John Parkhurst

John Parkhurst

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John Parkhurst was an English Marian exile and from 1560 the Bishop of Norwich
Bishop of Norwich
The Bishop of Norwich is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Norwich in the Province of Canterbury.The diocese covers most of the County of Norfolk and part of Suffolk. The see is in the City of Norwich where the seat is located at the Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided...

.

Early life


Born about 1512, he was son of George Parkhurst of Guildford
Guildford
Guildford is the county town of Surrey. England, as well as the seat for the borough of Guildford and the administrative headquarters of the South East England region...

, Surrey
Surrey
Surrey is a county in the South East of England and is one of the Home Counties. The county borders Greater London, Kent, East Sussex, West Sussex, Hampshire and Berkshire. The historic county town is Guildford. Surrey County Council sits at Kingston upon Thames, although this has been part of...

. He initially attended the Royal Grammar School, Guildford
Royal Grammar School, Guildford
The Royal Grammar School is a selective English independent day school for boys in Guildford, Surrey. The school dates its founding to the death of Robert Beckingham in 1509 who left provision in his will to 'make a free scole at the Towne of Guldford'; in 1512 a governing body was set up to form...

, before at an early age moving to Magdalen College School
Magdalen College School, Oxford
Magdalen College School is an independent school for boys aged 7 to 18 and girls in the sixth form, located on The Plain in Oxford, England. It was founded as part of Magdalen College, Oxford by William Waynflete in 1480....

 at Oxford
Oxford
The city of Oxford is the county town of Oxfordshire, England. The city, made prominent by its medieval university, has a population of just under 165,000, with 153,900 living within the district boundary. It lies about 50 miles north-west of London. The rivers Cherwell and Thames run through...

. Subsequently he joined Merton College, where he was admitted to a fellowship in 1529 after graduating B.A. (24 July 1528). He was an adept in the composition of Latin epigram
Epigram
An epigram is a brief, interesting, usually memorable and sometimes surprising statement. Derived from the epigramma "inscription" from ἐπιγράφειν epigraphein "to write on inscribe", this literary device has been employed for over two millennia....

s. He took holy orders in 1532, and proceeded M.A. 19 February 1533. While he was acting as tutor at Merton, John Jewel
John Jewel
John Jewel was an English bishop of Salisbury.-Life:He was the son of John Jewel of Buden, Devon, was educated under his uncle John Bellamy, rector of Hampton, and other private tutors until his matriculation at Merton College, Oxford, in July 1535.There he was taught by John Parkhurst,...

 was his pupil and they remained friends through life.

Priestly career


When, in 1543, Henry VIII
Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was Lord, and later King, of Ireland, as well as continuing the nominal claim by the English monarchs to the Kingdom of France...

 and Queen Catherine Parr
Catherine Parr
Catherine Parr ; 1512 – 5 September 1548) was Queen consort of England and Ireland and the last of the six wives of King Henry VIII of England. She married Henry VIII on 12 July 1543. She was the fourth commoner Henry had taken as his consort, and outlived him...

 visited Oxford, Parkhurst wrote Latin verses in their honour and became chaplain to the queen. He was already chaplain to Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk
Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk
Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk, 1st Viscount Lisle, KG was the son of Sir William Brandon and Elizabeth Bruyn. Through his third wife Mary Tudor he was brother-in-law to Henry VIII. His father was the standard-bearer of Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond and was slain by Richard III in person at...

, and to his wife Catherine, and his friends included Miles Coverdale and John Aylmer
John Aylmer
John Aylmer may refer to:*John Aylmer *John Aylmer , Greek and Latin poet...

. Soon afterwards he was appointed rector of Pimperne
Pimperne
Pimperne is a village in north Dorset, England, situated on Cranborne Chase two miles north east of Blandford Forum. The village has a population of 995 ....

, Dorset
Dorset
Dorset , is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast. The county town is Dorchester which is situated in the south. The Hampshire towns of Bournemouth and Christchurch joined the county with the reorganisation of local government in 1974...

, and in 1549 was presented by Thomas Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley
Thomas Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley
Thomas Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley, KG was an English politician.Thomas spent his childhood in Wulfhall, outside Savernake Forest, in Wiltshire. Historian David Starkey describes Thomas thus: 'tall, well-built and with a dashing beard and auburn hair, he was irresistible to women'...

 to the living of Cleeve Episcopi, Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire is a county in South West England. The county comprises part of the Cotswold Hills, part of the flat fertile valley of the River Severn, and the entire Forest of Dean....

. Jewel and other Oxford scholars often visited him there; when Jewel gave humanity lectures at Corpus Christi College, Oxford
Corpus Christi College, Oxford
Corpus Christi College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom...

