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Julian March

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{{redirect|Venezia Giulia|The post-WWII Allied police corps|Venezia Giulia Police Force}} {{refimprove|date=February 2011}} [[File:Litorale 1.JPG|thumb|right|300px|Border changes in the Julian March from 1918-1954.]] The '''Julian March''' ([[Croatian language|Croatian]] and [[Slovene language|Slovene]]: ''Julijska krajina''; {{lang-it|Venezia Giulia}}; {{lang-de|Julisch Venetien}}; {{lang-vec|Venesia Jułia}}; {{lang-fur|Vignesie Julie}}; {{lang-la|Carsia Julia}}) is a former political region of [[southeastern Europe]] on what are now the borders between [[Croatia]], [[Slovenia]], and [[Italy]]. The Italian name for the Region, "''Venezia Giulia''" (or "''Venetia Iulia''", meaning "'''Julian Venice'''"), was invented in 1863 for the [[Austrian Littoral]] by the [[linguist]] [[Graziadio Isaia Ascoli]], who sought to bring together under one name all of the Austrian Littoral claimed by Italian nationalists. The Julian March ceased to be a separate administrative region in 1947. Nevertheless, its name survives in the name of the Italian autonomous region [[Friuli Venezia Giulia]] ({{lang-sl|Furlanija-Julijska krajina}}), which literally means "[[Friuli]] and Venetian Julia". ==History== [[File:Venezia Giulia Battisti.jpg|thumb|right|250px|The Julian March ("Venetia Julia") as formulated by the [[Italian irredentism|Italian irredentist]] [[Cesare Battisti (politician)|Cesare Battisti]] in his book ''Venezia Giulia'' (1900)]] ===Etymology=== Graziadio Isaia Ascoli considered the territory of the [[Italia (Roman province)|Roman Italia province]] of Venetia et Histria ("Venetia and [[Istria]]") to be a geographical-cultural unit, subdivided into three parts: *Euganean Venice (''Venezia Euganea''), comprising the current [[Veneto]] region of Italy and most of the traditional region of [[Friuli]] (roughly corresponding to the current Italian provinces of [[Province of Udine|Udine]] and [[Province of Pordenone|Pordenone]]); *Tridentine Venice (''Venezia Tridentina''), comprising the current Italian region of [[Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol]]; *Julian Venice (''Venezia Giulia''), more or less corresponding to the current Italian provinces of [[Province of Gorizia|Gorizia]] and [[Province of Trieste|Trieste]], the [[Slovenian Littoral]] and Croatian [[Istria county]]; The name "Julian March" comes from the [[Julian Alps]], which would in this view form the natural north-eastern border of Italy. The term was coined to denote the region limited by the [[Soča]] river and the [[Gulf of Trieste]] in the west, the Julian Alps in the north and north-east, and [[Carniola]] and [[Liburnia]] to the east, thus including all of the [[Kras]] Plateau and most of the Istrian peninsula. After 1866, when the Veneto and most of [[Friuli]] were unified with the [[Kingdom of Italy (1861-1946)|Kingdom of Italy]], Ascoli's term Julian March began to assume a political connotation. Many [[Italian irredentism|Italian irredentists]] started using it as an alternative name for the [[Austrian Littoral]] region of the [[Austro-Hungarian Empire]], thus highlighting its geographical and cultural affinity to the other two 'Venetias'. ===From 1918 to 1945=== {{See also|Fascist Italianization|TIGR|Foibe killings}} [[File:Narodni dom triest.jpg|thumb|right|200px|The ruins of the ''[[Narodni dom]]'', Slovene Hall in [[Trieste]], burnt down by the Fascists in July 1920]] After [[World War I]], the treaties of [[Treaty of Saint-Germain|Saint-Germain]] and [[Treaty of Rapallo, 1920|Rapallo]], large portions of the dissolved Austro-Hungarian Empire were annexed to the Kingdom of Italy. In the eastern Adriatic region, they included all of the Austrian Littoral ([[Trieste]], Istria and the [[County of Gorizia and Gradisca]]) — except the island of [[Krk]] and the municipality of [[Kastav]] which were given to the [[Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes]] — some western districts of the [[Duchy of Carniola]] ([[Idrija]], [[Ajdovščina]], [[Vipava, Slovenia|Vipava]], [[Postojna]], [[Pivka]], and [[Ilirska Bistrica]]), and the [[Canale Valley]] of the [[Duchy of Carinthia]] (with the current municipalities of [[Tarvisio]], [[Pontebba]] and [[Malborghetto Valbruna]]). [[Rijeka]] became a [[city state]], called the [[Free State of Fiume]], but was abolished in 1924 and divided between Italy and [[Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes|Yugoslavia]]. For all these territories, the name Julian March ("Venezia Giulia") was officially adopted. The new provinces of Gorizia (which was merged with the [[Province of Udine]] between 1924 and 1927), Trieste, [[Pula]] and Rijeka (after 1924), were created. [[Italians]] lived mostly in urban areas and