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José Gil Fortoul

José Gil Fortoul

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José Gil Fortoul was a writer, historian, politician and member of Venezuelan positivism, appointed as Provisional President in 1913. Along with César Zumeta, Pedro Manuel Arcaya, Laureano Vallenilla Lanz
Laureano Vallenilla Lanz
Laureano Vallenilla Lanz was a Venezuelan intellectual and sociologist. Vallenilla Lanz held a number of positions under the dictatorship of Juan Vicente Gómez and is well-known as an apologist for his regime...

, Victorino Márquez Bustillos, among others, was one of the defenders of the dictatorship of Juan Vicente Gómez
Juan Vicente Gómez
Juan Vicente Gómez Chacón was a military general and de facto ruler of Venezuela from 1908 until his death in 1935. He was president on three occasions during this time, and ruled as an unelected military strongman for the rest of the era.-Early years:Gómez was a barely literate cattle herder and...

.

Gil Fortoul was born in Barquisimeto, were his parents José Espíritu Santo Gil (known as Pelón Gil) and Adelaida Fortoul Sánchez. Newborn was carried to El Tocuyo
El Tocuyo
El Tocuyo is a fertile valley and city in west-central Venezuela at elevation. It is located in south-central Lara State about 60 km southwest of Barquisimeto. The town of El Tocuyo was founded by Juan de Carvajal in 1545 on the banks of the Tocuyo River and it was the administrative capital of...

, where spent his childhood and adolescence. In this town studied at La Concordia institute, under the direction of Egidio Montesinos. At this school, obtained on 2 July 1880, the bachelor's degree in philosophy. After that, travels to Caracas
Caracas
Caracas , officially Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital and largest city of Venezuela; natives or residents are known as Caraquenians in English . It is located in the northern part of the country, following the contours of the narrow Caracas Valley on the Venezuelan coastal mountain range...

 for the study of law at the Central University of Venezuela
Central University of Venezuela
The Central University of Venezuela is a premier public University of Venezuela located in Caracas...

, in which graduates as Doctor in Political Sciences in 1885. During this period, also attended to natural history classes, dictated by Adolf Ernst
Adolf Ernst
Adolf Ernst was a Prussian born scientist. Ernst settled in Venezuela in 1861, where he taught at the Central University of Venezuela...

. In that time also collaborates with La Opinion newspaper, in whose columns argued ideological controversies with some religious authorities, especially with priest Juan Bautista Castro. From that, was identified as one of the key people of Venezuelan positivism.

In 1886, was designated as consul of Venezuela in Bordeaux, France, staying in Europe until 1896. By this time publishes Recuerdos de Paris (1887) and Filosofía Constitucional (1890). Between 1890 and 1892, served as Consul of Venezuela in Liverpool, England, publishing Filosofía penal and El Humo de mi pipa, also begins his collaboration with El Cojo ilustrado. In 1892 goes to Paris as secretary of the Venezuelan delegation, at this time publishes a book about modern fencing, as well as his first novel ¿Idilio?. Two years after that, is designated as chargé d'affaires in Berne
Berne
The city of Bern or Berne is the Bundesstadt of Switzerland, and, with a population of , the fourth most populous city in Switzerland. The Bern agglomeration, which includes 43 municipalities, has a population of 349,000. The metropolitan area had a population of 660,000 in 2000...

, at the Venezuelan representation in Switzerland, and began publishing Cartas a Pascual. In 1897 returns to Caracas
Caracas
Caracas , officially Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital and largest city of Venezuela; natives or residents are known as Caraquenians in English . It is located in the northern part of the country, following the contours of the narrow Caracas Valley on the Venezuelan coastal mountain range...

, during this time writes at El Cojo Ilustrado and El Pregonero, also dictates conferences at the Central University of Venezuela about sociological and anthropological subjects. In 1898, is in charge by decree of president Ignacio Andrade
Ignacio Andrade
Ignacio Andrade Troconis , was a military and politician, member of the Liberal yellow party, President of Venezuela 1898–1899, his election was declaredly clouded by fraud.- Early life and career :...

