John V Palaiologos

John V Palaiologos

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John V Palaiologos (18 June 1332 – 16 February 1391) was a Byzantine emperor, who succeeded his father in 1341, at age nine.

Biography


John V was the son of emperor Andronikos III
Andronikos III Palaiologos
Andronikos III Palaiologos, Latinized as Andronicus III Palaeologus was Byzantine emperor from 1328 to 1341, after being rival emperor since 1321. Andronikos III was the son of Michael IX Palaiologos and Rita of Armenia...

 and his wife Anna
Anna of Savoy
Anna of Savoy, born Giovanna, was a Byzantine Empress consort, as the second wife of Andronikos III Palaiologos.-Family:She was a daughter of Amadeus V, Count of Savoy and his second wife Maria of Brabant. Her maternal grandparents were John I, Duke of Brabant and Margaret of Flanders...

, the daughter of Count Amadeus V of Savoy
Amadeus V, Count of Savoy
Amadeus V , surnamed the Great for his wisdom and success as a ruler, was the Count of Savoy from 1285 to 1323. He established Chambéry as his seat...

 by his second wife Maria of Brabant
Marie of Brabant, Countess of Savoy
Marie of Brabant , was a Countess Consort of Savoy; married in 1297 to Amadeus V, Count of Savoy.Issue:# Maria of Savoy# Catherine of Savoy, d. 1336, married to Leopold I # Anna of Savoy, d...

. His long reign was marked by the gradual dissolution of imperial power amid numerous civil wars and the continuing ascendancy of the Ottoman Turks.

Coming to the throne at age nine, his reign began with immediate civil war
Byzantine civil war of 1341–1347
The Byzantine civil war of 1341–1347 was a conflict between supporters of designated regent John VI Kantakouzenos and guardians acting for John V Palaiologos, Emperor Andronikos III's nine-year-old son, in the persons of the Empress-dowager Anna of Savoy, the Patriarch of Constantinople John XIV...

 between his designated regent, his father's friend John Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos or Cantacuzenus was the Byzantine emperor from 1347 to 1354.-Early life:Born in Constantinople, John Kantakouzenos was the son of a Michael Kantakouzenos, governor of the Morea. Through his mother Theodora Palaiologina Angelina, he was a descendant of the reigning house of...

, and a self-proclaimed council of regency composed of his mother Anna, the patriarch John XIV Kalekas, and the megas doux
Megas Doux
The megas doux was one of the highest positions in the hierarchy of the later Byzantine Empire, denoting the commander-in-chief of the Byzantine navy. It is sometimes also given by the half-Latinizations megaduke or megadux...

Alexios Apokaukos
Alexios Apokaukos
Alexios Apokaukos was a leading Byzantine statesman and high-ranking military officer during the reigns of emperors Andronikos III Palaiologos and John V Palaiologos...

. It was during this civil war in 1343 that Anna pawned the Byzantine crown jewels for 30,000 Venetian ducats. From 1346 to 1349, the Black Plague devastated Constantinople
Constantinople
Constantinople was the capital of the Roman, Eastern Roman, Byzantine, Latin, and Ottoman Empires. Throughout most of the Middle Ages, Constantinople was Europe's largest and wealthiest city.-Names:...

.

Victorious in 1347, John Kantakouzenos ruled as co-emperor until John V's attack on his son Matthew
Matthew Kantakouzenos
Matthew Kantakouzenos or Cantacuzenus was Byzantine Emperor from 1353 to 1357.-Life:...

 in 1352 led to a second civil war. It was this conflict that saw the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 acquire its first European territory at Çimpe and Gallipoli
Fall of Gallipoli
The fall of Gallipoli to the Ottomans occurred in March of 1354. After suffering a half-century of a string of defeats at the hands of the Ottomans, the Byzantines had lost nearly all of their possessions in Anatolia...

. Able to retake Constantinople in 1354, John V was able to remove and tonsure John VI; by 1357, he had deposed Matthew as well.

The Ottomans
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

, who had been allied with the Kantakouzenoi, continued to press John. Suleyman Paşa
Suleyman Pasha (son of Orhan)
Suleyman Pasha was the eldest son of Orhan I, the second bey of the newly established Ottoman Empire.-Assault on Byzantium:Suleyman Pasha struck a bold blow to the weakened Byzantine Empire on behalf of his race, which gave the Turks a permanent establishment on the European side of the Hellespont...

, the son of the Ottoman sultan, led their forces in Europe and was able to take Adrianople and Philippopolis
Plovdiv
Plovdiv is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia with a population of 338,153 inhabitants according to Census 2011. Plovdiv's history spans some 6,000 years, with traces of a Neolithic settlement dating to roughly 4000 BC; it is one of the oldest cities in Europe...

 and exact tribute from the emperor. John V appealed to the West for help, proposing to end the schism
East-West Schism
The East–West Schism of 1054, sometimes known as the Great Schism, formally divided the State church of the Roman Empire into Eastern and Western branches, which later became known as the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church, respectively...

 between the Byzantine and Latin churches by submitting the patriarchate to the supremacy of Rome
Pope
The Pope is the Bishop of Rome, a position that makes him the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church . In the Catholic Church, the Pope is regarded as the successor of Saint Peter, the Apostle...

. Impoverished by war, he was detained as a debtor when he visited Venice
Venice
Venice is a city in northern Italy which is renowned for the beauty of its setting, its architecture and its artworks. It is the capital of the Veneto region...

 in 1369.

In 1371, he recognized the suzerainty of the Ottoman sultan Murad I
Murad I
Murad I was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from 1361 to 1389...

