Juan de Herrera

Juan de Herrera

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Juan de Herrera'
Start a new discussion about 'Juan de Herrera'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
Juan de Herrera was a Spanish
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 architect
Architect
An architect is a person trained in the planning, design and oversight of the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to offer or render services in connection with the design and construction of a building, or group of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the...

, mathematician and geometrician.

One of the most outstanding Spanish architects in the 16th century, Herrera represents the peak of the Renaissance in Spain
Spanish Renaissance
The Spanish Renaissance refers to a movement in Spain, emerging from the Italian Renaissance in Italy during the 14th century, that spread to Spain during the 15th and 16th centuries...

. His sober style was fully developed in buildings like the Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial. The Herrerian
Herrerian
The Herrerian was developed in Spain during the last third of the 16th century under the reign of Philip II , and continued in force in the 17th century, but transformed by the Baroque current of the time...

style was named after him, and was representative of the architecture of the Spanish Empire of Philip II
Philip II of Spain
Philip II was King of Spain, Portugal, Naples, Sicily, and, while married to Mary I, King of England and Ireland. He was lord of the Seventeen Provinces from 1556 until 1581, holding various titles for the individual territories such as duke or count....

 and his Austrian successors.

As a Renaissance man, Herrera was interested in all the branches of knowledge of his times. His Discurso sobre la figura cúbica (Discussion of the Cubic form) tells us about his notable knowledge about geometry and mathematics. He also participated in the military campaigns of Charles V
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Charles I, of the Spanish Empire from 1516 until his voluntary retirement and abdication in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I and his son Philip II in 1556.As...

 in Germany, Flanders and Italy.

Biography


Juan de Herrera completed his studies at the University of Valladolid
University of Valladolid
The University of Valladolid is a public university in the city of Valladolid, province of Valladolid, in the autonomous region of Castile-Leon, Spain...

 in the spring of 1548. He started his architectural career in 1561 with the works in the Royal Palace of Aranjuez
Palacio Real de Aranjuez
The Royal Palace of Aranjuez is a residence of the King of Spain, located in the town of Aranjuez, Community of Madrid, Spain. The palace is open to the public as one of the Spanish royal sites....

.

In 1563 he starts his collaborations with Juan Bautista de Toledo
Juan Bautista de Toledo
Juan Bautista de Toledo. Spanish architect educated in Italy, in the Italian High Renaissance. As many Italian renaissance architects, he had experience in both architecture and military and civil public works. Born, either in Toledo or in Madrid around 1515. Died May 19, 1567 in Madrid...

 in the construction of El Escorial
El Escorial
The Royal Seat of San Lorenzo de El Escorial is a historical residence of the king of Spain, in the town of San Lorenzo de El Escorial, about 45 kilometres northwest of the capital, Madrid, in Spain. It is one of the Spanish royal sites and functions as a monastery, royal palace, museum, and...

. In 1562 he had written the Book of the Astronomical knowledge (Libro del saber de astronomía). After the death of Juan Bautista de Toledo in 1567, Herrera becomes the director architect of the works. Herrera modifies the plans and enlarges the program, changing the image of the façades and introducing his personal sober style. The main keys of his design are the impressive horizontal unified composition and the nude use of the granite, omitting the classical orders for large surfaces.

He builds the monumental western façade, the Basilica with its central composition plan and the pavilion of the Patio de los Evangelistas (Court of the Evangelists). He also modifies the constructive techniques and the roofing. This style introduced in the monastery influenced Spanish architecture
Spanish architecture
Spanish architecture refers to architecture carried out in any area in what is now modern-day Spain, and by Spanish architects worldwide. The term includes buildings within the current geographical limits of Spain before this name was given to those territories...

 for over a century with the name of Herrerian
Herrerian
The Herrerian was developed in Spain during the last third of the 16th century under the reign of Philip II , and continued in force in the 17th century, but transformed by the Baroque current of the time...

 style.

The plans of the Cathedral of Valladolid
Cathedral of Valladolid
The Cathedral of Our Lady of the Holy Assumption , better known as Valladolid Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Valladolid, Spain...

 and the Archivo General de Indias
Archivo General de Indias
The Archivo General de Indias , housed in Seville, Spain, in the ancient merchants' exchange, the Casa Lonja de Mercaderes, is the document repository of extremely valuable archival documents illustrating the history of the Spanish Empire in the Americas and the Philippines...

 were also designed by him. He was the first original designer for the Plaza Mayor in Madrid
Plaza Mayor of Madrid
The Plaza Mayor was built during the Habsburg period and is a central plaza in the city of Madrid, Spain. It is located only a few Spanish blocks away from another famous plaza, the Puerta del Sol. The Plaza Mayor is rectangular in shape, measuring 129 by 94 metres, and is surrounded by...

.

Following the wish reflected in his testament, written in 1584, his sepulchre is located in the Church of San Juan Bautista, in Maliaño
Maliaño
Maliaño is a village in the municipality of Camargo . The town is located near the Bay of Santander, 5 km from the regional capital. It is the location of the regionally significant Santander Airport...

, Cantabria
Cantabria
Cantabria is a Spanish historical region and autonomous community with Santander as its capital city. It is bordered on the east by the Basque Autonomous Community , on the south by Castile and León , on the west by the Principality of Asturias, and on the north by the Cantabrian Sea.Cantabria...

.

Main works


  • Palacio Real de Aranjuez
    Palacio Real de Aranjuez
    The Royal Palace of Aranjuez is a residence of the King of Spain, located in the town of Aranjuez, Community of Madrid, Spain. The palace is open to the public as one of the Spanish royal sites....

     (1561)
  • El Escorial
    El Escorial
    The Royal Seat of San Lorenzo de El Escorial is a historical residence of the king of Spain, in the town of San Lorenzo de El Escorial, about 45 kilometres northwest of the capital, Madrid, in Spain. It is one of the Spanish royal sites and functions as a monastery, royal palace, museum, and...

     (1563)
  • Palacio de El Quexigal (1563), building since disappeared, built in Robledo de Chavela
    Robledo de Chavela
    Robledo de Chavela is a municipality in the Community of Madrid, Spain. It has a population of 3319.The Madrid Deep Space Communication Complex is located in this town....

     (Madrid
    Madrid
    Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

    )
  • South Façade of the Alcázar de Toledo (1571–1585)
  • Casa Consistorial de Toledo (1575)
  • Puente de Segovia in Madrid
    Madrid
    Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

     (1582-1584)
  • Design of the Lonja de Sevilla, current Archivo de Indias (1583)
  • Valladolid Cathedral (1589)
  • Real Aposento de Torrelodones (1589), building since disappeared, built in Torrelodones
    Torrelodones
    Torrelodones is a municipality in the northwest of the Autonomous Community of Madrid, Spain. It is situated 29 kilometers northwest from the city of Madrid...

    .

See also

  • Catedral de Valladolid
  • Monasterio de El Escorial
  • Palacio Real de Aranjuez
    Palacio Real de Aranjuez
    The Royal Palace of Aranjuez is a residence of the King of Spain, located in the town of Aranjuez, Community of Madrid, Spain. The palace is open to the public as one of the Spanish royal sites....

  • Valdáliga
  • Camargo
    Camargo
    Camargo may refer to one of these places:Places Bolivia:* Camargo, Chuquisaca Brazil:* Camargo, Rio Grande do Sul Mexico:* Camargo, Chihuahua* Camargo, Tamaulipas Spain:...