along the coast, while [[Slavs]], who formed the majority population, inhabited the hinterland. [[Italian fascism|Fascist]] persecution, characterised as "centralising, oppressive and dedicated to the forcible Italianisation of the minorities" caused the emigration of nearly 100,000 [[Slovenes]] and [[Croats]] from the Julian March, mostly to the [[Kingdom of Yugoslavia]] (around 70,000), but also to [[Argentina]] (some 30,000). On the other hand, several thousand [[Dalmatian Italians]] moved from Yugoslavia to Italy after 1918, many of them to Istria and Trieste. The policy of violent [[Italianization]] caused the creation of the [[Militant anti-fascism|militant anti-fascist]] organization [[TIGR]] which fought for the annexation of the region to Yugoslavia. During [[World War II]], the [[Yugoslav partisans]] penetrated into the region, and in 1945 most of the territory was liberated by Yugoslav [[Allies of World War II|Allied]] troops (the [[Yugoslav Partisans|Partisans]]). ===The contested region (1945-1954)=== {{See also|Morgan Line|Free Territory of Trieste|Istrian exodus}} [[File:StampIstria1945Michel38.jpg|thumb|230px|left|Yugoslav postage stamp for the occupied zones of the Julian March (1945-1947). The inscription reads "[[Istria]] - [[Slovenian Littoral]]" in both [[Slovene language|Slovene]]/[[Croatian language|Croatian]] and [[Italian language|Italian]].]] [[File:Confini Trieste-Istria2.jpg|thumb|right|225px|The division of the Julian March between June 1945 and September 1947, with the [[Morgan Line]] in red.]] Between 1945 and 1947, the Julian March was a contested region between Italy and the [[Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia]]. It was during that time that the English term "Julian March" was adopted as the official name for the whole of the contested territories. The term is a translation from the Slovene and Croatian "''Julijska krajina''", a word coined in the 1920s as an alternative name for the Italian "''Venezia Giulia''", and adopted by the Western allies as the most politically neutral name for the region. In June 1945, the [[Morgan Line]] was drawn, dividing the region into two militarily administered zones. Zone B, much of the Julian March, was under Yugoslav administration, excluding the cities of Pula, Gorizia, Trieste, the Soča valley and most of the Kras plateau, which were under joint British-American administration. During this period, many Italians left the area under Yugoslav occupation, a phenomenon known as the [[Istrian exodus]]. In 1946, U.S. President [[Harry S. Truman]] ordered the augmentation of U.S. troops within their occupation zone (Zone A) and the reinforcement of air forces in northern Italy after Yugoslav forces had shot down two US Army transport planes flying over the Julian March. In 1947, from four proposed solutions, an agreement on the border was reached at the [[Paris Peace Conference, 1946|Paris Peace Conference]]. Yugoslavia acquired all the northern portion of the region east of Gorizia, as well as most of Istria and the city of Rijeka. A [[Free Territory of Trieste]] was created, divided into two zones, one under Allied, and the other under Yugoslav military administration. Tensions however continued and in 1954 the Territory was abolished and divided between Italy (which got the city of Trieste and its surroundings) and Yugoslavia. ===After 1954=== {{See also|Treaty of Osimo}} After the division of 1947 and 1954, the term "Julian March" survived in the name of the [[Friuli-Venezia Giulia]] region of Italy. This is however only a formal designation, since no official borders between Friuli and the Julian March exist within the region, and their historical borders overlap (both include the province of Gorizia). In the part that became part of Yugoslavia, the name "Julian March" fell into disuse. In Slovenia, the region is referred to as [[Slovenian Littoral]], which is a common denomination for the two traditional regions of [[Goriška]] and Slovenian Istria. The name Slovenian Littoral is sometimes extended to comprise the Slovene-speaking territories in the Provinces of Gorizia and Trieste. In Croatia, only the traditional name of Istria is used. ==Ethnic and linguistic structure== [[File:Istria (ethnic).JPG|thumb|right|200px|Ethnic-linguistic division in [[Istria]] and [[Trieste]] in 1880. [[Italians]] and [[Friulians]] are shown in blue, [[Slovenes]] in green, and [[Croats]] in aquamarine.]] The Julian March was divided into two major ethnic and linguistic clusters. The western parts were inhabited predominantly by an [[Italians|Italian population]], with [[Italian language|Italian]], [[Venetian language|Venetian]] and [[Friulian language|Friulian]] as the three major languages, and a small [[Istriot]] minority. The eastern and northern areas were inhabited by [[South Slavs]], namely [[Slovenes]] and [[Croats]], with small [[Montenegrians|Montenegrian]] ([[Peroj]]) and [[Serbs|Serb]] minorities. Other ethnic groups included [[Istro-Romanians]] in eastern [[Istria]], [[Duchy of Carinthia|Carinthian]] [[Ethnic Germans|Germans]] in the [[Canale Valley]], as well as smaller [[German language|German]] and [[Hungarian language|Hungarian]] speaking communities in some larger urban centres, mostly members of former [[Austro-Hungarian]] élites. According to the Austrian census of 1910/1911, the Julian March (that is, the whole former Austro-Hungarian area annexed to Italy after 1920/1924), counted 978,385 people. 