone from 260 to 268. He took control of the Empire at a time when it was undergoing great crisis...

    , who probably predeceased his father.
  • Julius Aterianus, wrote a history of Victorinus
    Victorinus
    Marcus Piavonius Victorinus was emperor of the secessionist Gallic Empire from 269 to 271, following the brief reign of Marius. He was murdered by a jealous husband whose wife he tried to seduce.-Reign:...

    , and perhaps others of the Thirty Tyrants
    Thirty Tyrants (Roman)
    The Thirty Tyrants were a series of thirty rulers that appear in the Historia Augusta as having ostensibly been pretenders to the throne of the Roman Empire during the reign of the emperor Gallienus....

    .
  • Julius Capitolinus, the author of nine biographies in the Historia Augusta
    Augustan History
    The Augustan History is a late Roman collection of biographies, in Latin, of the Roman Emperors, their junior colleagues and usurpers of the period 117 to 284...

    .
  • Flavius Julius Crispus
    Crispus
    Flavius Julius Crispus , also known as Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus, was a Caesar of the Roman Empire. He was the first-born son of Constantine I and Minervina.-Birth:...

    , son of the emperor Constantine I
    Constantine I
    Constantine the Great , also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was Roman Emperor from 306 to 337. Well known for being the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity, Constantine and co-Emperor Licinius issued the Edict of Milan in 313, which proclaimed religious tolerance of all...

    , a distinguished soldier, put to death at the instigation of his stepmother in AD 326.
  • Julius Firmicus Maternus
    Julius Firmicus Maternus
    Julius Firmicus Maternus was a Christian Latin writer and notable astrologer, who lived in the reign of Constantine I and his successors.-Life and works:...

    , a 4th century astrologer
    Astrologer
    An astrologer practices one or more forms of astrology. Typically an astrologer draws a horoscope for the time of an event, such as a person's birth, and interprets celestial points and their placements at the time of the event to better understand someone, determine the auspiciousness of an...

     and writer on the subject of profane religions
    Paganism
    Paganism is a blanket term, typically used to refer to non-Abrahamic, indigenous polytheistic religious traditions....

    .
  • Julius I
    Pope Julius I
    Pope Saint Julius I, was pope from February 6, 337 to April 12, 352.He was a native of Rome and was chosen as successor of Mark after the Roman seat had been vacant for four months. He is chiefly known by the part he took in the Arian controversy...

    , Pope
    Pope
    The Pope is the Bishop of Rome, a position that makes him the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church . In the Catholic Church, the Pope is regarded as the successor of Saint Peter, the Apostle...

     from AD 337 to 352.
  • Julius Obsequens, perhaps of the 4th century, an author of a tract known as De Prodigiis, or Prodigiorum Libellus, describing various prodigies and phenomena found in the works of earlier writers.
  • Gaius Julius Victor
    Gaius Julius Victor
    Gaius Julius Victor was a Roman writer of rhetoric, possibly of Gaulish origin. His extant manual is of some importance as facilitating the textual criticism of Quintilian, whom he closely follows in many places....

    , a rhetorician of the 4th century.
  • Julius Valerius, a historian, probably of the 4th century.
  • Julius Ausonius, an eminent physician, and praefectus
    Prefect
    Prefect is a magisterial title of varying definition....

     of Illyricum
    Illyricum (Roman province)
    The Roman province of Illyricum or Illyris Romana or Illyris Barbara or Illyria Barbara replaced most of the region of Illyria. It stretched from the Drilon river in modern north Albania to Istria in the west and to the Sava river in the north. Salona functioned as its capital...

     under the emperor Valentinian I
    Valentinian I
    Valentinian I , also known as Valentinian the Great, was Roman emperor from 364 to 375. Upon becoming emperor he made his brother Valens his co-emperor, giving him rule of the eastern provinces while Valentinian retained the west....

    .
  • (Julius) Ausonius
    Ausonius
    Decimius Magnus Ausonius was a Latin poet and rhetorician, born at Burdigala .-Biography:Decimius Magnus Ausonius was born in Bordeaux in ca. 310. His father was a noted physician of Greek ancestry and his mother was descended on both sides from long-established aristocratic Gallo-Roman families...

    , also called Decimus Magnus Ausonius, son of the physician, a celebrated poet.
  • Julia Dryadia, daughter of the physician Julius Ausonius.
  • Julius Rufinianus, a Latin rhetorician of uncertain date, and the author of a treatise called De Figuris Sententiarum et Elocutionis.
  • Flavius Julius Valens
    Valens
    Valens was the Eastern Roman Emperor from 364 to 378. He was given the eastern half of the empire by his brother Valentinian I after the latter's accession to the throne...

    , emperor from AD 364 to 378.
  • Julius Paris, author of an epitome of Valerius Maximus
    Valerius Maximus
    Valerius Maximus was a Latin writer and author of a collection of historical anecdotes. He worked during the reign of Tiberius .-Biography:...

    , written perhaps in the 4th or 5th century.
  • Flavius Julius Valerius Majorianus
    Majorian
    Majorian , was the Western Roman Emperor from 457 to 461.A prominent general of the Late Roman army, Majorian deposed Emperor Avitus in 457 and succeeded him. Majorian was one of the last emperors to make a concerted effort to restore the Western Roman Empire...

    , emperor from AD 457 to 461.
  • Julius Nepos
    Julius Nepos
    Julius Nepos was Western Roman Emperor de facto from 474 to 475 and de jure until 480. Some historians consider him to be the last Western Roman Emperor, while others consider the western line to have ended with Romulus Augustulus in 476...

    , emperor in AD 474 and 475.
  • Julius Exsuperantius, a late Roman historian, probably of the 5th or 6th century; his tract, De Marii, Lepidi, ac Sertorii bellis civilibus may have been abridged from the histories of Sallust
    Sallust
    Gaius Sallustius Crispus, generally known simply as Sallust , a Roman historian, belonged to a well-known plebeian family, and was born at Amiternum in the country of the Sabines...

    ius.
  • Claudius Julius or Joläus, a Greek historian of unknown date, wrote works on Phoenicia
    Phoenicia
    Phoenicia , was an ancient civilization in Canaan which covered most of the western, coastal part of the Fertile Crescent. Several major Phoenician cities were built on the coastline of the Mediterranean. It was an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread across the Mediterranean from 1550...

     and the Peloponnesus
    Peloponnese
    The Peloponnese, Peloponnesos or Peloponnesus , is a large peninsula , located in a region of southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth...

    .
  • Julius Celsus, a scholar at Constantinople
    Constantinople
    Constantinople was the capital of the Roman, Eastern Roman, Byzantine, Latin, and Ottoman Empires. Throughout most of the Middle Ages, Constantinople was Europe's largest and wealthiest city.-Names:...

    in the 7th century, who made a recension of the text of Caesar's commentaries.