, Parkhurst went over to hear him, and declared in a Latin epigram that he was metamorphosed from a tutor into a pupil.

On the accession of Queen Mary
Mary I of England
Mary I was queen regnant of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death.She was the only surviving child born of the ill-fated marriage of Henry VIII and his first wife Catherine of Aragon. Her younger half-brother, Edward VI, succeeded Henry in 1547...

 he left the country and settled at Zurich
Zürich
Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zurich. It is located in central Switzerland at the northwestern tip of Lake Zurich...

, where he was received by Rudolf Gwalther
Rudolf Gwalther
Rudolf Gwalther was a Reformed Protestant pastor at who succeeded Heinrich Bullinger as Antistes of the Zurich church.- Life :Gwalther was born the son of a carpenter, who died when he was young. Heinrich Bullinger assumed responsibility for Gwalther's upbringing...

 and other Calvinists. Returning on the accession of Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I was queen regnant of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana, or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty...

, on 13 April 1560 he was elected bishop of Norwich, and was consecrated and installed in September following. He was created D.D. at Oxford in 1566.

Episcopal career


In the see of Norwich, at the time of Parkhurst's appointment, many of the livings were without incumbents. He did nothing to discourage 'prophesyings' in his diocese, and took meassures against Catholics. Defrauded by a servant, Parkhurst moved from the bishop's palace, which he had repaired, to a small house at Ludham
Ludham
Ludham is a village and civil parish in the English county of Norfolk, in The Broads, at the end of a dyke leading to Womack Water and flowing into the River Thurne...

; and introduced a bill into parliament to prevent such abuses which was accepted by the government. He died on 2 February 1575, aged 63, and was buried in the nave of his cathedral on the south side. Elegies by Rodolph Gualter and his son were published at Zürich in 1576, in a tract dedicated to Edwin Sandys
Edwin Sandys (archbishop)
Archbishop Edwin Sandys was an English prelate.He was Anglican Bishop of Worcester , London and Archbishop of York during the reign of Elizabeth I of England...

, bishop of London
Bishop of London
The Bishop of London is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury.The diocese covers 458 km² of 17 boroughs of Greater London north of the River Thames and a small part of the County of Surrey...

. Parkhurst married Margaret, daughter of Thomas Garnish of Kenton, Suffolk
Kenton, Suffolk
' is a village and civil parish in the Mid Suffolk district of Suffolk in eastern England. Located 3 km to the north-east of Debenham, in 2005 its population was 170....

, but left no issue.

Works


Parkhurst published in the year before his death a collection of Latin epigrams which he had composed in his youth, and which had been prepared for publication at Zurich in 1558; the majority are eulogies or epitaphs on friends. Verses by Thomas Wilson
Thomas Wilson (rhetorician)
Thomas Wilson was an English diplomat, judge, and privy councillor in the government of Elizabeth I. He is now remembered for his Logique and The Arte of Rhetorique , an influential text...

, Alexander Nowell
Alexander Nowell
Alexander Nowell was an English Puritan theologian and clergyman, who served as dean of St Paul's during much of Elizabeth I's reign.-Biography:...

, Bartholomew Traheron
Bartholomew Traheron
-Life:Born about 1510, he is said to have been a native of Cornwall. Bartholomew was early left an orphan, and was brought up under the care of Richard Tracy of Toddington, Gloucestershire....

, Lawrence Humphrey
Lawrence Humphrey
Lawrence Humphrey was an English theologian, who was president of Magdalen College, Oxford, and dean successively of Gloucester and Winchester.-Biography:...

, and others, are prefixed. A few are translated in Timothy Kendall's Flowres of Epigrammes, 1577. He contributed to the collection of Epigrammata in mortem duorum fratrum Suffolcensium Caroli et Henrici Brandon, London, 1552, and to John Sheepreeve's Summa ... Novi Testamenti disticis ducentis sexaginta comprehensa, Strasburg, 1556. The translation of the Apocrypha
Apocrypha
The term apocrypha is used with various meanings, including "hidden", "esoteric", "spurious", "of questionable authenticity", ancient Chinese "revealed texts and objects" and "Christian texts that are not canonical"....

in the Bishops' Bible
Bishops' Bible
The Bishops' Bible is an English translation of the Bible which was produced under the authority of the established Church of England in 1568. It was substantially revised in 1572, and this revised edition was to be prescribed as the base text for the Authorized King James Version of...

of 1572 is also ascribed to him. John Bale
John Bale
John Bale was an English churchman, historian and controversialist, and Bishop of Ossory. He wrote the oldest known historical verse drama in English , and developed and published a very extensive list of the works of British authors down to his own time, just as the monastic libraries were being...

dedicated to him, in a eulogistic address, his Reliques of Rome in 1563.