, to write a book about the History of Venezuela
History of Venezuela
This article discusses the history of Venezuela. See also the history of South America.-Pre-Columbian period:Archeologists have discovered evidence of the earliest known inhabitants of the Venezuelan area in the form of leaf-shaped flake tools, together with chopping and plano–convex scraping...

 (Historia Constitucional de Venezuela), his most notable work. From that, Gil Fortoul stay in Venezuela
Venezuela
Venezuela , officially called the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela , is a tropical country on the northern coast of South America. It borders Colombia to the west, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the south...

 for a time, but soon decides to move.

In 1900 returns to the diplomatic life, first as consul in Trinidad
Trinidad
Trinidad is the larger and more populous of the two major islands and numerous landforms which make up the island nation of Trinidad and Tobago. It is the southernmost island in the Caribbean and lies just off the northeastern coast of Venezuela. With an area of it is also the fifth largest in...

 (1900), then as representative of Venezuela at the Second International Pan-American Conference in Mexico (1901). After that returns to Europe, where works at the consular office in Liverpool
Liverpool
Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. It was founded as a borough in 1207 and was granted city status in 1880...

 and Paris (1902–1905). For 1906 was in Berlin as chargé d'affaires, ending the first volume of the Historia Constitucional de Venezuela (Constitutional History of Venezuela). In 1907, while he was participating at the Second Peace Conference in The Hague
The Hague
The Hague is the capital city of the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. With a population of 500,000 inhabitants , it is the third largest city of the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam...

, receives the order of president Cipriano Castro
Cipriano Castro
José Cipriano Castro Ruiz was a high ranking member of the Venezuelan military, politician and the President of Venezuela from 1899 to 1908...

 to withdraw from the event along with the rest of the Venezuelan delegation, as cause of the opposition to a proposal of the American delegation, about the debts and claims from a country to another. Gil Fortoul tried to convence Castro to abandon the idea, being the situation interpreted by the Venezuelan press as an insubordination to the orders of president, after his return to Berlin in late 1908, was destituted. Fallen in disgrace with the government, Gil Fortoul plans to travel to Argentina
Argentina
Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

 for cultural activities, however, after the coup of Juan Vicente Gómez
Juan Vicente Gómez
Juan Vicente Gómez Chacón was a military general and de facto ruler of Venezuela from 1908 until his death in 1935. He was president on three occasions during this time, and ruled as an unelected military strongman for the rest of the era.-Early years:Gómez was a barely literate cattle herder and...

, is designated Minister Plenipotentiary in Berlin. In 1909 publishes the second volume of the Constitutional History, and in 1910 returns to Venezuela.

During his return to Venezuela, Gil Fortoul was a member of the Venezuelan Senate
Venezuelan Senate
The Venezuelan Senate was the upper house of Venezuela's legislative under its 1961 constitution. Under the 1999 constitution, the bicameral system was replaced by the unicameral National Assembly of Venezuela....

 in two periods (1910–1911 and 1914–1916), developing initiatives on the rights of women and children at the civil legislation. In 1913 was in charge of the presidency of the country, because the separation from office of president Juan Vicente Gómez for being at the head of the National Army as a result of the rumors of an invasion led by Cipriano Castro, Gil Fortoul in his role as chairman of the Government Council, was designated as provisional president.

After that, was founding member of the Academy of Political Sciences (1915), president of the Society of International Law (1915), was also plenipotentiary at the Swiss Federal Council, for the negotiation between Venezuela and Colombia
Colombia
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia , is a unitary constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The country is located in northwestern South America, bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the north by the Caribbean Sea; to the...

 (1916–1924), his proposition was not accepted by Venezuelan Foreign Ministry. Again in his country, is designated member of the National Academy of History. In 1931 was appointed as director of El Nuevo Diario (The New Daily), in 1933 goes to Mexico as minister plenipotentiary, for the resumption of diplomatic relations interrupted from 1923.

José Gil Fortoul died in 1943, while he was preparing the third volume of his Historia Constitucional de Venezuela (Constitutional History of Venezuela).

See also


  • Venezuela
    Venezuela
    Venezuela , officially called the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela , is a tropical country on the northern coast of South America. It borders Colombia to the west, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the south...

  • Presidents of Venezuela
  • List of Venezuelan writers

Source

Gil Fortoul at Venezuelatuya.com