. Murad later assisted him against his son Andronikos
Andronikos IV Palaiologos
Andronikos IV Palaiologos was Byzantine Emperor from 1376 to 1379.-Life:...

 when the latter deposed him
Byzantine civil war of 1373–1379
The Byzantine civil war of 1373–1379 was a military conflict fought in the Byzantine Empire between Byzantine Emperor John V Palaiologos and his son, Andronikos IV Palaiologos. It began when Andronikos sought to overthrow his father in 1373. Although he failed, with Genoese aid, Andronikos was...

 in 1376.

In 1390, his grandson John VII
John VII Palaiologos
John VII Palaiologos was Byzantine Emperor for five months in 1390.-Life:...

 briefly usurped the throne, but was quickly overthrown. The same year, John ordered the strengthening of the Golden Gate in Constantinople, utilizing marble from the decayed churches in and around the city. Upon the completion of this construction, Bayezid I
Bayezid I
Bayezid I was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from 1389 to 1402. He was the son of Murad I and Valide Sultan Gülçiçek Hatun.-Biography:Bayezid was born in Edirne and spent his youth in Bursa, where he received a high-level education...

 demanded that John raze these new works, threatening war and the blinding of his son Manuel whom he held in captivity. John V filled the Sultan's order, but is said to have suffered from this humiliation and died soon thereafter on February 16, 1391.

John V was finally succeeded to the imperial throne by his son Manuel
Manuel II Palaiologos
Manuel II Palaiologos or Palaeologus was Byzantine Emperor from 1391 to 1425.-Life:...

. His younger son Theodore had already succeeded to the Despotate of Morea
Despotate of Morea
The Despotate of the Morea or Despotate of Mystras was a province of the Byzantine Empire which existed between the mid-14th and mid-15th centuries. Its territory varied in size during its 100 years of existence but eventually grew to take in almost all the southern Greek peninsula, the...

 in 1383.

Family


He married Helena Kantakouzene
Helena Kantakouzene
Helena Kantakouzene was the Empress consort of John V Palaiologos in the Byzantine Empire.-Family:She was a daughter of John VI Kantakouzenos and Irene Asanina.She was a sister of Matthew Kantakouzenos and Manuel Kantakouzenos...

, daughter of his co-emperor John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos or Cantacuzenus was the Byzantine emperor from 1347 to 1354.-Early life:Born in Constantinople, John Kantakouzenos was the son of a Michael Kantakouzenos, governor of the Morea. Through his mother Theodora Palaiologina Angelina, he was a descendant of the reigning house of...

 and Irene Asanina
Irene Asanina
Irene Asanina was the Empress consort of John VI Kantakouzenos of the Byzantine Empire.-Family:Asanina was a daughter of Andronikos Asen and his wife Tarchanaiotissa.Her paternal grandparents were Ivan Asen III of Bulgaria and Irene Palaiologina...

, on 28 May 1347. They had at least nine children:
  • Andronikos IV Palaiologos
    Andronikos IV Palaiologos
    Andronikos IV Palaiologos was Byzantine Emperor from 1376 to 1379.-Life:...

     (2 April 1348 - 28 June 1385).
  • Irene Palaiologina (c. 1349 - after 1362). Married her first cousin Halil
    Kidnapping of Şehzade Halil
    The Kidnapping of Şehzade Halil was an important event in 14th century Ottoman-Byzantine relations. Şehzade Halil was an Ottoman prince who was born probably in 1346. His father was Orhan, the second bey of the Ottoman beylik...

     of Bithynia. Her husband was a son of Orhan I
    Orhan I
    Orhan I or Orhan Bey was the second bey of the nascent Ottoman Empire from 1326 to 1359...

     and Helena's sister Theodora Kantakouzene.
  • Manuel II Palaiologos
    Manuel II Palaiologos
    Manuel II Palaiologos or Palaeologus was Byzantine Emperor from 1391 to 1425.-Life:...

     (27 June 1350 - 21 July 1425).
  • Theodore I Palaiologos, Lord of Morea
    Theodore I Palaiologos, Lord of Morea
    Theodore I Palaiologos was despot in the Morea from 1383 until his death on June 24, 1407. He was the youngest surviving son of the Byzantine Emperor John V Palaiologos and his wife Helena Kantakouzene. His maternal grandfather was former Emperor John VI Kantakouzenos...

     (c. 1355 - 24 June 1407).
  • Michael Palaiologos (d. 1376/1377). Claimed the throne of the Empire of Trebizond
    Empire of Trebizond
    The Empire of Trebizond, founded in April 1204, was one of three Byzantine successor states of the Byzantine Empire. However, the creation of the Empire of Trebizond was not directly related to the capture of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade, rather it had broken away from the Byzantine Empire...

     from Alexios III
    Alexios III of Trebizond
    Alexios III Megas Komnenos or Alexius III , Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. He was the son of Emperor Basil of Trebizond and his second wife, Irene of Trebizond...

    . Assassinated while his campaign was ongoing.
  • Maria Palaiologina (d. 1376). Betrothed to Murad I
    Murad I
    Murad I was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from 1361 to 1389...

    . She died before the marriage could take place.
  • A daughter betrothed to Peter II of Cyprus
    Peter II of Cyprus
    Peter II of Cyprus or Pierre II le Gros de Lusignan , called The Fat, was king of Cyprus from 17 January 1369 until his death.-Biography:...

    .
  • One of two unnamed daughters reported to have entered a monastery in 1373.
  • The second of two unnamed daughters reported to have entered a monastery in 1373.

Ancestry





Sources

  • Harris, Jonathan, The End of Byzantium. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2010. ISBN 978 0 30011786 8
  • Nicol, Donald M., The Last Centuries of Byzantium. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993, 2nd edition. ISBN 0521 43991 4