421,444 or 43,1% declared Italian as their language of daily conversation (''Umgangsprache''), while 327,230 or 33,4% spoke Slovene, and 152,500 or 15,6% and spoke Croatian. In addition, there were around 30,000 German speakers (3,1% of the overall population), around 3,000 Hungarian speakers (0,3%), and smaller clusters of [[Istro-Romanian language|Istro-Romanian]] and [[Czech language|Czech]] speakers. The [[Friulian]], [[Venetian language|Venetian]] and [[Istriot]] languages were counted as Italian. According to estimates, at least 60,000 or around 14% of those listed as Italians were in fact Friulian speakers, frequently with a pronounced separate ethnic identity. ===Romance languages=== [[File:Istria census 1910.PNG|thumb|200px|Percentage of native [[Italian language|Italian]] (including [[Venetian language|Venetian]] and [[Istriot]]) speakers in [[Istria]], according to the Austrian census of 1910.]] Standard [[Italian language]] was common among the educated strata in [[Trieste]] and in [[Gorizia]], as well as in [[Istria]] and [[Rijeka]] (Fiume). In Trieste (and to a lesser extent in Istria), Italian was the predominating language of primary education. Both in Trieste and Istria, the Italian-speaking élites dominated the provincial administrations, although they were increasingly challenged by the Slovene and Croatian political movements. Only in Trieste did Italian speakers form an absolute majority of the population. However, most of the [[Romance languages|Romance]] population did not speak Italian as their native language, but two other closely related Romance languages, [[Friulian]] and [[Venetian language|Venetian]]. At the time, only Friulian was partially recognized a separate language, while Venetian was mostly considered as a variant of Italian. Many [[Friulians]] considered themselves as a separate ethnic group within the Italian nation. In the 1890s and the 1910s, a strong Friulian political movement existed, which tried to foster the Friulian language and introduce it into public life. On the other hand, no similar movement ever developed among the Venetian speakers, nor was there any attempt to introduce Venetian language into education and administration. [[Friulian]] was spoken in the south-western lowlands of the [[County of Gorizia and Gradisca]] (except for the Monfalcone-Grado area where Venetian was spoken instead), as well as in the town of [[Gorizia]] proper. Larger Friulian-speaking centres included [[Cormons]], [[Cervignano]], and [[Gradisca d'Isonzo]]. A dialect of Friulian, known as [[Tergestine]], was also spoken in Trieste and [[Muggia]], but died out completely by the 1830s, replaced by Venetian. According to contemporary estimates, around three quarters of Italians in the County of Gorizia and Gradisca were native Friulian speakers, which amounted to a quarter of the population of the County, and around 7-8% of the overall population of the Julian March. Venetian dialects were concentrated in Trieste, Rijeka and in [[Istria]]. The Istro-Venetian dialect was the majority language on the western Istrian coast. In many small western Istrian towns, such as [[Koper]] (Capodistria), [[Piran]] (Pirano) or [[Poreč]] (Parenzo), the Venetian-speaking majority reached 90% of the population, with peaks up to 100% in towns like [[Umag]] (Umago) or [[Muggia]]. In Istria, Venetian was also strongly present on the [[Cres]]-[[Lošinj]] archipelago, and in some towns of the interior of and eastern part of the peninsula, like [[Motovun]], [[Labin]], [[Plomin]] and, to a lesser extent, [[Buzet]] and [[Pazin]]. Although Istro-Venetian was strongest in urban areas, clusters of Venetian-speaking peasantry also existed. This is especially true for the area around [[Buje]] and [[Grožnjan]], in north-central Istria, where Venetian spread in the mid 19th century, often assuming the form of a [[pidgin]] Venetian-Croat vernacular. In the [[County of Gorizia and Gradisca]], Venetian was present in the territory around [[Monfalcone]] and [[Ronchi dei Legionari|Ronchi]], between the lower flow of the [[Isonzo]] river and the [[Kras]] plateau, in an area popularly known as [[Bisiacaria]], as well as in in the town of [[Grado, Italy|Grado]]. In Trieste, the local Venetian dialect, known as [[Triestine]], was widely spoken by virtually all strata of the population, although it was the native language of only about half of the city's population. In [[Rijeka]], a special form of Venetian, known as [[Fiumano]], emerged in the late 18th and early 19th century, becoming the native language of around half of the city's population. In addition to these two large language groups, two smaller Romance linguistic communities existed in [[Istria]]. In south-westen Istria, in the coastal strip between Pula and [[Rovinj]], the archaic [[Istriot]] language was spoken. In some villages of eastern Istria, north of [[Labin]], [[Istro-Romanian language]] was spoken by around 3,000 people. ===South Slavic languages=== The [[Slovene language]] was spoken in the north-eastern and southern part of [[Gorizia and Gradisca]] (where it represented around 60% of the population), in northern Istria, and in the [[Inner Carniola]]n areas annexed to Italy in 1920 ([[Postojna]], [[Vipava, Slovenia|Vipava]], [[Ilirska Bistrica]], [[Idrija]]). Slovene was also the primary language of a significant minority in Trieste (between a fourth and a third of the city's population). Smaller Slovene-speaking communities lived in the [[Canale Valley]] ([[Carinthian Slovenes]]), in [[Rijeka]], and in some larger towns outside of the [[Slovene Lands|Slovene ethnic territory]], especially in [[Pula]], [[Monfalcone]], [[Gradisca d'Isonzo]], and [[Cormons]]. A relatively wide variety of [[Slovene dialects]] was spoken throughout the region: the Slovene linguistic community in the Julian March was divided among as many as 11 different dialects (seven larger and four smaller ones), belonging to three out of seven dialect groups in which the Slovene language is divided. Due to a high level of education, which included a high literacy rate, most Slovenes were fluent in standard Slovene variant, with the exception of some northern Istrian villages, where primary education was carried out in Italian, and when the [[Slovene national movement]] penetrated only in the late 19th century, and the [[Carinthian Slovenes]] in the [[Canale Valley]] which had been subjected to a policy of [[Germanization]] until 1918, and could frequently speak only the local dialect, with no knowledge of standard Slovene. Slovene-Italian [[bilingualism]] was present only in some coastal villages of north-western Istria and in the confined semi-urbanized areas around Gorizia and Trieste, while the vast majority of Slovene speakers had very little or no knowledge of Italian. Instead, [[German language|German]] was the prevalent second language of the Slovene rural populations. The [[Croatian language]] was spoken in central and eastern [[Istria]]n peninsula, on the [[Cres]]-[[Lošinj]] archipelago. In the town of [[Rijeka]], it was the second most spoken language after Venetian. Around [[Buzet]] in north-central Istria, the [[Kajkavian]] version of Croatian was spoken, while in all other areas [[Čakavian]] was predominant, frequently with strong Kajkavian and Venetian influences in the vocabulary. Italian-Croatian [[bilingualism]] was frequent in all western Istria, on the Cres-Lošinj archipelago and in Rijeka, while it was quite rare elsewhere. ===Other linguistic minorities=== Until 1918, German was the predominant language in secondary and higher education throughout the region, meaning that all the educated élites were fluent in German. Many Austrian civil servants used German in their daily life, especially in larger urban centres. However, due to the scarcity of German speakers and the lack of a proper cultural infrastructure, most of German speakers would speak Italian, Slovene or Croatian in social and public occasion, depending of their political and ethnic preferences and area of stationing. Among the rural population, German was only spoken by around 6,000 people in the [[Canale Valley]]. In the major urban areas, mostly in Trieste and Rijeka, [[Hungarian language|Hungarian]], [[Serbian language|Serbian]], [[Czech language|Czech]], and [[Greek language|Greek]] were also spoken by smaller communities. ==See also== *[[Austrian Riviera]] *[[Dalmatia]] *[[Trieste#History|History of Trieste]] *[[London Pact]] *[[Treaty of Osimo]] *[[Venetian Slovenia]] ==External links== *[http://books.google.be/books?id=1C0mJLFrpC0C&pg=PT1&lpg=PT1&dq=The+Problem+of+Trieste+and+the+Italo-Yugoslav+Border+by+Glenda+Sluga&source=web&ots=4Rq92Xuea6&sig=WJ7yD68ZIBn1YxX9LGwNhbbnKwo&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=2&ct=result#PPP1,M1 The Problem of Trieste and the Italo-Yugoslav Border by Glenda Sluga] *[http://www.istitutogiuliano.it Istituto Giuliano: an Italian association dedicated to the promotion of culture and tradition in the Julian March] {{coord missing|Italy}}